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{against Babylox

and they shall set themselves in array CHAP. L:

against her: from thence she shall be

taken : their arrows shall be as of a THE word that the Lord spake a- wighty expert man; none shall returu

gainst Babylon, and against the in vain. land of the Chaldeans, by Jeremiah 10 And Chaldea shall be a spoil: the prophet.

all that spoil her shall be satisfied, saith 2 Declare ye among the nations, the LORD. and publish, and set up a standard ; 11. Because ye were glad, because publish, and conceal not : say, Baby- ye rejoiced, O yé destroyers of mine ion is taken, Bel is confounded, Mero. heritage ; because ye are grown fat dach is broken in pieces; ber idols are as the heifer at grass, and bellow as confounded, her images are broken in bulls: pieces.

12 Your mother shall be sore con3 For out of the north there cometli, founded; she that bare you shall be aup a nation against her, which shall shamed: behold, the hindermost of the make her land desolate, and none shall nations shall be a wilderness, a dry dwell therein: they shall remove, they land, and a desert. shall depart, both man and beast. 13 Because of the wrath of the

4 In those days, and in that time, Lord it shall not be inhabited, but it saith the Lonn, the children of Israel shall be wholly desolate: every one shall come, they and the chiidren of that goeth by Babylon shall be astoJudah together, going and weeping: nished, and hiss at all her plagues. they shall


and seek the Lord their 14 Put yourselves in array against God.

Babylon round about: all ye that bend 5 They shall ask the way to Zion the bow shoot at her, spare no arrons: with their faces thitherward, saying, for she hath sioned against the LORD. Come, and let us join ourselves to the 15 Shout against her round about: Lord in a perpetual covenant, that she hath given her hand : her foundashall not be forgotten.

tions are fallen, her walls are thrown 6 My people hath been lost sheep: down : for it is the vengeance of the their shepherds have caused them to go LORD: take vengeance upon ber; as astray, they have turned thenı away on she hath done, do unto her. the mountains : they have gone from 16 Cat off the sower from Babylon, mountain to hill, they have forgotten, and him that handleth the sickle in their resting place.

the time of harvest : for fear of the 7 All that found them have devour- oppressing sword they shall turn every ed them: and their adversaries said, one to his people, and they shall Bee We offend not, because they have every one to his own land. sinned against the Lord, the habita- 17 Israel is a scattered sheep; the tion of justice; even the LORD, the lions liave driven him away: first the hope of their fathers.

king of Assyria hath devoured him; 8 Remove out of the midst of Ba- and last this Nebuchadrezzar king of bylon, and go forth out of the land of Babylon hath broken his bones. the Chaldeans, and be as the he-goats 18 Therefore thus caith the Lord before the flocks.

of hosts, the God of Israel ; Behold, 9 For, lo, I will raise and cause to I will punish the king of Babylon and come up against Babylon an assembly his land, as I have punished the king of great nations from the north country; of Assyria.

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NOTES. CHAP. L. Ver. 2. Verodach-an idol, of which to lie down in." nothing certain is known. When an idol is frac.

Ver. 8. Be as the he-goats-that is, lend the fort, ture, the deity is supposed to have abandoned il. Ver. 9. Expert man-Blaynes, "Skiltul water Oriental Lit. No. 687.

Ver. 15. She hath giren her hand that is, sbe such Ver. 6. Their resting place – Heb. " Their place surreadered.



[against Babylon. 19 And I will bring Israel again to 25 The Lord hath opened his arhis habitation; and he shall feed on moury, and hath brought forth the Carmel and Bashan, and his soul shall weapons of his indignation : for this be satisfied upon mount Ephraim and is the work of the Lord God of hosts Gilead.

in the land of the Chaldeans. 20 In those days, and in that time, 26 Come against her from the saith the Lord, the iniquity of Israel utmost border, open her store-houses : shall be sought for, and there shall be cast her up as heaps, and destroy her none; and the sins of Judah, and utterly: let nothing of her be left. they shall not be found : for I will 27 Slay all her bullocks; let them pardon them whom I reserve. (H) go down to the slaughter woe unto /

21 [ Go up against the land of Me- them ! for their day is come, the time rathaim, even against it, and against of their visitation. the inhabitants of Pekod: waste and 28 The voice of them that flee utterly destroy after then, saith the and escape out of the land of BabyLORD, and do according to all that I lon, to declare in Zion the vengeance bave commanded thee.

of the Lo our God, the vengeance 22 A sound of battle is in the land, of his temple. and of great destruction.

29 Call together the archers against 23 How is the hammer of the whole Babylon : all ye that bend the bow, earth cut asunder and broken ! how camp against it round about; let none is Babylon become a desolation among thereof escape: recompense het acthe nations !

cording to her work; according to all 24 I have laid a snare for thee, and that she hath done, do unto her: for thou art also taken, O Babylon, and she hath been proud against the thou wast not aware : thou art found Lord; against the Holy One of and also caught, because thou hast Israel. striven against the Lord.

30 Therefore shall her young men


There is a remarkable passage in ver, (H) Ver. 1-20. The judgments on Baby- 11, which, though it has been often applied lon, and the redemption of Israel.--The to the children of Israel, evidently belongs adgments on Babylon had been largely to Edom, who, it should be remembered, predicted by Isaiah, (ch. xiii. xxi. xlvii.) was not of the accursed race of Canaan : and are referred to by other prophets. “Leave thy fatherless children," &c. from This empire and Egypt were indeed the which we infer two things, 1. That their chief enemies of Israel, and were also children should all be orphans, and their typical of the priucipal opposers of the women widows: 2. That however they might Christian church, especially the former. be involved in general calamities, there is Not only was the intermixture of promises encouragement for all the atflicted to put with threatenings, in the prophetic writ- their trust in God. It is against “the inys, calculated to encourage captive proud in heart” only, that he declareth war. Israel, but the threatenings themselves (ver. 16) the penitent and humble may still more so, since the fall of their enemies always find a shelter in the hollow of his was the signal of their deliverance. Thusband.” As to Israel and Judah, they are is the Christian church called upon to called upon to return to their city and their rejoice in the fall of mystic Babylon—" for God. Their pardon is announced, and in her is found the blood of prophets, and all their sins declared to be for ever canof saints, and of all that were slain upon celled. the earth." Rev. xviii. 24.

NOTES. Ver. 21. Of Merathaim-Marg.“ Or the rebels;" Babylon, which destroyed all other nations, is herself Payney, "Of bitternesses,” because she hath been destroyed. the source of so much bitterness to Israel.-In- Ver. 26. From the utmost border - Heb.“ From habitants of Pekod — Boothroyd, “ Punish (Heb. the end." Cast her up-Margin, “Tread,” or to visit") it, and its inhabitants, O sword.”

trample her. Per. 23. The hammer of the whole earth - that is,



(against Babylon. fall in the streets, and all her men of it be dwelt in from generation to genewar shall be cut off in that day, saith ration. the Lord.

40 As God overthrew Sodom and 31 Behold, I am against thee, O Gomorrah, and the neighbour cities thou most proud, saith the Lord God thereof, saith the Lord; so shall no of hosts : for thy day is come, the man abide there, neither shall any son time that I will visit thee.

of man dwell therein. 32 And the most proud shallstumble 41 Behold a people shall come froun and fall, and none shall raise him up: the north, and a great nation, and and I will kindle a tire in his cities, and many kings shall be raised up from the it shall devour all round about him. coasts of the earth.

33 Thus saith the Lord of hosts ; 42 They shall hold the bow and the The children of Israel and the cbildren, lance : they are cruel, and will not of Judah were oppressed together: and shew mercy: their voice shall roar all that took them captives held them like the sea, and they shall ride upon fast; they refused to let them go. horses, every one put in array, like a

34 Their Redeemer is strong; the man to the battle, against thee, O LORD of hosts is his name: he shall daughter of Babylon. throughly plead their cause, that he 43 The king of Babylon hath heard may give rest to the land, and disquiet the report of them, and his hands the inhabitants of Babylon.

waxed feeble : anguish took hold of 35 A sword is upon the Chaldeans, him, and pangs as of a woman in trasaith the LORD, and upon the inhabi- vail. tants of Babylon, and upon her princes, 44 Behold, he shall come up like a and upon her wise men.

lion from the swelling of Jordan uoto 36 A sword is upon the liars ; and the habitation of the strong : but I they shall dote : a sword is upon her will make them suddenly run away mighty men; and they shall be dis- from her: and who is a chosen man, mayed.

that I may appoint over her? for tho 37 A sword is upon their horses, is like me? and who will appoint me and upon their chariots, and upon all the time? and who is that shepherd the mingled people that are in the that wik stand before me? midst of her; and they shall become 45 Therefore hear ye the counsel of as women: a sword is upon her trea- the Lord, that he hath taken against sures; and they shall be robbed. Babylon; and his purposes, that he

38 A drought is upon her waters; hath purposed against the land of the and they shall be dried up: for it is Chaldeans: Surely the least of the the land of graven images, and they flock shall draw them out: surely he are mad upon their idols.

shall make their habitation desolate 39 Therefore the wild beasts of the with them. desert with the wild beasts of the islands 46 At the noise of the taking of shall dwell there, and the owls shall Babylon the earth is moved, and the dwell therein: and it shall be no

cry is heard among the nations. (1) more inhabited for ever: neither shall

EXPOSITION. (1) Ver. 21–46. Israel avenged for her

as the head quarters of Idolatry, even from sufferings, by the judgments inflicted upon the time of Nimrod, is here described as i be Babylon.--Babylon, always distinguished land of “ bitterness, "and rebellious against

NOTES. Ver. 36. A sword is upon the liars-Heb.“ Bars,”'

Ver. 39. Therefore the wild beasts, &c.-Coupere i.e. supporters; meaning, probably, her diviners, or pretended prophets ; Blayney, “ The impostors.--

this and four following verses witu isa. xiii. 17-21.

and Notes, They shall dose-Blayney, “Be infatuated,''

Ver. 4. Behold, wc,-Compare che xlix, 4–6,



{against Babylon.

8 Babylon is suddenly fallen and CHAP. LI.

destroyed : howl for her; take balm TH THUS saith the LORD; Behold, I for her pain, if so be she may be

will raise up against Babylon, healed. and against them that dwell in the 9 We would have healed Batylon, midst of them that rise up against but she is not healed: forsake her, and me, a destroying wind;

let us go every one into his own coun2 And will send unto Babylon fan- try: for her judgment reacheth unto ders, that shall fan her, and shall heaven, and is lifted up even to the empty her land : for in the day of skies. trouble they shall be against her round 10 The LORD hath brought forth about.

our righteousness : come, and let us 3 Against him that bendeth let the declare in Zion the work of the LORD archerbend his bow, and against our God. him that lifteth himself up in his bri- 11 Make bright the arrows; gather gandine : and spare ye not her young the shields : the Lord hath raised up men; destroy ye utterly all her host. the spirit of the kings of the Medes: for

4 Thus the slain shall fall in his device is against Babylon, to dethe land of the Chaldeans, and stroy it; because it is the vengeance of they thut are thrust through in her the LORD, the vengeance of his temple. streets.

12 Set up the standard upon the 5 For Israel hath not been forsaken, walls of Babylon, make the watch nor Judah of his God, of the Lord of strong, set up the watchmen, prepare hosts; though their land was filled the ambushes : for the Lord hath both with sin against the Holy One of devised and done that which he spake Israel.

against the inhabitants of Babylon. 6 Flee out of the midst of Babylon, 13 O thou that dwellest upon many and deliver every man his soul : be not waters, abundant in treasures, thine cut off in her iniquity; for this is the end is come, and the measure of thy time of the Lord's vengeance; he covetousness. will render unto her a recompence.

14 The LORD of hosts hath sworn 7 Babylon hath been a golden cup by himself, saying, Surely I will fill in the Lord's hand, that made all thee with men, as with caterpillars ; the earth drunken: the nations have and they shall lift up a shout against drunken of her wine ; therefore the na. thee. tions are mad.

EXPOSITION. the Most High: and its enemies are suin- to assist in their destruction. Awful inmoned from all quarters to unite in its deed is it to contend with him, who com. destruction, and rejoice in its downfal. mauds all the armies both of earth and The Lord of Hosts gives them their com- heaven ; and yet this is the case with all mission, and calls together the powers of obstinate and impenitent siuners. nature, and the wild beasts of the forest,

NOTES. CHAP. LI. Ver. 2. Fanners .... shall empty her To plant our colours on the walls of an enemy's forland - that is, winnow it from the chail. See ch. iv. tress, is an act of heroism. 11; xv.7.

Ver. 13. C'pon-Blayney, “By the side of" ዝ in any Ver. 3. Brigandine.-See chap. xlvi. 4.

walers; that is, engaged in foreign conimerce. Ver. 6. Flee.-Compare Rev. xviii. 4.

Compare Rev. xvii. 1, 15. — The measure of thy Ver. 7. A golden cup. - According to Homer, the covriousness -- that is, the full measure. Compare Greeks used golden cups in their libations to their Matt. xxvi. 32. gods. (II. ini. 248.) See ch. xxv. 15, and Rev xiv.8. Ver. 11. Caierpillar s-Blayney, “ Locusts." See

Ver. 11. Make bright-Heb." Pure," or clean. Exod. x. 14–16.-— Lift up-Ileb. • Ulter." MoVer. 12. Upon the rulls – Those who consider rier mentions that, as soon as the locusts appeared in these words as addressed to Babylon, explain them Persia, the gardeners and farmers used to set up a ironically; but Dr. Blayney supposes them to be ad- shout, if possible to prevent their settling.--Orient. dressed to their eneinies, and renders the preposition Lit. No, 900. " before ;” Boothroyd," near:" but wby not "upon ?"




[against Babylon [Omit in Family Reading.]

25 Behold, I am against thee, O 15 He hath made the earth hy his destroying mountain, saith the Lord, power, he hath established the world hy his which destroyest all the earth: and I wisdom, and hath stretched out the heaven

will stretch out mine hand upon thee, by his unlerstanding. 16 When he uttereth his voice, there is a multitude of

and roll thee down from the rocks, and waters in the heavens; and be causeth the

will make thee a burnt mountain. vapours to asceud from the ends of the 26 And they shall not take of thee earth: he maketh lightnings with rain, a stone for a corner, nor a stone for and bringeth forth the wind out of his foundations; but thou shalt be desttreasures.

17 Every man is brutish by late for ever, saith the LORD. his knowledge; every founder is confounded by the graven image: for his 27 Set ye up a standard in the molten image is falsehood, and there is no land, blow the trumpet among the nabreath in them. 18 They are vanity, the tions, prepare the nations against her, work of errors: in the time of their visitar call together against her the king. tion they shall perish. of Jacob is not like them; for he is the doms of Ararat, Minni, and Ashcheformer of all things: and Israel is the rod naz; appoint a captain against her; of his inheritance: the LORD of hosts is his

cause the horses to come up as the

rough caterpillars. 20 Thou art my battle ax and 28 Prepare against her the nations weapons of war: for with thee will I with the kings of the Medes, the capbreak in pieces the nations, and with tains thereof, and all the rulers thereof, thee will I destroy kingdonis;

and all the land of his dominion. 21 And with thee will I break in 29 And the land shall tremble and pieces the horse and his rider; and sorrow: for erery purpose of the LORD with thee will I break in pieces the shall be performed against Babylon, to chariot and his rider;

make the land of Babylon a desola22 With thee also will I break in tion without an inhabitant. pieces man and woman; and with 30 The mighty men of Babylon thee will I break in pieces old and have forborn to fight, they have reyoung; and with thee will I break in mained in their holds: their might pieces the young man and the maid : hath failed; they became as women :

23 I will also break in pieces with they have burned her dwelling places; thee the shepherd and his flock; and her bars are broken. with thee will I break in pieces the 31 One post shall run to meet anhusbandman and his yoke of oxen; other, and one messenger to meet anand with thee will I break in pieces other, to shew the king of Babylon captains and rulers.

that his city is taken at one end; 24 And I will render unto Babylon 32 And that the passages are and to all the inhabitants of Chaldea, stopped, and the reeds they have all their evil that they have done in burned with fire, and the men of war Zion in your sight, saith the Lord. are affrighted. (K)


may, in prophetic language, be called a (K) Ver. 1-32. A farther poctical de- mountain – hut Babylon is bere compared scription of the judgments of God against to a volcano, a, burning or “ destroying Babylon.-Any great power or potentate mountain," and it is the crater that seems

NOTES. Ver. 1.3 to 19 are copied verbatim froin chap. Armenin, and the third, a part of Mygia. Xeno X. 12-16.

phon wentions that the army of Cyrus iicloded both Ver. 24. Mly battle ar.-See Isa. x. 15.

Annenians and Phrygians, See Blayuey. Ver. 26. Desolations for ever-Ilels." Everlasting Ibid. Carose the horses to come in as the resol slations."

cnlırpillars. - Blayney, “ Like the brished loctist. 1.27. Araral, Minni, and Ashchenaz.--The two

Se: Joel ii. 4; Rev. ix. 7. 'T, Bochart concludes to be greater and less

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