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8 pounds in the spring basin. This gives a proportion of about one part per million of copper sulphate in both the waters of the spring basin and the reservoir. At the time of the inspection a certain amount of algae growths were observed in the spring basin. Upon examination these growths were found to consist largely of zygnema and of a small amount of spirogyra.

Samples of water were obtained at the time of the inspection from a tap in the village and from the various sources, and the analyses of these samples, together with those previously made by the Division of Laboratories and Research, will be found in the appended table.

From the results of these analyses it will be seen that the water is usually clear and free from color and moderately hard. Nitrogen in its various forms is usually low and the figures for the albuminoid ammonia and oxygen consumed at times indicate the presence of moderate amounts only of organic matter apparently derived from decaying vegetation upon the watershed. The chlorine figures are at times slightly in excess of that which may be considered normal for this region. The numbers of bacteria are usually low and organisms of the B. coli type have occasionally been found in 10 c.c. inoculations only.

As a result of this investigation and of the analyses the following conclusions may be drawn:

1. That the public water supply of Cambridge is of a fairly satisfactory sanitary quality as shown by the sanitary survey and by the analyses.

2. That the growths of algae in the spring basin and to some extent in the reservoir cause tastes and odors in the water at certain times of the year, although this trouble has been largely reduced by the application of copper sulphate.

In view of the above conclusions, I would make the following recommendations:

1. That the water company at all times properly protect the various sources of the water supply from all possible contamination.

2. That the algae growths in the spring basin be removed at frequent intervals by raking and, in case this measure is not sufficient to prevent tastes and odors, copper sulphate be carefully applied to the basin and

reservoirs in quantities not greater than those used in the past.
I would finally recommend that copies of this report be transmitted to the
Cambridge Water Works Company, to the health officer of the village of
Cambridge and to the sanitary supervisor for the district.

Respectfully submitted,
THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., June 14, 1917

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RESULTS OF WATER ANALYSES Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint;

02, faint;

faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic;

; , d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable

PHYSICAL

CHEMICAL (Parts PER MILLION)

BACTERIOLOGICAL

[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]
[graphic]

ODOR

SOLIDS

NITROGEN AS

HARDNESS

B. Coli TYPE + PRESENT

ABSENT

Municipality

County

Source of sample

Date
of col-
lection

Bacteria per C.C.; gelatin

20°, 48 hours

10 C.C.

1 c.c.

1-10 C.C.

Cambridge.
Cambridge.
Cambridge.
Cambridge.
Cambridge
Cambridge.
Cambridge
Cambridge
Cambridge
Cambridge
Cambridge
Cambridge.
Cambridge
Cambringe
Cambridge
Cambridge

Washington. Tap in village
Washington. ... Tap in village.
Washington .... Tap in vilsage.
Washington. Tap in village
Washington. Tap in village.
Washington.... Tap in village.
Washington, Tap in village
Washington. Tap in village
Washington, Tap in village.
Washington

Tap in village.
Washington. Tap in village.
Washington

Tap in village.
Washington Tap in village.
Washington. Tap in village
Washington.... Brook water
Washington....Spring water.

3/ 1/11 10

5
10/ 3/11 10 CI.
12/15/11| Tr. C.
1/30/12) Tr. CI.
3/12/12| Tr. C.
4/18/12 5) Ci.
9/17/12| Tr.] C1.
11/12/12 101 Cl.
12/27/12| Tr. CI.
2/18/13 Tr. Cl.
4/24/13 Tr. Cl.
6/27/12 Tr
4/ 8/14] Ts. Tr.
4/10/17 Cl. Tr. 1 a. 1 v.
4/10/17
4/10/17

71
106
90
70
60
108
150
83
78
77
117
125
88

48.020.030.001 0.50 1.90
91.0181.018).001 0.60|1.15
801.004).076 Tr.0.300.SO
52.036 , 0:40Tr.|0.50|0.90|
52.010.046| Tr.10,521,50|
88).006.0161.001 0.31 0.20
129.004.002.001 0.68 0.50
63.0145.0581.001 0.34/1.50
70 .014|.060| Tr.j0. 44|1.00

022.04S/ Tr.40.341.10
0241.010] Tr.|0.70|0.20

.004.0181.0020.70 0.50
81.0061.026.001 0.3410.80

.007.007. Tr. Tr.1.25

2.50
2.00
1.62
1.00
1.00
1.00
1.75
0.37
1.00
1.50
1.50
1.25
1.50
1.50

39.0
81.4
50.0
50.0
40.3
57.1
91.3
00.0
57.1
51.4
78.6
82.9
55.7
37.7

37.0
81.0
49.0
40.0
33.0
48.0
84.0
52.0
55.0
49.0
75.0
82.0
54.0
30.0

+11++++/llll

1,200

100
120

70
2,700

20
120
70
80
20
10
20
50
40/1-+-10+3–0+3----
12011+2_10+-3- 0-7-3--
1600+3--10+3–0+3--

CI.

1

+

CANASERAGA

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on the public water supply of the village of Canaseraga, Allegany county. An investigation of this supply was made on December 6, 1916, by Mr. M. F. Sanborn, assistant engineer, who was assisted at the time of the inspection, by Dr. C. G. Schwan and Mr. Fred Mehlenbacher, superintendent of waterworks.

Canaseraga is an incorporated village in the northwestern part of Allegany county and about 15 miles northwest of Fiornell. It is on Canaseraga creek, a tributary of the Canisteo river, and is on the Erie railroad and the P. S. & N. railroad.

There are no public or private sewers in the village. Excretal and other wastes are disposed of in septic tanks, cesspools and privies.

The water supply is owned by the village and is under the control of the board of water commissioners. The waterworks were designed by Mr. E. D. Smalley, civil engineer of Syracuse, and were constructed under his direction in 1905.

The water is obtained from about 12 springs located about 192 miles north of the village. The water from these springs flows by gravity to a collecting basin whence it passes into the pipe line leading to the village and to the reservoir located on a hill in the southeastern part of the village. About 612 of the inhabitants, or about 90 per cent of the total population, are served by this supply. The average daily consumption was estimated to be about 61,200 gallonis. There are about 614 miles of water mains varying from 4 to 6 inches in diameter. The average pressure in the village is about 100 pounds per square inch. There are 31 hydrants placed in various parts of the village for fire protection.

The reservoir is open, about 75 feet square and 7 feet deep and has a capacity of about 190,000 gallons. The sides of this reservoir have a slope of about 1 to 1 and the bottom and the lower side are paved with brick. Ice has at times in the past been cut from the reservoir. The reservoir is said to be cleaned out every three years and the street mains are flushed two and three times a year.

The springs are all located near the base of a large hill and the ground in the vicinity of the springs is swampy. These springs are developed by the construction of various kinds of chambers built principally of dry rubble walls covered with planks. Many of the springs are poorly developed and some of the covers were in poor condition. The collecting chamber is about 812 feet in diameter and 512 feet deep and contained about 2 feet of water at the time of the inspection. Cattle are allowed to pasture around the springs and it is probable that at times surface water, contaminated by animal wastes, reaches the springs. Otherwise there seems to be no source of pollution in the vicinity of the springs.

At the time of the inspection a sample of the water was collected from a tap in the village and the results of the analysis of this sample, together with those previously made by the Division of Laboratories and Research, will be found in the appended table.

From the results of these analyses, it will be seen that the water is usually clear, free from color and quite hard. The figures for nitrogen in its various forms are usually low although occasionally those for free ammonia are high These high figures for free ammonia, together with those for oxygen consumed and chlorine, indicate that the water has occasionally received some pollution in the past. The numbers of bacteria have at times been quite high and organisms of the B. coli type have been found occasionally in 10 c.c. inoculations. The pollution indicated by the analyses has evidently been received from the cattle pasturing around the springs and has probably occurred principally during periods of freshets or heavy rains. Pollution might also have been caused by the men cutting ice upon the reservoir, and in this connection it is significant that several of the winter analyses show active contamination.

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As a result of this investigation and of the analyses the following condusions may be drawn:

1. That with the exclusion of cattle from around the springs and with the improvement of the condition of some of the springs, the water should be of a satisfactory sanitary quality.

2. That the practice of ice cutting upon the reservoir renders possible the serious and potentially dangerous pollution of the water supply by the men and animals engaged in this operation.

In view of the above conclusions, I would make the following recommendations:

1. That all the springs be carefully inspected by the village authorities in order that steps may be taken to protect these springs from contamination from surface sources by providing proper covers, diverting ditches for surface water and such other improvements as may be found necessary.

2. That the springs be surrounded with an improved wire fence to keep cattle at least 50 feet from the springs.

3. That the cutting of ice upon the reservoir be prohibited. I would also recommend that copies of this report be sent to the village authorities and to the sanitary supervisor of the district.

Respectfully submitted,

THEODORE HORTON,

Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., March 28, 1917

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Collected on.
Color.
Odor, hot.
Odor, cold...
Turbidity
Solids, total..
Loss on ignition.
Mineral residue.
Ammonia, free.
Ammonia, albuminoid.
Nitrites.
Nitrates...
Oxygen consumed
Chlorine.
Hardness, total.
Alkalinity
Bacteria per c.c..

10 c.c. B. coli type..

170 024 .018

Tr. 0.60 0.30

1.25
145.8

142
30
+

175 .012 .014

.001 0.48 0.40

1.75
148.6

138
80

165 008 .016

Tr. 0.36 0.90

0.75 154.2

130 1,500

+

185 .004 .018

.001 0.30 0.80

1.50 148.6

145 8,100

185 .012 .016

Tr. 0.60 0.10

1.75 151.4

144 500

.006 .042

Tr. 0.60 1.00

1.50 140.0

133 30 +

.

1 c.c. 1/10 c.c.

Results are expressed in parts per million. + Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water: 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 1, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; g, grassy; m, musty; v, vegetable.

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Results are expressed in parts per million. f Present. Absent.

Abbreviations used to describe odors of water; 0, none; 1, very faint; 2, faint; 3, distinct; 4, decided; 5, strong; 6, very strong; a, aromatic; d, disagreeable; e, earthy; f, fishy; &, grassy; m, musty; V, vegetable.

CASTLETON

HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:

I beg to submit the following report on an investigation of the sanitary condition of the public water supply of the village of Castleton, made on September 4, 1917, by Mr. M, F. Sanborn, assistant engineer in this Department.

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General information Location. - Rensselaer county, on the bank of the Hudson river, 6 miles south of Albany, on the N. Y, C, & H. R. R. R.

Population. - 1,500, 90 per cent of which is served with the supply.
Waterworks.- Controlled by municipality.

Source of supply.- Vlockie kill, impounding reservoir and intake 3 miles east of the village.

Consumption.- No data.

Distribution system.- Gravity through 11 miles of mains ranging from 6 to 16 inches in diameter.

Service taps.— 300, none metered.
Pressure.- 90 pounds per square inch.
Storage.-- 5,000,000 gallons.
Purification.- None.

References to previous investigation.— 1912; report on investigation, page 639. 33d Annual Report of this Department; 1914, inspection preparatory to drafting of rules and regulations.

In the report of the investigation made in 1912 it was pointed out that the supply was subject to pollution from animal and human origin, and it was accordingly recommended that steps be taken to abate any conditions causing direct pollution of the stream tributary to the supply and that if any difficulty be experienced in abating such conditions, application be made to this Department for the enactment of rules and regulations for the sanitary protection of the supply. At the time of the investigation in 1912 the supply

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