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INDIVIDUAL PERMITS ISSUED DURING 1917, ETC.-- Continued
Rosemary Creamery Company Aug. 4
Efluent from disposal works to treat sewage and trade Nakama brook.
wastes (see page 125).
and Sherrill (see page 141).
from hotel (see page 150).
at Fourth Lake (see page 155).
White Plains, Westchester county. New York, Westchester & Nov. 27
To whom issued
Ramapo, Rockland county
Ramapo Finishing Company.
Rye, Westchester county
Mr. A. C. Gwynne
Saugerties, Ulster county
Mr. Thomas Cochran.
Schroeppel, Oswego county
Sodus, Wayne county
Sodus Packing Company
pencer, Tioga county
Warwick, Orange county
The Empire Creamery Com- Dec.
Webb, Herkimer county
Boston Railway Co.
GENERAL INVESTIGATIONS RELATING TO
SEWERAGE AND SEWAGE DISPOSAL
In many municipalities of this state the important problem of properly providing for the collection and disposal of sewage is often unfortunately neglected or inadequate and inefficient methods are employed. As a result of this neglect insanitary and unhealthful conditions are frequently brought to the attention of this Department through direct complaints or by requests from the local authorities for assistance in meeting the problem.
A thorough investigation of the sewerage conditions in the municipality is made in such instances by an engineer from this Department and a report is prepared in which are pointed out the proper steps to be taken to provide a permanent remedy. Although this Department is without direct power to compel the installation of systems of sewerage and sewage disposal and consequently the completion of its work is curtailed, yet, in many cases effective action is taken by the local authorities on the advice and at the instigation of this Department.
The reports of the investigations made by this Department in the more important cases which have come before it during 1917 are given below and a list is appended of all other cases.
I beg to submit the following report upon an investigation made in regard to sewerage conditions of the village of Angola, town of Evans, Erie county. The inspection was made on May 11, 1917, by Mr. Albert I. Howd, inspecting engineer in this Department, as a result of a complaint in regard to improper disposal of sewage in the village of Angola.
Angola is located in the southwestern part of Erie county, about 2 miles east of Lake Erie and 22 miles south of Buffalo. It is on three railroads, namely, the New York, Chicago & St. Louis, the Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and the Pennsylvania railroads, and also on one electric railway, namely, the Buffalo & Lake Erie Traction line.
The village is situated on slightly rolling land which drains into the Big Sister creek, a stream flowing through the eastern part of the village. The soil is clayey earth underlaid, the inspector was informed, by shale. There has been a decided increase of the population of Angola in the last 5 years. In 1915 the population according to the census was 1,194, an increase of 296 or 33 per cent since 1910. The village is provided with a public water supply derived from Lake Erie, about 85 per cent of the houses being supplied with public water, all of which are metered. Main street, the principal street of the village, is paved. Electric lights, gas and other modern facilities are available.
About 75 per cent of the houses of Angola are supplied with cesspools or septic tanks. The inspector was informed that before any are allowed to be connected with the village sewers or storm water drains they must be approved by the village board of health. About 25 per cent of the houses have privies, most of which are in the vicinity west of High street, the newer section of the village.
An 18-inch sewer constructed by the railroad company extends from a point near the railroad station through the property of Dr. B. E. Smith to Main street where it branches and goes through South Main street and finally discharges into Big Sister creek. Later the railroad company extended the 18-inch sewer directly west from where it entered Main street to Big Sister creek. The outlet of this 18-inch sewer is at the top of a very precipitous bank. A long wooden trough has been constructed from the end of the sewer to the foot of the bank and the effluent from the sewer flows down this trough. From the foot of the bank the sewage flows over the ground about 50 feet to the creek.
All of the sewage and wastes from the houses, stores and buildings within the area bounded by School street and the B. & L. E. Traction line on the north, by the L. S. & M. S. railroad tracks on the east, by Lake street and the railroad tracks on the south, and by High street on the west, discharge eventually into a sewer which branches west from the Main street sewer between Lake and Center streets. From Main street this sewer goes through private property to the foot of the bank of the L. S. & M. S. railroad and discharges into an open ditch which runs along the railroad property several hundred feet and finally discharges into the Big Sister creek. At the end of the sewer pipe considerable amounts of paper and rags were noticeable and a distinct odor was detected. During warm weather considerable odor arises from this ditch, the inspector was informed. Sometime ago the village of Angola was notified by the railroad company that they intended to fill up the ditch, hence other provision will have to be made for disposing of the sewage from this district. Dr. B. E. Smith stated that the village authorities had talked of extending the sewer from the present outlet through private property about parallel to the present ditch to the Big Sister creek.
Another sewer extends north through Main street and discharges into a ditch along the edge of the highway. The banks of the ditch were covered with a dirty grey sediment or growth characteristic of substances washed by sewage and household wastes. After flowing along the ditch for some distance it flows under the highway and eventually finds its way into Big Sister creek.
From the above inspection it appears that the steps which have been taken by the village of Angola to provide sewerage facilities to take care of the sanitary sewage have not been effective. The difficulty has been that in the past the sewers have been installed without regard to any comprehensive sewer plan and, therefore, without proper regard for future needs.
I therefore, recommend that the village employ a competent sanitary engineer to prepare plans for a comprehensive system of sewerage and a sewage disposal plant, these plans to be submitted to this Department for approval as provided by the Public Health Law. While this law requires that the plans submitted shall cover the whole village and show an adequate system of sewage disposal, this does not mean that the entire system must be installed at once. Only the more necessary portions of the system need be built at present and application can be made at the same time that application is made for the approval of the plans for permission to omit temporarily from construction such sewers as are not at present needed. Furthermore the funds for the construction of the more necessary portions of a general sewer system may be provided for by the issuance of long term bonds.
It will be seen that the village can thereby proceed to rectify the existing insanitary conditions in such a manner that the first cost and the annual cost may be made very moderate and at the same time may provide, finally, a complete and adequate sewer system to take care of all future needs of the village.
I would further recommend that copies of this report be submitted to the sanitary supervisor and the health officer of the village of Angola for presentation to the village board and that the village authorities be urged to take steps at once to carry out the recommendations of this report.
Chief Engineer ALBANY, N. Y., June 1, 1917
A copy of this report was enclosed in a letter addressed to the local board of health, urging that steps be taken to carry out the recommendations of this report.
HERMANN M. BIGGS, M.D., State Commissioner of Health:
I beg to submit the following report on an investigation made of the pollution of the Canandaigua outlet at Canandaigua by the sewage and trade wastes from Canandaigua, Ontario county. This investigation was made on August 9 and 11, 1916, by Mr. Morton F. Sanborn, Assistant Engineer, as a result of complaints received in regard to such pollution.
Canandaigua is an incorporated city of about 7,501 inhabitants as shown by the 1915 census. It is situated at the foot of Canandaigua lake and the head of the outlet which goes by the same name. Canandaigua is the county seat of Ontario county and is located near the center of the county. The city is on the Auburn branch of the N. Y. C. & H. R. R. R. and the Northern Central R. R. and has trolley service to Rochester. The city is largely a residential district, although there are several factories and industries, the largest being the Lisk Manufacturing Company, which employs about 500 per
The number of inhabitants has been increasing slowly of recent years, there being 6,151 in 1900, 7,217 in 1910 and 7,501 in 1915.
The water supply of the city is obtained from Canandaigua lake, the intake being about 2 miles up the lake and 500 feet from shore in about 50 feet of water. This water is pumped direct to the mains and reservoir of the city and is used without purification of any kind. Practically all of the inhabitants are served with this water supply. The daily consumption varies from 800,000 to 900,000 gallons per day, the greater consumption occurring during the summer months. About 150,000 gallons are used daily by the different industries and railroads.
Canandaigua outlet, into which the sewage and trade wastes of Canandaigua are discharged, flows about 8 miles northeasterly through Chapin, Shortsville and Manchester and thence easterly about 12 miles through Clifton Springs and Phelps and then northerly about 8 miles and empties into the Clyde river at Lyons. Chapin is an unincorporated village with a population of about 100 and is located about 4 miles below the lake; Shortsville, an incorporated village of about 1,228 inhabitants, is located about 3 miles below Chapin; Manchester, an incorporated village of about 1,115 inhabitants, is located about 1 mile helow Shortsville: Clifton Springs. an incorporated village of about 1,664 inhabitants, is located about 5 miles below Manchester; and Phelps, also an incorporated village with a population of about 1,375, is located about 5 miles below Clifton Springs.
A complaint was recently received from Shortsville in regard to the pollution of the outlet by the city of Canandaigua. Complaints have also been received previously from the different villages as far as Clifton Springs. As a result of an investigation made in 1906 on account of complaints of nuisance due to pollution of water at Canandaigua, recommendations were made by this Department to the village of Canandaigua that sewage treatment in septic tanks be provided and that the flow through the outlet be controlled at the lake in order that as large an amount as possible of water be passed through the outlet during periods of low flow. It was understood by this Department that plans were drawn for the treatment of the sewage, but they were never submitted to this Department for approval; and no treatment works were constructed.
The sewer system consists of about 17 miles of sanitary sewers and 9 miles of storm water drains. The sewer system is divided into two districts, namely: The west side system, which takes in about one-fourth of the village, and the east side system, which takes in about three-fourths of the city. The sewers of the west side vary from 8 inches to 20 inches and those of the east side vary from 8 inches to 15 inches. There is some roof water but no catch-basins draining to the sanitary sewer. The sewer system serves about 75 per cent. of the inhabitants and the total sewage flow was estimated to be about 800,000 or 900,000 gallons or about the same as the water consumption.
The outfall of the west side sewer is located in the bed of Canandaigua outlet, about 200 feet below Main street. The east side sewer outlet is located in the bed of Canandaigua outlet several hundred feet below Saltonstall street.
Some years ago the village of Canandaigua bought strips of land on both sides of the outlet from Canandaigua to Chapin, and also purchased all riparian rights on the outlet to and including water power and dam at Chapin.
Much of the sewer system was constructed previous to 1913 and permits for same were not required. Permits were issued in 1904 for some extensions to the sewer system and temporary permits were issued by this Department on January 28, 1908, for extension of sewers in Fisk avenue and Gorham street. The time limit of the latter permit has now expired and, therefore, the use of all sewer extensions constructed since 1905 are in violation of the Public Health Law,
Flow of outlet and dilution factors
Canandaigua lake at its outlet has a watershed of about 188 square miles and a surface area of about .16 square miles. The outlet has two channels for about two miles, the old outlet which is very winding, leaves the lake about 12 mile east of the foot of Main street and the new outlet or canal which leaves the lake at the foot of Main street. The flow through both outlets is controlled by stop planks and during periods of low flow all water is passed through the new outlet on account of sewage and trade wastes which are discharged into it.
The minimum average daily flow for a month during the years 1912 to 1916 inclusive, obtained from records of flow of Canandaigua outlet at Alloway reduced proportionally to the area of watershed at Canandaigua are as follows:
August, 1912–62; September, 1913–24; October, 1914-45; and June, 1915-44; October, 1916–19 cubic feet per second. At the time of the inspection the flow at Canandaigua was estimated at about 40 cubic feet per second, and these figures are approximated by the readings at Alloway. The average daily flow for 14 days of October, 1916, was only about 13 cubic feet per second as shown by the records of flow at Alloway.