« PreviousContinue »
he worm, though it will not attain the reached Europeat much the saine pegrowth at which the worin begins to riod, the time when Virginia was setprey upon it till lie has changed histled by Sir Walter Raleigh; but an tate for that of a winged beetle, ineffectual firmaum was issued by the vill cerlainly be ripe as soon as the Great Mogul against the use of to. vinter wheat, and may be thrashed bacco, long before potatoes were comput and sold with it; or if it is pre- monly cultivated in the gardens of lerred, may be reaped separately, as England; and that nauseous weed the appearance of the ears, which in reached the farthest extremities of the Lincolnshire sort have longer the Chinese empire, in spite of the beards or awms, than the rivett or obstacles placed by the government cone wheat, will point it o'it to tlie of that country against the introreapers in such a manner that no duction of novelties of any kind, long great error can happen in separating before potatoes hait occupied auy ex. it from the lammas.
tensive portion in the field-cultivation In years of scarcity, this wheat of this island. offers a resource which may occasione Lest the revival of the culture of ally be of the utmost importance to spring wheat, even noder the liberal tlie cominunity; of this the board protection it has received from the were very sensible last spring, when board, may be retarded by this printhey offered premiums for the in- ciple, which seenis 'to be inherent in crease of its culture, which have had the nature of mankind, it may be adthe effect of rendering it much more viseable to stale here, that in the generally known than otherwise neighbourhood of Boston and Spaldwould have been the case. The ing, in Lincolnshire, the cultivation of price of wheat seldom advances much, it is now fully established, and likely even in very scarce years, till a con- to continue; fronn either of these siderable portion of the crop has been places, therefore, the seed may at any thrashed out, and the yield of it by future time, as well as at present, be this means actually ascertained; but obtained without ditficulty; and as this does not take place till the seed- there is a water communication betime of winter wheat is wholly over; tween these towns, and as Boston is no speculation, therefore, of sowing a sea-port, it may always be brought an increased quantity of that grain to London, or any other maritime can be entered into during the first part of England, at a snall charge. year of a scarcity; but before the In times wiren dearth recurs, which end of April the question of the ave- will occasionally happen as long as rage-yield of the preceding crop will the manufacturing interest insists on be generally known, and when it is keeping the price of corn, in a plenmuch below the usual proportion, tiful barvest, below the actual cost of there can be no doubt that a large growing it, speculations ou the sow. quantity of spring wheat will be sown, ing of spring wheat may be carried so if the seed can be easily procured. far as to raise the price of seed till a
It is rather melancholy to reflect, saving in it becomes a matter of polithat the progress of agricultural im- tical as well as of economical importe provements has in some iustauces ad- ance; au experiment is therefore ad. vanced in the inverse ratio of the ded, to shew that spring wheat will utility of the novelty recommended succeed as well by dibbling as by to the public. Tobacco and potatoes broadcast, inade in the spring 1807. YOL, XLIX.
Mr. William Showler, an intelli- better sorts of winter wheat; but it is gent farmer at Revesby, in Lincoln- allowed to be more palatable in Lisshire, dibbled four pecks and a half colnshire, where it is best known. of spring wheat on one acre and two Both these qualities are probably roods of middling land, which had owing to the excess of gluten coeborne turnips the winter before, and tained in it. had no extraordinary preparation for this crop; the rows were eight inches asunder; the holes four inches asun- A Plan for improving the Groutk ef der and two inches deep; two grains Tares. Bv Mr. Thomas Herod. were put into each hole.
of North Creak, Norfolk. The produce from the quantity of 4) pecks of seed was 7 quarters; or [From Communications to the Board of 4 quarters, i bushel, and i peck, an
'Agriculture.] acre; a fair crop, and as much at
To be sown broad-cast in October, least as could have been expected from 18 or 21 bushels sown broad.
from ten to twelve pecks per acre,
with one peck of wheat, then ploughcast on the same land. By a careful analysis in the wet
ed into four-furrow ridges. In the way, conducted by professor Davy, 1
months of April and May, a one of the Royal Justitution, the following
horse-plough (double breast) is to be results have been obtained from dif
run through the furrows; this will
keep them clean, and admit the air to ferent kinds of wheat:
Insoluble the roots of the țares, and will keep
Glat. Starch. Parts. them clean and growing till MidsumFrom 100 parts of 21-75- 5 mer.
best Sicilian wheats Ditto of spring wheat los
Observations. of 1804......... Sa
Tares being sound very useful for Ditto good English ,
the soiling of cattle, and the best plan wheat of 1803....
of growing them being required by Ditto blighted wheat ļ 15-52 - 44
the board, I submit one for their of 1804. ........5
consideration which I have practised From this ingenious analysis we seven years with success. They are may fairly deduce, that bread made a plant that contain a great deal of of ihe flour of spring wheat is more moisture, particularly when young, nutritious than that made of winter therefore it is not proper to soil cattle wheat, because spring wheat contains with them in that state without food; a larger proportion of the gluten or those persons who are destitute of half-animalised matter; and also that that must give them very sparingly, a miller ought not to deduct from the or they injure their stock more than price of spring wheat more than 2 they are aware of. On the general per cent. on the mouey price of win- plan of sowing, soon after they are ter wheat of the same weight, as the at an age proper for the stock, they excess of the weight of insoluble begin to rot at the bottom; to obviate matter, or bran, is no níore than 2 which, some people sow rye, some per cent. when conipared with good oats, and some barley: the stems of English winter wheat.
the latter being weak, of course they Bread made of spring wheat is ra- can have no effect: the former soon ther less white than that made of the get hard, and the cattle refuse to eat
them; and by endeavouring to avoid nure than a thin covering of mould them destroy many of the tares, tread- from an old bank in the same piece; ing them under foot: therefore, on the first crop was but middling; I that plan they cannot be grown to so gave it another thin covering of great advantage as might be hoped mould from the headland of the same for. If it had been considered that piece last year, as the ground was air is the most essential means of the weak. I sowed six pecks of tares, and life both of the animal and vegetable three quarters of a peck of wbeat; creation, a different plan would liave this proved a good crop, and after been resorted to. It is well knowii, soiling two horses with them from the that tares grow so close together at end of May till the middle of August. the tops as to exclude all the exter- half a load were cut for seed. I have nal air from the bottoms; and al- always found that two roods of tarès though they keep green, at the tops sown on this plan were more than two where they receive the air, they con horses could eat. I am well continue rotting at the bottoms for want vinced from my own practice, that of it. When they are cut for soiling, tares sown on poor land will improve the stock refusing to eat the decayed it, if repeated a few crops; they may part, destroy a great deal of the sound also be grown to great advantage, if food: the loss to the growers of this sown on this planı, as the food will plant therefore is not to be calculated! not only be sound and sweet, but also My first attempt of improvement was much greater in quantity. It has on two roods of ground for the soil- been supposed that they would be ining of two horses, sown as first stated, convenient to cut on the ridges; but, and ploughed into four-furrow ridges; I believe, they may be cut better than they continued growing with rapidity when they are fallen close to the to the height of near five feet, cling- ground and rotten. The reasons for ing to the wheat. A high wind took my sowing wheat among the tares them about Midsummer, and bent are, the stems of the wheat are not they all down, but not close to the only strong, aud hold the tares up, ground; some yards might be seen but they are also so sweet that the up the furrows, which appeared like stock will eat them with as much avian arch. These furrows admitted dity as they do the tares, and to as the light as well as the air, which is late a time as the tares are proper to also a means of preserving the plants be cut før soiling. green; for if air is admitted, and light taken away, they may continue growing, but they will lose their colour. Account of the Improvement of a These two roods produced more than Tract of barren Ground covered my two horses could eat: after Mid- with Heath, in an elevated Situasummer the remainder were cut, and tion in the County of Peebles. produced half a load of excellent By Mr. James Allan. hay. This land is a sandy soil upon
[From the Transactions of the Highland a gravel; six loads of farm-yard L
Society of Scotland. ] dung were ploughed in with the tares. Last year and the preceding year, I The improvements on the farm of had two roods on a black gravel, Kailzie were begun in 1796, while bown on this plan, had no other ma- the land remained in its natural state,
3 K 2
covered with heath, and not exceeding to the most accessible part of the two shillings and sixpence per acre,' ground, and dragged up the ascent on an average value. The number of by doubling the number of horses, or Scottish acres contained in the ground, yoking the horses of two carts to one. which consisted of two plots or divi- It was then brought to the steepest sions, the Tor-bill, and the Law-park, parts of the ploughied ground in a was sixty one. According to the sledge without poles, moved by drag. measureinent of Mr. Oman, land sur- ropes, and termed a slipe. The veyor, the medium elevation of the lime was laid upon the ground durTor-hill, from the water-level to the ing the winter, and in the spring the top, is four hundred and twenty-two land was ploughed a second time feet. The ascent in a right line con- from left to right, and then sowo tinues at an elevation of twenty-five with oats. After being ploughed degrees, to the extent of two hundred from right to left, as at first, a seand sixty-four feet, from which it con- cond crop of oats was raised upon tinues to the distance of one thousand it. The next crop was of pease, and eighty-two feet, at an elevation of raised after ploughing in a straight diseventeen degrees. The quantity of rection down the hill; and in 1801, tlie ground reduced to a state of culture samne piece of ground was sown with during the first year, was fifteen acres; rough barley, or big, and grass seeds, during the second, twenty-five; and in order to convert it into pastore. during the third year twenty-one. In the oat crops, Mr. Allan sowed at The ground was ploughed at inter- the rate of one boll to the acre, and vals of leisure during the summer reaped at an average seven bolls. months, and suffered to remain in in the pease crop, he sowed three that condition till after the harvest, firlots and two pecks on the acre, and when it was manured with lime, in the reaped at an average eight bolls. proportion of twenty bolls of shells The average expence of manure and to the Scottish acre. The boll of labour may be estimated from beJime contains six Winchester bushels. tween three pounds fifteen shillings From the situation of the ground, it to four pounds the Scottish acre. mas ploughed with a single furrow, By a similar process, Mr. Allan inin an oblique direction, from right to tends to convert the whole piece of Jeft. Small's plough, drawn by two ground into pasture. After two crops horses, was employed; but in the of oats, divisions of between thirmost elevated parts, where the soil teen and fifteen acres may be sown was light and shallow, the small with turnips, broad-cast, and eaten Scottish plougb appeared preferable. on the ground by sheep; by which Shell lime costs 1s. 2d. per boll, at the process of conversion may perthe lime-works; but as these are six- laps be accelerated. The average teen miles distant, the expense of car- value of the land in this state of inriage may be estimated at 1s 11d. provenient, is estimated at the rate per boll. Lime was preferred to dung of between fifteen and twenty shil. as a manure, from the superior fa- iogs per acre. cility with which, on account of its The land (sixty-one acres) which inferior weight, it could be carried to Mr. Allan thus first brought into culso great a height, and spread over ture, has ever since remained in grass, the ground. It was brougbt in carts and maintained its estimated value.
Mr. Allan has continued to prose- make them as durable as they were cute the same plan of improvement prior to the fracture. on the ground adjoining to the parks already mentioned, which, although Receipt for making the Cement. they appeared equally discouraging, from the ruggedness of the surface, Boil two quarts of tar with two and their being covered with strong ounces of kitchen grease, for a quarleatlı, promise a more ample remu- ter of an hour, in an iron pot. Add neration to his industry, from the some of this tar to a mixture of circumstance of the declivity being slaked lime, and powdered glass, less abrupt, and the soil, on being which have passed through a flour cleared of stones, proving consider. sieve, and been dried completely ably deeper. He bas already broken over the fire in au iron pot; in the up a greater extent of this kind of proportion of two parts of lime and land than what is contained in the one of glass, till the mixture beTor-hill and Law-parks; and, with comes of the consistence of thin' ihat spirit wbichi characterises all his plaster. improvements, le bas, by way of Tbe cement must be used immeexperiment, sown an acre with wheat,diately after being mixed, and therewhich now (end of June, 1806) pro- fore it is proper not to mix more of mises equally well with most of the it at a time than will coat one square wheat on the lower grounds in that foot of wall, since it quickly bepeighbourhood.
comes too hard for use, and copiinues to increase its hardness for three
weeks. Great care must also be Method of curing damp Walls, by taken to preveut any moisture from
the Application of a Composition mixing with the cement.
coating of the cement, about one(From the Transactions of the Society of
eighth of an inch thick ; but should
the wall be more than damp, or wet, Arts, &c.]
it will be necessary to coat it a seI beg leave to lay before the So- cond time. ciety of Arts, &c. a cement, which, Plaster, made of liine, hair, and I trust, will be found of great utility plaster of Paris, may be afterwards in curing damp walls, in fooring laid on the cement. damp kitchens, and for various other purposes, where the prevention of Mrs. Ann Kemmish, King-street, wet is necessary.
Borough; Mr. Boone, Gregory. This cement, when put in water, place; and Mr. Thomas Cannadine, will suffer neither an increase nor Hook's Gardens, Tooley-street, bave diminution in its weight ; and it has certified that Mr. Wilson's cement the peculiar advantage of joining has been used with effect, on damp Portland stone, or marble, so as to walls belonging to them.