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bronzes, vases, and the choicest pieces of /one who had heard that letter read would art and nature; the tables are of the finest believe he was the best of men, and the stones, and are covered with figures in. best Christian this world ever produced. cumbcut and other attitudes, every niche His observations on the rock which Moses is filled with something rare and costly. / struck when the Israelites clamoured for He uombered twenty-two pictures in the water, are very fine; and though so many room in which they dined, among others have wrote before on the subject, none the famous portrait of the great Lord Ad have touched it in so masterly a manner.' miral Nottingham, by Vandyke; this gal. He says the rents made in the stone on laut nobleman commanded the English || that occasion bear a polish so truly wonderfeet that defeated the invincible armada ful as to exceed any thing tbat can be per. ju 1588, in the days of the glorious Queen formed by the finest tool. He has also reElizabeth. It was merely a literary dinner, marked, what was never noticed by any, 'there being no company only the Rev. that the place in the Red Sea which the Dr. Birch, one of the Secretaries of the Children of Israel crossed when the waters Royal Society, and Dr. Watson of Lincoln's divided, as also that into which those jod-fields, a very ingenious physician. waters discharged themselves which gushed The latter produced a very curious letter from the rock in consequeuce of the stroke, which he had just received from Mr. are still distinguished by two riplings, as Wortley Montague, dated at Pisa, Dec. lasting proofs of the stupordous miracles 2, 1765, which took an hour and three which God wrought on those occasions ; quarters to go through. It certainly was he has copied the inscriptions on the writworthy of its learned author, and perhaps ten mountains, some of which he inserted few except himself could have penned it, in bis letter; these being in Hebrew, the what I heard would occupy no small space Doctors passed them over, they not underwas it placed upon paper. He purposes standing that language. Mr. Campbell returning again into the East as soon as he desired to have the letter given him, when hathi consulted sone books in the Vatican he read them with ease, being acquainted library at Pwme. Ile has suffered his with the Chaldaic, Syriac, Samaritang beard to grow to such a length that it Arabic, Persian, and the other Oriental reaches bis breast; it is white as show, tongues. This raised him highly in the and he who was heretoforc not accounted opinion of the Marchioness; and what the most handsome, is now reputed to be still added thereto, was, that at some pages 80, and to look very graceful with that distant, Mr. Montague, apprehensive that which one would have imagined must have they would be puzzled with the old He'produced a contrary effect. He speaks | brew, had himself inserted a translation, the Arabic tongrie equally well with the which, excepting in one instance was li. natives, has learned their different dialects, terally the same with Mr. Campbell's; Mr. sits on the ground in their manyer, eats | Montague in his translation had substias they do, and conforms bimself as much | tuted. Christ for Messiah; now it seems as possible to their customs. This, and there is no such word as Christ in the his long beard, has proved of wonderful || Hebrew, our Redeemer being constantly service to him in his travels in the desart, || styled the Messiah throughout the Bible. and elsewhere, the Arabs treating him He has besides collected such stores ofi with uncommon distinction, for the great knowledge, that it is very doubtful whether deference he has shewn to the Eastern he will have length of days sufficient to manners, styling him the English Shiek, I give them to the world." and affording him every assistance in their Mr. Montague died on his way from power. You are not ignorant of the pro- Venice to England about May or June Rigate life this gentleman bas led, yet any || 1776.

A FULL EXPLANATION

OF

THE SCIENCE OF BOTANY;

BY
ROBERT JOHN THORNTON, M.D.

[Continued from Page 23 )

Notes.

Notes.
Caulis, a stem (See V. p. 22). The Greek
Ford Kaulos, is more extensive in its signi-

LIGNOSUS, from LIGNUM wood. fication than the latter, for it comprehends

1. Not in LINNAU.. the trunk of a tree, whereas the latter terin is 2. Woody is a term opposed to herbaceous.ca confined to the stalk of herbs.

MARTYN. 1. Elevans et fructificationem et folia. 3. Lignosus, woody, is opposed to herbaceous. LINNEUS.

BERKEN HOUT. 2. The body of an herb, rising from the 4. Not in SMITH. root, and bearing the branches, leaves, and fructification; according to Linnæus, truncus elle est d'une consistance solides, seinblables

5. Ligneuse (fruticosus, lignosus), lorsqu' is the generic terin, of which caulis is a species; celle du bois, et qu'elle subsiste après son enbut in common English we apply trunk to the durcisement. Les plantes ligneuses sont body of tree, and stalk to that of herbaceous

appelées des arbustes (frutices) arbriseaux (arplants. Stem might be adopted as the generic

buscula) et arbres (arbores).-LAMARK. term.-MARTYN. 3. A stem. That species of truncus com

XI. SOLID (solidus), not so firm as mon to most plants, defined by Linnæus to be the proper trunk of the herb, which elevates wood, easily yielding to a knife, of an uni. the leaves and fructification.

form substance, and juicy,

Mr. Curtis translates caulis a stalk, and scapus, a flowerstalk-BERKEN HOUT.

4. A stem properly so called, which bears, or elevates from the trunk, the leaves as well as flowers. The trunks and branches of all trees and sbrubs come under this denomination, as well as of a great proportion of herbaceous plants, especially annuals. - SMITH. 5. La tige proprement dit. Elle diffère du

Notes. tronc en ce quelle est plus grèle, plus faible, communément moins élevée et tantôt ligneuse

Solidus, a Latin word, meaning salid. tantôt herbacée.-BRISSEAU-MIRBEL. 1. Interne faretus.-LINNÆUS. X. WOODY (lignosus), of a hard con

2. A solid stem, full within ; in opposition sistency, formed in concentric rings, not to inanis, which bas only a light spongy sub

stance in it, and fistulosus, hollow like a pipe.juicy.

MARTYN.

3. A solid caulis, or stem, is in opposition to inanis and fistulosus.-BERKEN HOUT.

4. Solidus, solid, is opposed by SmiȚh to carus, bollow.

5. Solide, lorsqu 'elle est tout-a-fait pleine. LAMARK.

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XII. PITHY inanis, spongiosus), full of pores, like sponge, and not very juicy, STUFFED, faretus, in opposition to the next term, as the holly-hoek, alcea

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Notes. INANIS, from INANICE, cobwebs. 1. Interne medulla spongiosus.-LINNÆUS.

2. Having a pith, or spongy substance within. When quite empty it is called fistulosus.MARTYN.

3. Inanis, neither solidus, nor yet fistulosus, but pithy.-BERKENHOUT.

5. La consistance de la tige peut encore venir par différent degrés, qu'on exprime par les terms de molle (mollis) spongieuse (spongi. osus) charnue (succulentus), ferme (rigidus) séche (siccus). Ces divers termes out, en botanique, la même acceptiones que dans le language ordinaire.-LANARK.

XIII. HOLLOW, empty, fistulous (fistulosus), hollow within, as fennel, ferula.

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Notes.
FISTULOSU8, from FISTULA, a pipe.
1. Interne tubulosus.-LINN ÆUS.

2. Fistulosus, hollow like a pipe or reed, op. posed to farctus, stuffed or full.-MARTYN.

3. A hollow stem opposed to farctus.-BERKEN HOUT.

4. Not in SMITH, but the term, cavus, hollow; whence our word cave.

5. Fistuleuse ou creuse, lorqu'elle forme un tube ou un cylindre vidé.—LAMARK.

XIV. ROUND, cylindrical (teres, eylindricus), having a complete circular form, without any prominences, as in dandelion, leontodon tararicum.

Notes.

Teres, rouvd.
1. Angulis destitutus.-LINNÆUS.

2. Without angles. It may often be safely expressed in English by round. As we cannot well preserve the Latin term, it is more accurate to translate it by columnar than by cylindric; stems, branches, leaves, &c. to which it is applied, resemble the shaft of a column, tapering from the bottom upwards.-MARTYN.

3. Cylindrical. - BERKEN HOUT.
4. Round.-SMITH.

5. Quant à la figure de la tige, on cherche à la rapporter à quelque figure géométrique. Ainsi on la dit, cylindrique, teres, demi-cylindrique, semi-teres, lorque sa coupe transversale représente un cirele, un demi-circle, &c.LAMARK.

XV. HALF-CYLINDRICAL (semicolumnaris, semi-teres), foming a semi

circle, by being half flat, and the other half round, as in amaryllis belladonna.

Notes. Compressus, from con, together, and preme, to press.

1. Duobus lateribus oppositis planis.--LinNÆUS.

2. Compressed, or flat, applied to the stem which has the two opposite sides plane, or fiat.-MARTYN.

3. Resembling a cylinder compressed on opposite sides, the transverse section forming an ellipsis.-BERKEN HOUT.

4. Not in SMITH.

5. Comprimée, lorqu'elle semble avoir été applatie dans sa longeur, c'est a dire, lorque sa coupe transversale représente une ellipse. LAMARK

XVII. TWO-ANGLED, two-edged, or double-edged (anceps, digonus), having two opposite rather acute angles, or edges, as St. John's wort, hypericum perforatum,

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Notes. ANCEPs, from ana, on both sides, and caput, a head.-TURTON.

Notes. 'SEMI-TERES, from semis, half, and teres, round.

1. Hinc planus, inde teretiusculus.-LINNÆUS.

2. Semi-columnar, flat on one side and round on the other.-MARTYN.

3. Half-cylindrical, Aat on one side and round on the other.-BERKEN HOUT.

4. Not in Smith.
5. Demi-cylindric.-LAMÁRK.

XVI. FLATTED, compressed (compressus), as if squeezed with the fingers, ning the two opposite sides nearly flat,

-soldier, stratiotes aloides.

1. Angulis duobus oppositis accetiuscalis. LINNÆUS.

2. Two-edged, or double-edged. Flatted and rather sharp, with two opposite angles. Tbis is the common form of the ancipital stem, but it may have more angles than two; for Linnæus gives not only digonus, two-angles, but trigonus, three-angled, tetragonus, four-angled, pentagonus, five-angled, and polygonus mang angled, as species of the anceps. Martyn.

3. Two-edged. The anceps may have many more angles, but then they will be all obtuse,

except the two opposite ones which constitute

Notes. the anceps. - BERKEN HOUT. 4. Two-edg«d.-SMITH.

QUADRANGULARIS, from quadrus, four, 5. Gladiée ou a deur tranchans, lorsqu'elle est

and argulus, an angle ; tetragonus, from TETRA, tellement comprimée, que ses deux côtes sail- four, and Gonia, an angle. lans sont anguleux. LAMARK.

1. Tetragonus, angulis quatuor prominenti

bus, longitudinalibus.-LINNÆUS. XVIII. TRIANGULAR, or three-sided

2. Quadranguluris, having four prominent (triangularis, triqueter, trigonus), having angles; tetragonus, a four cornered stem, having three prominent angles, or three flat sides, four prominent longitudinal angles, a species as scirpus mucronatus.

of anceps according to LINNÆUS.in Philos. Bot.-MARTYN.

3. Quadrangular is applied only to the leaf; tetragonus four cornered.-BERKENHOUT.

4. Tetragonus, or quadrangularis, square. Notes.

SMITH, TRIANGULARIS, from tres, three, and angu 5. Tetragone ou quadrangulaire (tetragonus, lus an angle; triqueter, from tres, thrce; trigonus quadrangularis).-LAMARK. from TREs three, and GONIA, an angle.

. 1. Triangularis, tribus angulis cavis longitu

XX. PENTANGULAR, five-angled, divaliter excavatis.-LINNAUS.

pentagonal, or five-sided (quinquangularis, Trigonus, augulis tribus prominentibus il pentagonus), as five-angled, cactus pen. longitudinalibus.--LINN ÆUS.

tagones. Triqueter, lateribus tribus exacto planis.LINNÆUS.

2. Triangular (triangularis), is from the num. ber of prominent angles. Threc-cornered (trigonus) is a variety of the caulis anceps, wliere the angles are sharp, and the sides not flat; three-sided (triqueter), must have three fat sides. - MARTYN.

3. Triangular, is applied to the leaf only, where we are referred to trigonus.

LINNÆUS, in his Phil. Bolan. explains this term uccording to its derivation, as signifying the number of angles; but in his Delineatio Plantar, a later work, in a subdivision, under figura, he uses angulatus to express the angles; and in the next subdivision he has 3-queter, and 3 gonus : now 3 queter he explains to mean, three plain sides; therefore trigonus must sig. nify a triangular figure whose sides are either

-MARTYN. 4. Triqueter, having three plain sides.BERKEN HOUT. 5. Priangularis, triangular; trigonus, three

Norss. edged; triqueter, three-sided, is applied to a stem with three dat sides, Suth.

QUINQUANGULARIS, from quinque, five, 6 Triangulaire ou trigone (triqueter, tri and angula, an angle; pentagonus, from PENTE gonus.)--LAMARK.

tive, and GONIA, an angle. XIX. QUADRANGULAR, four-angled 1. Angulis quinque prominentibus lougitu. square, (quadrangularis, tetragonus), hav. dinalibus. Quinquangularis.-LINNÆUS. ing four angles, or four flatsides, as monarda

2. Pentagonus, a pentagonal or five-cornered fistularis.

stem. It is a species of LINNÆUs's ancipitat stem, and he seems to distinguish it from quinquingularis. MARTYN.

3. Quinquangular is applied to the leaf only ; pentagonus, for this we are referred to trigonuse BERKEN HOUT.

concave or convex.

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