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Cf. Lyly, Woman in the Moone, III. ii. 266, and Hamlet, II. č. 448.' See also Beaumont and Fletcher, The Captain 3. 246:

Which may awaken his compassion
To make you clerk o' the kitchen, and at length,
Come to be married to my lady's woman
After she's crack'd i' the ring.–C.

3. 6. 26. The slip is his then. 'Sir Diaphanous plays on the double meaning of the word slip, which signified either a base-born child, or a piece of false money. In the latter sense it occurs in many of our old dramas, and generally, as here, in conjunction with counterfeit. Thus Shakespeare:

What counterfeit did I give you?
The slip, the slip, sir. Romeo and Juliet.

Again : “If I could have remembered a gilt counterfeit, thou wouldst not have slipped out of my contemplation.” Troilus and Cressida.'—G.

For the use of slip as a base-born child, see Dekker, The Devils Last Will (Wks. (Grosart) 3. 353) : 'Because he is a slip of mine owne grafting, I likewise bequeath to him my best slippers’; Crabbe, The Borough 20. 247 : He talk'd of bastard slips, and cursed his bed.'-NED.

3. Ch. 10. the accidentall cause. The four causes of Aristotle were the efficient cause, the formal, the material, and the final; but Ayliffe's Parerga (1726) suggests that other divisions were made : 'There are seven Causes consider'd in Judgment, viz. the Material, Efficient, and Formal Cause; and likewise a Natural, Substantial, and Accidental Cause; and lastly a Final Cause.'-NED.

3. Ch. 20. an overgrowne, or superannuated Poët. See note on I. 2. 33.

3. Ch. 22. take my Tobacco. Smoking was very popular in England ; cf. Besant's London in the Time of the Tudors, p. 285: ' The palmy time of tobacco extended over the fifty years after its introduction (c. 1565). During this time the use of tobacco penetrated all ranks and classes of society. The grave divine, the soldier, the lawyer, the gallant about town, the merchant, the craftsman, the 'prentice, all used pipes At the theatre the young fellow called for his pipe and for tobacco and began to smoke. . . . People went to bed with tobacco box and pipe and candle on a table by the bedside in case they might wake up in the night and feel inclined for tobacco. After supper in a middle-class family, all the men and women smoked together.'

Paul Hentzner describes the smoking at theatres and elsewhere : “At these spectacles, and everywhere else, the English are constantly smoking tobacco. ... They have pipes ... made of clay, into the farther end of which they put the herb, so dry that it may be rubbed into powder; and putting fire to it, they draw the smoke into their mouths, which they puff out again through their nostrils, like funnels, along with plenty of phlegm and defluxion from the head.'Hentzner's Itinerarium, cited by Morley, Mem. 137.

King James I opposed smoking in his Counterblaste to Tobacco. Jonson satirized the habit in Every Man In, Every Man Out, Cynthia's Revels, The Alchemist, and Bartholomew Fair. For an adequate treatment of the general subject of tobacco, see Fairholt's Tobacco : Its History and Associations.

3. Ch. 23. Magna Charta of reprehension. Cf. The New Inn (Wks. 5. 310) :

It is against my freehold, my inheritance,
My Magna Charta, cor laetificat,

To drink such balderdash, or bonny-clabber ! Also T. Watson's Body Divin (1692), p. 460 : ‘The Covenant of Grace is our Magna Charta, by vertue of which God passeth himself over to us to be our God.'-NED.

Magna Charta, of course, refers to the Great Charter of English personal and political liberty, granted by King John in 1215, and appealed to in all disputes between king and subjects, till the establishment of constitutional government.

3. Ch. 30. I will search what followes ... to the naile. 'Jonson alludes to the practice of the ancient artists, who proved the polish of their works, by running their nails over the surface.'-G.

no;

4. 2. 3. For the metre, see notes on 3. 3. 43 ; 1. I. 81.

Knowes shée I o' this / accident ? | Alás | Sir, 4. 2. 4. For the metre, see note on 2. 4. 16. Would she I might ne / ver knowit. . I think | her La diship

4. 2. 15. The top, or the Top-gallant of our Law See the Glossary, s. v. Top and Top-gallant. The Devil is an Ass (Wks. 5. 113) :

The top of woman! all her sex in abstract ! Top and top-gallant are sailors' terms familiar to a maritime people like the Londoners.

4. 2. 26. You read Almanacks. 'Almanac-making had become an extensive and profitable trade in this country at the beginning of the 17th century, and with the exception of some fifteen or twenty years at the time of the Rebellion continued to flourish until its close. There were three distinct classes of almanacs published during the seventeenth century—the common almanacs, which preceded and followed the period of the Rebellion, and the political and satirical almanacs that were the direct outcome of that event.

* The common almanacs came out year after year in unbroken uniformity. They were generally of octavo size and consisted of two parts, an almanac and a prognostication. Good and evil days were recorded, and they contained rules as to bathing, purging, etc., descriptions of the four seasons and rules to know the weather, and during the latter half of the century an astrological prediction and "scheme” of the ensuing year.

'In the preceding century the makers of almanacs were " Physitians and Preests," but they now adopted many other titles, such as “ Student in Astrology," " Philomath," “ Well Willer to the Mathematics." The majority of them were doubtless astrologers, but not a few were quack doctors who only published their almanacs as advertisements.'-From note by W. S. Johnson, abridged from Notes and Queries, 6th Ser., 12. 243.

Jonson satirized the belief in the predictions of almanacs in Every Man Out (Wks. 2. 39-41) and The Alchemist (W ks. 4. 41). For an idea of the extent which the publishing of almanacs reached at one time, see the article, Almanacs for the Ensuing Year, in The Book of Days 2.715. 4. 2. 31.

And choose your Mistris By the good dayes, and leave her by the bad ? Brand (2.44-51) discusses Days Lucky or Unlucky, from which the following extract is taken :' Bourne (chap. XVIII), speaking of that superstitious custom among the heathens of observing one day as good, and another as bad, observes : " that among these were lucky and unlucky days; some were Dies atri, and some Dies albi. The Atri were pointed out in their calendar with a black character, the Albi with a white; the former to denote a day of bad success, the latter a day of good. Thus have the monks, in the dark and unlearned ages of Popery, copy'd after the heathens, and dream'd themselves into the like superstitions, esteeming one day more successful than another.” ... Thomas Lodge, in his Incarnate Devils, 1596, p. 12, glances as follows at the superstitious observer of lucky and unlucky times : "He will not eat his dinner before he hath lookt in his almanacke." Mason, in the Anatomie of Sorcerie, 1612, p. 85, enumerates among the superstitious of that age, “Regarders of times, as they are which will have one time more lucky than another : to be borne at one hower more unfortunate than at another : to take a journey or any other enterprize in hand, to be more dangerous or prosperous at one time than another : as likewise, if such a festivall day fall upon such a day of the weeke, or such like, we shall have such a yeare following: and many other such like vaine speculations, set downe by our astrologians, having neither footing on God's word, nor yet natural reason to support them; but being grounded onely upon the superstitious imagination of man's braine." 4. 2. 34.

Allestree. ‘A Richard Allestry, of Derby was the author of several almanacs, ranging from 1624 to 1643.'—DNB.

4. 2. 38. Another manner of peice. For this use of piece as an individual, see Bartholomew Fair (W ks. 4. 368) : ‘Gentlemen, you do not know him ; he is another manner of piece than you think for : but nineteen years old, and yet he is taller than either of.you by the head, God bless him!'

4. 2. 39. sub sigillo. Under the seal (of professional secrecy). 4. 2. 46. & Bencher, and now double Reader.

a See the Glossary, s. v. Bencher. In those days," says Sir W. Dugdale, (i. e. when readings in the Inns of Court were kept up with some degree of solemnity,) "in those days men came to be single readers at fifteen or sixteen years standing in the House and read double about seven years afterwards. Orig. Jur., p. 209. Again : "By the antient orders of the House, (Middle Temple,) now disused, he is in turn to read again, and then is called a double reader."'-G.

4.2. 56. A knitting Cup. The drinking of wine at marriages was considered necessary. Compleat Vintner (1720), quoted by Brand :

What priest can join two lovers' hands,
But wine must seal the marriage-bands?
As if celestial wine was thought
Essential to the sacred knot,
And that each bridegroom and his bride
Believ'd they were not firmly ty'd
Till Bacchus, with his bleeding tun,

Had finished what the priest begun.
The New Inn (Wks. 5. 404):

Lord B. Get our bed ready, chamberlain,

And host, a bride-cup. See the account of this custom in Brand, Pop. Antiq. 2. 1369.

4. 3. 3. & crack'd commoditie. Damaged goods; fig. A marriageable girl who has proved of blemished moral character.

4. 3. 4. broke bulke. Punning on the meaning of bulke : I. 'a cargo of a ship; the whole lot' (of a commodity); and 2. 'the belly. Cf. Heywood, The Iron Age 2. 3. 1 (Wks. 1874, 3. 392) : My sword through Priams bulke shall flie.'-NED.

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