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became a star of the first magnitude even in the eyes of the ladies of beauty, rank, and fashion; and it was in speaking of him that the Duchess of Choiseul used to say, " En France il y a de l'esprit en petite monnoie, et en Italic en lingots."
When interrogated by a great talker, who wanted to know how it was that he had so much wit constantly at command, the abbe lifted his shoulders, and said: "I don't now that I have what you give me credit for; but, if I have any wit, it is because I don't seek for it."
In the correspondence of Grimm, the quondam friend of Rosseau, frequent mention is made of Galiani, who was held in singular estimation by the society of the Baron d'Holbach, and the other scientific and literary coteries which Grimm most frequented.
On returning to his native country, in 1770, the witty abbe was made counsellor of the Chamber of Commerce; and he was afterwards promoted to a high post in the finance department. He had a good hearty relish for life, and lived prosperously and happily; but this did not hinder him from dying cheerfully. When his last moment was approaching, he took leave of his friends with these words: "You must excuse me, gentlemen, but the dead have sent me a card of invitation for their conversazione."
He died on the 31st of October 1787, in the 59th year of his age.— Ugoni, tom. ii. art. 7. Ugo Foscolo, Orig. e Uffic. delta Letter. Corniani, Sfc
XXIV. EPITAPH IN THE CHURCHYARD OF
Here lie the bones of Richard Lawton,
the town in those cleanly times) ran between his horse's legs, and made him stumble; on which Philip, falling forward, received so much injury that he died the next morning, on the third day of October, in the year of Grace 1131. His grieved and irritated father forthwith issued a proclamation that in future no swine should be allowed to run about in the streets of cities and towns, and to this order the people were fain to submit; hut the monks of the order of St. Anthony entered an energetic and successful protest, stating to his Majesty that it was contrary to the respect and reverence due to their patron saint (who may certainly be called the patron saint of pigs) to prevent the swine of their houses, which were the swine of St. Anthony, from enjoying the liberty of going where they (the swine) thought fit.
The subject of the remonstrance, and the rights of the saint and pigs, were solemnly deliberated in council, where it was finally decided to grant the monks of that order an exclusive privilege to be nasty, and to allow their swine to wallow in the streets without molestation, provided only that they had bells tied round their necks. —Histoire de la Vide de Paris, par Sauval.
In old pictures Saint Anthony is almost invariably painted with a sow at his feet.
An old English adage says, " Every man to his taste, as the Welshman said when he kissed his cow." The Italians say, " There is no accounting for taste; St. Anthony loved a sow." This arose out of a queer story in the legendary life of that saint.
XXVII. ETIQUETTE ON THE SCAFFOLD.
On the 9th of March 1648, in pursuance of a sentence passed by Cromwell and the Commonwealth, the Royalist leaders, the Duke of Hamilton, the Earl of Holland, and the Lord Capel, were executed in front of Westminster-Hall. They were brought to the block
MISCEIXANKODS POINTS IN THE SCIJXCKS. 151
and beheaded one at a time, each of them addressing the people; and the Lord Capel being the last of the three, of whom he was undoubtedly the most honourable and the best.
"As soon as his lordship had ascended the scaffold, he looked very vigorously about, and asked 'whether the other lords had spoken to the people with their hats on?' and being told that 'they were bare,' he gave his hat to his servant, and then with a clear and strong voice he spoke."—Clarendon Hist. Heb.
XXVIII. MISCELLANEOUS POINTS * IN THE HISTORY OP THE SCIENCES.
I.—Persecution for matters of opinion. We are accustomed to believe, that the spirit of persecution which prevailed during the "dark" ages was a consequence of ignorance, which was confined only to the ignorant; and that men of information, even in those days, were guiltless of desiring to enforce their opinions literally. We imagine, for example, that the wrongs of Galileo would arouse the indignation of all contemporary men of learning at least. What we here do, is to give instances to the contrary by producing the printed opinions of two men of education, one a Frenchman, the other an Italian, both written within the half century preceding the forced recantation of Galileo.
Vieta, the first who so materially extended algebra as to entitle Europe to claim the honour of having introduced new principles into the science received from Asia, was a man remarkable for every kind of knowledge. He was,
* In preserving such circumstances as we have thought remarkable, we have attended to no rule but this: never to say of any work more than we have actually seen in the work itself. Of all the things which can lead to inaccuracy, thai of citing citations is the most dangerous ; and we shall take care, if obliged to do so, to name the citer as well as the author. ,
by the confession of an opponent, as well as from what is otherwise known of him, statesman, diplomatist, lawyer, theologian, mathematician, orator, and poet. (Born in 1540, died in 1603). He lived during the reformation of the calendar, which was completed by Pope Gregory the Thirteenth in 1582; the plan of Lilius, then dead, having been committed to the execution of the Jesuit Clavius, celebrated as the commentator upon so many of the Greek geometers: This subject then exercised much of the attention of the learned, not only because the correct time of keeping Easter was a point of faith, but because it had divided the Eastern and Western churches for centuries, and had been written upon, and considered a principal application of astronomy, by many authors on that scienoe ; Roger Bacon, for instance. Among others, Vieta wrote in opposition to the scheme patronised by Clavius, who answered very mildly, and referred all his critics to his forthcoming work. Vieta became furious, and published, in 1602, his " Adversus Christ. Claviuin Expostulate;" in which he says that Clavius, "in his contempt of religion, would rather fall into crime, and overturn all things by any hazard, rather than appear ignorant of the matter;" '' that he was a false mathematician and theologian, if indeed he had any title to either appellation;" that the protestants, if he did not take warning, would get the true calendar from their own reason, and not from the papal authority; "that Augustus Caesar, one Pontifex maximus, had altered the calendar arranged by Julius Caesar, another Pontifex maximus" which, curiously enough, he cites as a precedent for his own Pontifex. He calls upon the society of Jesuits to take up the matter, and ends by assuring them that all religious men look for nothing less at their hands than that all who obstruct a work of so much benefit to the Christian republic (as his own reformation of the calendar, of course,) should be " driven out as exiles from the happy congregation of the pious." So much for the toleration of Vieta: it only remains to add, that he was wrong in most of his notions on the subject. In the mean while, (in 1603,) an advocate for Clavius rose up in the person
of Theodosius Rubeus, who appears to have been a personal friend of the Pope, and who published his answer, under the usual permission of his superiors; which circumstances, with the style of the passage we shall cite, incline us to suspect that the arm of power was ready to be raised by the church in case the gentle hint was not taken by Vieta. This Rubeus says, in his dedication, by permission, " Since, most holy father, this matter, of which the cognisance belongs to you, has been agitated, I have thought proper, under your most sacred name, to give this my admonition publicly, to the end that every handle of provocation may be taken away from Vieta, and an end put to this controversy by your authority." Such language never could have been addressed to a Pope by a priest, "permissu superiorum," unless the sentiment contained had been avowed by the party addressed. Vieta, however, died that same year, and thus perhaps escaped what we would rather had fallen upon him than upon the liberal and charitable Galileo. We imagine the illustrious Frenchman (for illustrious he was in many ways) would have been somewhat astonished had he been told that a future age would say his paschal lucubrations proved nothing except that it is not wise for a man of note to write in anger anything which is likely to last a couple of centuries.
II.— On the method of [finding Easter above mentioned. We owe the confusion attending moveable feasts, to the idea already alluded to, that the proper time of holding Easter was a matter of religious importance. But we may easily show that, in that case, a perfect performance of religious duties is unattainable, without a geometrically accurate knowledge of the sun, moon, and planets. Supposing it granted, that Easter Sunday ought to be the Sunday following the full moon which follows the 21st of March, and that if that full moon happen on a Sunday, the next is Easter Sunday : the following case might happen. Astronomical prediction might place the time of full moon at half a second after twelve o'clock on Saturday night or Sunday morning, in which case Easter Sunday should be the next Sunday. But even at this period,