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Some years ago, the Author was extensively engaged as a Public Speaker; and, in consequence of the habit of speaking, principally, with the muscles of the throat and breast, he finally broke down, falling senseless, after speaking about an hour and a half: that was followed by a protracted illness; durin which, he providentially discovered the Causes, and also the Remedies, of the difficulties under which he had labored; and now, for months in succession, by the aid of these principles, he often speaks from six to ten hours a day, without the least inconvenience: the principal cause of which is, that the effort is made from the dorsal and abdominal region. Few are aware of the comprehensive nature of the principles here so unfolded; and probably the Author would now be in a similar state, had it not been for the teachings afforded by children and Indians. To secure a perfectly healthy distribution of the vital fluids throughout the body, and a free and powerful activity of the mind, there must be a full and synchronous action in the brain, the lungs, and the viscera of the abdomen; the soul operating, naturally, on the dorsal and abdominal muscles, and thus setting in motion the whole body.
That he was the first to teach the specific use of those muscles, for a healthy breathing, and the exercise of the vocal organs, as well as blowing on wind instruments for hours together, without injury, he has not the least doubt; and, if any person will produce evidence to the contrary, from any medical writer, or teacher of elocution, previous to 1830, he shall be handsomely rewarded. The time is fast approaching, when this, and its kindred subjects, will be duly appreciated; and it will be seen and felt, that without a practical knowledge of these important principles, no one can become a successful speaker, or teacher: and the opinion is advisedly expressed, that they will produce as great a revolution in regard to the promotion of health, the art of reading and speaking with science and effect, and the perfect development and cultivation of mind, voice, and ear, as the discovery of the mariner's compass, or the invention of the steam engine, in navigation, manufacture, and travel;—and, to be the medium of introducing such a system, by which so many thousands have been greatly benefited, and hundreds of lives saved, is the occasion of devout gratitude to the INFINITE Author of all that is good and tRUE.
Stereotyped by J. A. James, Cincinnati.
TO THE FIFTH EDITION.
In this work, the Author has given some of the results of his study and practice, in the department of Mental and Vocal Philosophy, for the last fifteen years. Persons, who are familiar with the subjects discussed, can see how much he is indebted to books, and how much to investigation and experience. Whatever is good and TRUE in it, belongs to ALL; for it is from Above. If there be anything false and evil, the Author holds himself responsible for it. His endeavor has been, to furnish a book, which may be useful to every one. He believes that a greater variety will be found in this, than in any other work on the subject;-a variety, too, which will induce deep and careful thinking, and right feeling; and which tends directly, to the end in view, to wit: the development and application, of those principles of MIND and Voice, which the Author has been engaged in practicing and teaching, in our principal towns and cities, and Institutions of Learning: notices of which may be seen among the accompanying testimonials. This work is an abridgment of what the Author has written, in three connected, yet separate volumes, as yet unpublished, embracing the subjects of Body and Mind, their natures, relations, and destinies: the work, next in order, is Physiology and Psychology, which, it is expected, will be published the coming year. One reason why no more quotations are made from the Bible is, that the SACRED Volume is nearly ready for the press, prepared with such a notation as will aid the reader, to pronounce and emphasize it, at sight—it being both a Pronouncing and Rhetorical Bible: it was commenced several years ago, at the request of clergymen and others, who have attended the Author's Biblical Readings and Recitations; and would probably have been laid before the public before this, but for the destruction of a portion of it by fire. The following work is now “cast upon the waters,” in a stereotyped form, not likely soon to be changed. An affectionate Teacher's kindest regards to his Pupils, and respects to a candid and generous public.
New York, 1845.
1. Every Amr, and SciExce, has its Externals, and its Internals, its Generals and Particulars: which must be understood Analytically, and Synthetically, if we would practice either successfully. The Internals of Elocution, are Thoughts and Feelings, and its Externals comprise all that is addressed to our five senses: its Generals are Mind and Body, with their various Languages, or modes of manifestation. Comparatively. Language—is the Tune, Body—the Instrument, and Mind—the Performer: hence, the necessity of becoming acquainted, theoretically and practically, with their NATUREs, RELATIows and Uses. 2. As the subjects of Mixd and Language, are partially unfolded in the following work, in this part, something must be said of the Body, the harp of ten thousand strings: particularly in regard to structure, position, and the organs to be used for the production and modification of sounds, in Speech and Song: also of Gestures, or Actions; illustrated by appropriate Engravings, which may be imitated by the Pupil, for the purpose of bringing the Body into subjection to the Mind; without, however, any reference to specific Recitations,—lest he should become artificial, instead of natural. 3. The more we contemplate MAN, the more we see and feel the truth, that he is a Microcoso. indeed; a minature-world,—an abstract of creation,-an epitome of the universe, a finite representation of the Infinite Derry! Well saith the heathen motto, “Know Thyself!” and the poet— “THE PRoPER study of Mankind—is Man.” And it may truly be said, that there is nothing in the Mineral, Vegetable and Animal Kingdoms, that cannot be found, essentially, in the human body; and nothing in the world of Mind, that is not shadowed forth in his spiritual nature: hence, the grandeur, the magnificence—of our subjects, and our objects. 4. The three grand essentials of the Body proper, are the Osseus, or bony system, which fixes its form, and gives it stability: the Muscular, or fleshy system, which is designed to act on the Osseus; and Nervous system, acting on the Muscular: while the Mind, acts on and through the Nervous; receiving its life and power from Him, who is emphatically “THE LIFE:” thus, we can look through Nature, up to Nature's God. Observe, the Analytieal course is from outermosts to innermosts, from effects to causes; and the Synthetical progress from innermosts to outermosts; or from causes to effects. 5. NERVEs or ORGANIC LIFE. Every thing must have a beginning: and nothing is made perfect at once. Now in the body, there is a certain portion, called Nerves of Organic Life; because they are the first formed, and constitute the grand medium, through which the soul builds A
subordinate centres may be seen at e, e, e, e, also in other places, that need not be designated, as they are very numerous: these centres are like miner posts in a state, or kingdom. At i, is seen a pair of chords, called trisplanchnic nerves: and at 0, 0, are seen other nerves, with their little brains, or centres, where they come together, forming a line along the spine, from the bottom of the chest, to the top of the neck. From this large collection of Organic Nerves, others proceed to every part of the system, uniting in smaller centres, and forming ganglions in the palms of the hands, balls of the fingers, &c. Our Astronomical system is called the Solar System, because the Sun is its centre, watching over our planets; so, of these nervous centres of the grand and smaller departments of our miniature-universe. Owing
to the intimate connection of these nerves with 2
their numerous centres, and with the nerves of the whole body, they are sometimes called the Great Sympathetic Nerves, and Nerves of Vegetable Life. There are three orders of these Nerves: one going to the blood-vessels and other parts of the vascular system; one to the contractile tissues or muscles of involuntary motion: and one to the nerves of organic sensation, conveying the impressions made on the organs.
6. In this view of the Nerves of Respiration, (originating in the Medulla Oblongata, which is an extension of the Cerebellum, (b,\ or seat of Voluntary Motion, and of the Cerebrum, (a,) or seat of Rationality,) may be seen the nerve (c.) that goes to the Diaphragm (i,) and is concerned in the office of breathing, which generally acts without the aid of the Will; but yet is controllable by the Will, to a certain extent; for we may breathe fast or slow, long or short. Next above this, is the Spinal Accessory Nerve, used in moving the breast, &c., in respiration; one of its fellow roots goes to the tongue (d.) and is concerned in mastication, swallowing, speaking, &c. [Some nerves are thrown back, the better to be seen.] Next in order is the pneumosgastric, or lungs-and-stomach nerve (f, g, h,) which sends a branch to the meat-pipe, larynx and wind-pipe, (e) also to the cardiac, or heart plexus, just above, and a little at the right of (g); a recurrent branch goes to the larynx, &c.; otherbranches gototheface, to exhibit the feelings. All interweave, and bring the vocal organs into important relations with the heart and lungs, with feelings and thoughts; while the main body goes
to the stomach, and unites with the great centre
under, and adjoining the cerebrum, where the