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NAMES OF ANIMALS DESCRIBED.
PAGE Masked Squirrel
49 Masked Wild Boar 80 Quagga..
.*.*.. Meminna.. 94 Rabbit
64 Mephitic Weasels 34 Racoon..
29 Mococo, or Ring-tailed Lemur .... 18 Rat, Common Brown
61 Mole 24 Red Howler Monkey
15 Mona Monkey
97 Mouflon.... 111 Rhinoceros
81 Muntjak 101 Roebuck
101 Musk Deer ................. 94 Ruffed Lemur...
18 Musk Ox 114 Russian Musk Rat.........................
24 Napu Musk Deer
16 Nine-banded Armadillo...........
24 Opossum 55 Sapajous.....
14 Orang-outan 7 Sakis
16 Ornithorhynchus Paradoxus 71 Sea Elephant, or Proboscis Seal 52 Oronoco Capuchin......... 16
50 Oryx 107 Sheep..........
28 Pangolin, or Manis
15 Paradoxure Genet................ 43 Springbok
105 Pariah Dog....
56 Peccary ... 80 Squirrel Monkey
16 Phalanger 56 Spotted Hyena
44 Pine Marten 33 Stag, or Red Deer.......
100 Polar Bear 28 Stoat.....
33 Polecat....... 32 Striated Ouistiti
16 Porcupine 64 Striped Hyena
44 Porpoise ................... 117 Tapiti
64 Proboscis Monkey..................... 13 Teledu
23 Tibet Bear...
64 Unau, or Two-toed Sloth
68 Ungka Ape ......
9 Ursine Dasyurus
55 Ursine Phalanger .............
56 Varied Tenrec ...........
94 Villous Hyena
44 Virginian Opossum
55 Viscacha ...
65 Vulpine Phalanger
53 Wanderou ...............................
13 Wapiti Deer Water Shrew
33 Weeper Monkey
........ Whale, Common
119 White-faced Capuchin Monkey... 15 White-fronted Spider Monkey... 15 White-lipped Peccary
81 Widow Monkey....
16 Wild Boar.....
79 Wild Goat
21. The Otter.
Scripture. 46. The Dromedary. 47. The Elk. 48. The Llama. 49. The Reindeer. 50. The Wapiti Deer. 51. The Giraffe. 52. The Springbok. 53. The Cervine Antelope. 54. The Oryx. 55. The Gnu 56. The Syrian Goat. 57. The Ibex. 58. The Argali, or Four-horned Sheep. 59. The Indian Ox, or Brahmin Bull.
ENGRAVINGS INSERTED IN THE BODY OF THE WORK.
PAGE Skeleton of the Mole
25 Skull of a Dog
40 Mechanism of the Lion's Paw.... 47 Mechanism of the Lion's Talons 48 Skull of the Morse
54 Head of a Rabbit....
58 Under Surface of Hind Foot of Viscacha......
66 Part of Lower Jaw of Capybara,
exhibiting the surface of the Grinders
of the Elephant, showing the
PAGE Skull of the Hippopotamus, and
surface of its first Molar Tooth 79 The Stomach of the Antelope 88 Foot of the Camel......
91 Foot of the Llama.....
93 Horns of the Wapiti Deer .......... 101 Head of the Oryx ....
107 Skeleton of the Whale................ 121
stand. Here he is led by the hand of Nature,
and he leaves the city and the mart, and all the “O LORD, how manifold are thy works! in pageantry of artificial life—he leaves the turmoil, wisdom hast thou made them all: the earth is the follies, and the crimes of an agitated world, full of thy riches,” Psa. civ. 24. Such was the and goes forth into the green fields, and wanders declaration of the inspired psalmist; and surely by the river's flowery brink, or through the tanin the works of the Almighty we have before us gled wood, in holy and peaceful contemplation. a book, every page of which presents to the To him the bounding deer, the crouching hare, Christian reader abundant and astonishing proofs the linnet carolling from the brake, the turtle of the wisdom, power, and goodness of Him, who cooing in the woodland gloom, the woodpecker said, “ Let there be light, and there was light;" tapping the aged tree, the kingfisher darting like “ who weighed the mountains in scales, and the a meteor down the stream, or the little warblers hills in a balance ;” “ who led Joseph like a of the hedge-row, are objects of interest; the flock;” and who condescends to be the Father nimble lizard as it rustles through the leaves, the and Friend of his people in all generations. If, chirping grasshopper, and the busy insect tribes Christian, this great and holy God is thy Father of brilliant hues, that glitter like diamonds in the and thy Friend, thou wilt not behold the wonders sun, the active murmuring bee, the shard-born of his hands with indifference: and as we all look | beetle that winds “his low but sullen horn”with emotions of pleasure and love upon the all have claims on his attention, all are objects of hand-writing of an earthly friend or an earthly contemplation, all lead him to the Cause of causes; father, so wilt thou contemplate with admiration for he forgetteth not His power who made and and gratitude the characters, more eloquent than governs all - His, the eternal WORD, who was in speech, with which He has impressed the face of the beginning, and was with God, and was God,
and without whom was not any thing made that The study of Natural History is full of pure was made. delights and solid advantages : the order, the The student of nature beholds every where an design, and balance observable in its laws, the order, a balance, a harmony, the contemplation combinations of structure and mechanism with of which expands the intellect, produces a love of which they are associated, the ends to be obtained, order, and habits of patient research: he is not and the simplicity of the means for obtaining content with a careless glance over what God has them, are all so many proofs of Divine wisdom pronounced good, but he loves to trace His power and superintendence. We look with delight, and and goodness with a more observant eye-His with the more delight as we understand the more, power, which is displayed as much in an insect's on the beautiful and complicated machinery of wing as in the pinions of the eagle, or the limbs our manufactories, which seems to perform so of the gigantic elephant. many labours as it were by enchantment; but in An acquaintance with nature leads also to a Natural History we behold a scheme more vast, a kindly feeling for all that God has created. How structure more curious, operations more compli- often does man exercise his wanton cruelty upon cated, ends more important, means more adapted, the dumb creatures, over whom he is placed as and laws more profound. Here the Christian a master, and not a tyrant! but were he to philosopher, as he explores the mines of research, familiarize himself with the instincts and habits or investigates the various phenomena, the laws of the animated beings below him, he would learn or habits of the tribes that people earth and air, to regard them with sympathy and forbearing will feel a calm and pure delight, unmixed with pity. He would remember God's mercy to him, the baser passions, which the man of the world, unworthy and covered with guilt; he would in his pursuit of riches, or empty honours, or remember what God has done for him ; he would vain applause, can neither experience nor under- remember the benevolence of his Lord and
Master, who, while he proclaimed his abounding perpetually throwing off those particles which love for his people, whom he has ransomed with are no longer fit for the keeping up of the body's his blood, expressed his care also for the com- integrity, and taking up others, which they monest bird of the house-top. “ Are not two mysteriously convert into a portion of themsparrows sold for a farthing? and one of themselves; perpetually labouring till death. shall not fall on the ground without your Father. Inorganic matter does not increase by powers But the very hairs of your head are all num- within itself, or resist external agents by the bered,” Matt. x. 29, 30.
operations of a vital principle. Its laws are those Christian reader, reflect on God's mercy to only of mechanics, chemistry, and electricity. you; he has not dealt with you according to your Organic bodies, then, comprehend animals and sins, but he has held out to you offers of pardon; plants; and between these two great classes, he has not rewarded you according to your ini- which possess the common properties of vitality, quities, but he has provided a Saviour, an all- there are several characteristic distinctions :sufficient one, in whose atoning blood there is 1. The power of voluntary motion, which presented to the guiltiest a fountain for sin and animals in the aggregate possess, demands an uncleanness; and by whose intercession we have according modification of the organs of nutrition; access to the throne of grace. Such is God's free and hence is derived their first and leading chamercy and love to you. Imitate this great and racter, namely, an internal apparatus for the glorious example, and, as thou hast obtained reception of food, in which it undergoes certain mercy, be merciful to all that breathes.
changes before its admission into the system-an
admission effected by a multitude of minute tubes “I would not enter on my list of friends (Though graced with polish'd manners and fine sense,
or vessels, all originating in the inside of this Yet wanting sensibility) the man
apparatus. Plants are rooted to one spot; they Who needlessly sets foot upon a worm.
cannot employ voluntary motion in the search or The inadvertent step may crush the snail
reception of food ; they have no internal digesThat crawls at evening in the public path; But he that has humanity, forewarn’d,
tive apparatus, and the absorbing tubes of nutriWill tread aside, and let the reptile live."-COWPER.
tion all arise from the external surface. The
aliment taken in by animals has to undergo All natural objects with which we are ac- various operations before it forms a juice proper quainted by means of our senses, and which con- for absorption; but the atmosphere and the earth stitute this globe, and all upon its surface, are present to vegetables juices already prepared, separated into two GREAT DIVISIONS, or GENERAL and which may be absorbed immediately. CLASSES ; namely, the ORGANIC, and the INOR- 2. Animal bodies, as they have functions more GANIC, distinguished by the laws which draw a numerous and varied than plants, possess, with a decided line between them, the boundaries of structure accordingly more complicated, a cirwhich are precise and defined.
culatory system, (comprehending the arteries and The organic division comprehends all bodies veins,) by which their fluids are circulated, not, endued with vitality. The inorganic, those not as is the case with plants, by the influence of possessing this principle. To the former, there- heat and atmospheric action, but by internal fore, belong animals and plants; to the latter, innate energies. This system is, however, less all other bodies cognizable by our senses. essential than the digestive, because not neces
Animals are natural bodies, organized, living, sary to, nor to be found in animals of the most and sentient.
simple organization. Vegetables are natural bodies, organized and 3. Animals differ from plants in the chemical living, but not sentient.
analysis of their constituent principles. The All other bodies are neither organized, nor living, essential elements of organized matter appear to nor sentient.
be carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, and azote or nitrogen, The phenomena manifested by all organic together with alkaline and earthy salts. Now, bodies are the result of an inherent power, which the solid parts of all plants contain carbon, oxythe allwise God has associated to such combina-gen, and hydrogen, but no azote. The solid tions of matter, and which is generally termed parts of animals consist principally of lime or vital principle—a power, the essence of which is magnesia, united with carbonic or phosphoric enveloped in mystery, excepting as revealed to acids. And in those beings of both kingdoms, us in the Scriptures. The general results of this which appear to be destitute of solid parts, the power may be said to consist in a concatenation difference is even still more wide; the gum or or vortex of complicated internal movements or mucilage of soft plants exhibiting no trace of actions, having no relation to the laws of chemis- azote, which enters as a constituent into the try or mechanics, and which, enduring for a gelatine or albumen of soft animals. certain definite period, produces those external 4. Atmospheric air and water are the two characters by which we at once know an organ- sources whence the plant derives the principles ized being; namely, its essential shape and struc- necessary for the maintenance of vitality. Water ture, its growth, by the absorption and assimila- is composed of oxygen and hydrogen ; air, of tion (or conversion into a part of itself) of oxygen, azote, and carbonic acid, which is a extraneous matter, and its power of resisting, combination of oxygen and carbon. during an appointed time, the influence of exter- Now, of these elements, the vegetable retains, nal agents.
as essential to its composition, the carbon, the Hence, organic bodies seem to maintain a hydrogen, and a part of the oxygen, and exhales perpetual struggle with the elements around them, or throws out the azote and superfluous volume perpetually resisting and making good the losses of oxygen. The essential function, indeed, of which their actions and influences occasion ; ( vegetable life seems to be the exhalation of oxy
gen, an operation requiring the presence of that system which has rendered the works of the anuniversal stimulus of nature, light.
cients, on natural objects, little more than records The principles of vegetable composition, namely, of disjointed facts, or opinions, without mutual carbon and hydrogen, enter also as a source of bearing, or order, or plan, and without a definite mediate or immediate nutriment into the com- end. Hence the little comparative progress in position of animal bodies. But the constitution the natural sciences, and the mistakes and abof animals demands that a great portion of this surdities which we find to have prevailed among hydrogen and carbon should be got rid of from nations the most civilized and refined. Modern time to time, and that azote should be absorbed. science received a new impetus from the writings This operation is effected through the medium of of Bacon, Ray, and Linnæus, which has regulatthe atmosphere, the oxygen of which, combining ed inquiry, and introduced method and order. with the carbon and hydrogen of the blood, is Among the philosophers of modern times Cuvier exhaled with them in the form of carbonic acid is pre-eminent, and his general outline is that and water, the azote appearing to remain. Ac- which is now most commonly received. He dicording to the experiments of Dr. Edwards, an vides the animal kingdom into four grand diviabsorption and discharge of azote is perpetually sions; namely, going on; the discharge varying according to habit, constitution, or the circumstances to which
1. Animalia Vertebrata. an individual may be subjected.
Vertebrate animals, having a brain inclosed in Plants and animals may thus be said to become an osseous covering, or skull, and a vertebral mutual sources for the production of the elements column. each requires; the relations they bear to the
2. Animalia Molusca. atmosphere are inverse. The former demand water and carbonic acid, the latter produce it.
Moluscous animals, without any internal skeleAnimals demand oxygen, and the vegetable crea
ton, but whose muscles are attached to a soft tion is perpetually exhaling it.
skin, often enclosed in a hard case or shell of And shall we not admire the wisdom of God, lime. shall we not pay our tribute of adoration to Him
3. Animalia Articulata. “ who hath done all things well ?” Wonderful and mysterious as is the plan which we see dis
Articulated animals, in which the body is diplayed in the laws of organized beings, there is
vided by transverse folds into a certain number a plan, reader, still more wonderful and more
of rings; the integuments are sometimes hard, mysterious, and which exhibits more fully the
sometimes soft; but the muscles are always atboundless wisdom and goodness of God-a plan tached to the interior; the trunk is often furby which justice and mercy are reconciled the nished with many limbs, consisting of numerous plan of man's salvation, the results of which will joints, but is often also deficient; such are insects, outlive the laws of the animal and vegetable
crustaceous animals, as lobsters, etc. kingdoms, and the great globe itself.
4. Animalia Radiata. Having thus separated between the animal and vegetable kingdoms, it is not our purpose to enter
Radiate animals, or zoophytes, in which the into the details of animal physiology, which, al- organs of movement are not disposed symmethough it unfolds in a most striking manner the trically on each side, but consist of an uneven glorious power and design of the Almighty, would number, disposed like rays round a centre; they carry us beyond our prescribed limits; but we possess no nervous system, nor particular organs shall proceed at once to the general divisions of sense, barely traces of a circulation, and apunder which the scientific men of our day have proach in their structure the homogeneity of arranged all that has a claim to animal existence. / plants. In so doing we propose to take Cuvier for our guide.
Vertebrate animals (Animalia vertebrata) are The woods and fields resound on every side distinguished by an internal osseous frame-work, with the cries and voices of creatures, varying in
or skeleton, which affords solidity and support. form and nature ; the air is peopled with busy Their body is composed of a head, trunk, and tribes that wander through its boundless regions'; limbs: the head consists of the skull, which inthe wing of the bird rustles as it passes us, and closes and protects the brain ; and of the face, myriads of insects are dancing in the sun; the which embraces the organs of taste, smell, sight, waters teem with life ; the ocean, the mighty and hearing. The head rests upon, or is attachocean is replete ; even the “ drop upon the ed to the vertebral column, which is composed of bucket” is a lake to multitudes of animalcules; forming altogether a canal for the
a number of bones moveable one on another, and that rejoice and multipy in its mimic floods, pine and die as it evaporates. We cannot pluck gata, or spinal marrow. The limbs never exa leaf from a tree, and examine it, but we dis
ceed four, and are in pairs; but sometimes one cever it to be a little world, peopled with pigmy pair is wanting, sometimes both. The blood is inhabitants, that play their part in the balance of always red. creation, a part which may, indeed, escape the
This great family is divided into four research of the philosopher, but which infinite classes : wisdom has appointed. Diversified, however,
1. Mammalia, or Mammiferous animals. and multitudinous as they are, they admit of ar
2. Aves, or Birds. rangements or classifications which unravel the 3. Reptilia, or Reptiles. intricacy of the subject, and divest the study of
4. Pisces, or Fishes. its apparent difficulties. It was a want of this The first of these classes is the most interest
ORDERS OF THE CLASS MAMMALIA.
ing; it comprehends those animals whose organ-ed for ruminating ; the body generally massive, ization is most developed, whose senses are the and the skin thick. most delicate, whose intelligence is the most perfect, who are more intimately connected with
VIII.—Ruminantia. ourselves, who possess more of our attention, and
Limbs four, and terminating in two hoofed are more essential to our immediate welfare: it toes, (the feet being called cloven ;) the teeth comprehends man himself.
usually of two, but sometimes of three kinds ; the To the beings which belong to this class our stomach constructed for ruminating. observations will be exclusively confined. As the class Mammalia (and it is the case
IX.-Cetacea. throughout every other) contains groups of ani. mals, which present common agreements in form Body constructed for inhabiting the water ; and structure, and common dissimilarities from limbs consisting of an anterior pair only, forming other groups, we are led naturally, as it were, or paddles or oars; the teeth variable : in some by an involuntary operation of the mind, to in- cases there are only horny laminæ instead. stitute a series of sections, in each of which those animals are thrown together which have a Each order, as we have seen, is composed of an mutual resemblance to each other in certain pro- associated group, having certain essential points minent characteristics. These sections are term- in common, which draw around it, so to speak, a ed orders. The following Table exhibits the ar- line of circumvallation. Stiil in each order, thus rangement of Cuvier, and most naturalists of the constituted, numerous but minor points of differpresent day, and is that which is generally re- ence exist, by which numbers may be mutually ceived.
distinguished ; and as many as thus agree are
separated into genera. Genera includes species, TABLE OF THE ORDERS OF THE which have each their especial characteristics.
Extremities four; of which only the posterior are
adapted for progression, and the anterior terminated Extremities four; of which only the posterior
by hands; the teeth are of three kinds; the body in
its natural attitude vertical. are adapted for progression, and the anterior terminated by hands ; the teeth are of three kinds ; This order includes but one genus, and that genus the body in its natural attitude vertical.
but one species—MAN.
“ And God said, let us make man in our own II.—Quadrumana.
image, after our own likeness.”
“ So God creat
ed man in His own image, in the image of God The extremities four, all terminated by hands ; created He him ; male and female created He the teeth of three kinds.
Man was created the last and most excellent of III.-Carnivora.
God's mighty works. Confining our attention to Extremities four : neither in this nor in the him in a merely physical point of view, he is the succeeding orders is there a thumb free and an- most perfect of all terrestrial beings; not, indeed, tagonising with fingers, and consequently no
in size or animal strength, for in these qualities true hands; teeth of three kinds.
many excel him, but in the refined, the exalted
plan and model upon which he is constructed. IV.–Marsupialia.
The eagle, it is true, may have a more powerful vision;
the hare be more alive to every sound; the Teeth variable ; body furnished with an ex
wild dog or vulture catch the faintest scent upon ternal pouch for the reception of the young, the the gale; but in Man there is a nice balance, an birth of which appears premature, and their or- adjustment, a felicitous accuracy of the senses, ganic development imperfect.
which thus expressly tend to his elevation and V.–Rodentia, or Glires.
happiness; and, at the same time that they mi
nister to his pleasure, enable him to obtain an Extremities four; the teeth of two kinds, in- intimate and minute acquaintance with the procisores and molares.
perties of the world around him. Hence the
voice of melody; the colours of earth and sky; VI.- Edentata.
the odours of spring; the fruits of summer; the Teeth more or less deficient; the incisores al- glorious sun, and the spangled canopy of heaven, ways wanting, and sometimes both the canine Language, in which he can convey his wants,
are sources of gratification and delight to him. and molares.
his desires, and the most abstract ideas of his SECTION II.
mind, is his alone; and his alone are reason, and
an immortal soul. ORDER VII.—Pachydermata.
While, however, on the topic of Man's physi
cal superiority, we cannot omit noticing a few Limbs four, and furnished with hoofed toes, circumstances, because peculiar to Man, at once variable in number ; the stomach not construct- | proclaiming his own dignity and his separation
FEET DEFENDED BY HOOFS.