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Argentine Republic. State of S. America, including the s. part of the continent e. of the summit of the Andes. Its area is 1.200,000 sq. m. The w. part consists of the Andes with their foothills; the remainder of broad plains, partially timbered in the north, becoming more arid and grass-covered in the middle (the pampas region) and sterile in the s. portion, or what was formerly Patagonia. The most important industry is the raising of cattle and sheep, and the principal commerce is in their products. Railroad building is very active; in 1892 there were ab. 7,000 miles in operation. The capital is Buenos Ayres, on the La Plata, founded 1535, pop. 550,000. Other important cities are Cordova, Rosario, and La Plata. Pop. ab. 3,500,000, including nearly 600,000 of European birth.

The region about the mouth of the Rio de la Plata was first explored 1512. The country was dependent on the Government of Paraguay till 1620, when Buenos Ayres became the seat of government, but still subject to the vice-royalty of Peru. In

1809–10 the people renounced their allegiance to Spain, and in 1813 a Congress was assembled at Buenos Ayres, with Povadas as dictator. In 1825 a Constitution was adopted and a federation formed. A war with Brazil for the possession of the region lying between the two resulted in a treaty, 1828, by wiich Uruguay became independent. Other wars ended, 1852, in Rosas' defeat and the independence of Paraguay. A financial crisis in 1890–91, with the repudiation of the public debt, caused the failure of Baring Bros. in London and heavy losses in Europe.

Argentite. AgaS. One of the most valuable of the silver ores, containing 87 o cent of silver and 13 per cent of sulphur; found in many of the best known silver mining regions of the world.


Arginusae. Three small islands s. e. from Lesbos, famous for naval victory of Athenians over Lacedenonians 406 B.C.


Argo. Ship in which Jason, Hercules, Theseus, Castor and Pollux, with 45 other heroes, called Argonauts, sailed to Aea (Colchis) to fetch the Golden Fleece. Athena superintended its building. California gold miners, 1849, were called Argonauts.

Argo. Southern constellation. mean declination 50°.

Argol. Crude cream of tartar, potassium bitartrate, formed in interior of wine casks.

Lithological name for clay slate.

People of ancient Argolis.

Mean right ascension 8h;

Argolis. Ancient state of n. e. Peloponnesus, ruled b Agamemnon at time of Trojan war. Argos was its capital, and Mycenae one of the chief cities.

Argon. At. wit. 20. Sp. gr. 0.138. liq.—121° C. 50.6 Atm. Solid–191° C. Absorption spectrum differs from all others. Constituent of the atmosphere, discovered, 1894, by Lord Rayleigh, by passing air, freed from moisture, carbon dioxide and oxygen, over heated magnesium turnings leaving on volume of Argon. Chemically it is very inert. Facts yet obtained do not warrant a final decision as to its elemental nature.

Argonauta. Argonauts.


Argos. Capital of Argolis, famous for worship of Hera (Juno). It emerges in history ab. 750 B.C. as chief state in the peninsula; frequently at war with Sparta; joined Achaean


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Argus. Genus of birds, Gallinae phasianidae. . The wings - are marked by iridescent eye-like ring s. Asiatic. Argyle, ARCHIBALD CAMPBELL, MARQUIS OF, 1598–1661. At first a leader of the Scottish Covenanters, he was defeated by Montrose 1644; sided with Charles II. against Cromwell 1657; was beheaded for submission to the Protector May 27, 1661.-His son and namesake, 9th earl (1663), was condemned 1681 for taking the testoath with a reservation, escaped, took part in Monmouth's rebellion, and was beheaded June 30, 1685. Argyle, GEORGE **. John DOUGLAS CAMPBELL, 8TH DUKE OF (1847), b. 1823. Scottish statesman and author; Presbytery, 1848; Reign of


Sec. for India 1868–74 and 1880–81. Law, 1866; Primeval Man, 1869.

Argyropulos, JohannDs, 1416–1473. Greek teacher in Italy; tr. Aristotle.

Arhagea. Group of Nemertean worms, having no ciliated grooves on the head. It includes the Palaeonemertea and Haplonemertea.

Arhan. Sanskrit name of the perfected Arya, those who have mastered the four spiritual truths and thereby entered the path to Nirvana. Also applied to all the disciples of Sakyamuni. The Chinese Buddhists apply it especially to the famous 18 and 500 disciples whom they call Lo-hán.

Ari, “THE WISE,” 1067–1148. Icelandic historian. His Book of Kings and Icelanders exist only in fragments; the Settlements is his in part.

Aria. Musical composition for solo voice or instrument with accompaniment, consisting generally of three divisions, the third being a repetition of the first. It had its origin ab. 1650, and in the operatic form of the 18th century was thus classified: Aria cantabile, a flowing melody lightly acceompanied; Aria di portamento, in a sustained style; Aria di mezzo carattere, more fully developed and embellished: Aria parlante, Aria di nota e parola, Aria agitato, Aria di strepito, or Aria infuriata, charged with more passionate emotion; Aria di bravura, or Aria d'agilità, florid and designed to display the singer's skill.

Ariadne. Daughter of Minos, King of Crete. She fell in love with Theseus and gave him the clew by which he found his way out of the Labyrinth; accompanied him on his return to Athens, but was deserted by him in Naxos, and became the wife of Dionysus.

Arianism. Movement proceeding from ARIUS (q.v.), intended to make the mystery of the Trinity plainer. It declared the Son to have proceeded not from the Being but from the Will of God, and to be of different substance both from the Father and the World, which God created through Him. Condemned by the First General Council, at Nicaea, 325, it died very slowly in the Empire, and much more slowly among the Teutonic tribes, some of which, especially the Visigoths of Spain, held it almost to 600, and the Lombards till toward 700.

Arias Montanus, BENEDICTUs, 1527–1598. Spanish Benedictine monk, editor of the Antwerp Polyglot Bible, 1568–72; famous as an Orientalist.

Aries. See ZODIAC. Arietta.

, Aril. , Accessory seed-covering found in certain plants, as in the white water-lily; formed by growth of a membrane at or near the base of the ovule after fertilization.

Diminutive of Aria.

Arillode. Accessory seed-covering resembling an aril, but developing from the apex of the ovule downward, as in Mace.

Ariobarzanes. (1) Three kings of Pontus. One of them revolted from Artaxerxes 362 B.C., reigned 363–337, and may be regarded as the founder of kingdom of Pontus. (2) Three kings of Cappadocia. One reigned 93–63 B.C. under the §o. His grandson ruled 51–42, and aided Pompey against aesar.

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power of the aristocracy through the gift of suffrage to the inlasses.

Aristol. Cao H, O, I. Diiododithymol, prepared by action of iodine on thymol; used in pharmacy.

Aristolochiaceae. Natural family of Flowering Plants, of the class Angiospermae and sub-class Dicotyledones; comprising 5 genera and ab. 225 species, widely distributed throughout the

o o 47/ Birthwort (Aristolochia clematitis.)

temperate and warm regions of the globe; commonly called the Birthwort family. Aristomenes. Half legendary hero of Messenia. He successfully resisted Sparta 685–668 B.C.; withdrew to Arcadia. whence he continued to harass the Spartans, and d. in Rhodes.

Aristophanes, ab.444—ab.380 B.C. , Greatest of Athenian writers of comedy; classed with the Old Comedy, although his style suggested . Middle and New schools. He employed the play to satirize and combat tendencies in politics, religion, and education which he considered to be dangerous to Athens, and caricatured the champions of obnoxious changes, especially the sophists. Eleven of his 40 plays, remain; the Acharmians. Knights, Clouds, Wasps, Birds, Peace, Lysistrata, Thesmophoriazusae, First Plutus, Frogs, and Ecclesiazusae. Aristophanes, of BYZANTIUM, ab. 264—ab.185 B.C. Grammarian at Alexandria, librarian at the Museum; teacher of Aristarchus, maker of the canon or list of classic authors, and great literary and textual critic. He introduced the use of acEents in Greek, and wrote many works which have perished. Aristotle, 384–322 B.C. Son of Nicomachus, a physician.9f Greek descent; b. at Stageira on the Macedonian frontier. He went to Athens at 17, and for twenty years was the pupil and associate of Plato. In 347 he went to the court of Hermeas at Atarneus in Asia Minor, whose niece he married. Later he removed to Mitylene, whence he was called by Philip of Macedon to be the tutor of Alexander the Great. In 335 he returned to Athens, where he established the Peripatetic, school, of philosophy and wrote the works now extant. On the death of Alexander, with whose cause he was identified, he fled from Athens, and died shortly afterward in Chalcis. - His writings were long lost: those now attributed to him were pub. about 50 B.C.. They exercised a great influence on the Arabic and Scholastic philosophy, and are regarded as the most important contributions, ever made to philosophy and science. They cover nearly the whole field of knowledge, and make ad; vances in every department. The Organum develops formal logic much as it is now taught; and contaios in ortant discussión of scientific method and of dialectic. The Rhetoric and the fragment On Poetry contain, many acute observations on human nature and conduct, which are elaborated with greater thoroughness and insight in the Ethics. In the Poletics both the idol state and the actual political condition of Greece are discussed. In his writings on metaphysics, psychology, and science, he treats both the most abstruse problems of philosophy and an immense range of special facts. Physical and natural science may be regarded almost as his creation. Aristotle's Lantern. System of teeth guarding the mouth of Sea-urchins. There are sive teeth set, in as many ossicles (the alveoli), which in turn unite at their bases each with two pairs of ossicles, and a central process. Aristoxenus, fl. ab. 350 B.C.. Greek philosopher, pupil of Aristotle. His treatise on Rhythm exists only as a fragment, but his valuable Elements of Harmony, the oldest known book

on Greek music, is to be found in Meibom's Antiquae Musicae Scriptores, 1652. Arithmetic. Science of numbers. Its beginning is found everywhere with the beginnings of civilization. Egyptian monuments show figures evidently using their hands for counting. The Roman numerals were used in Europe until the 15th century. Our present notation is of Hindoo origin, derived through the Arabs. Traces of it are found in Aryabhatta, an ear Hindoo writer. With the nine digits and zero to denote position, an indefinite range is obtained. The basic notions of reckoning are addition and subtraction: then multiplication and division: still further involution and evolution. Fractions with their decimal notation, the processes of percentage, the progressions and analysis complete the subdivisions of the subject. . Much has been written on the “Theory of Numbers” and their relations when combined.

Arithmetical Complement of a Logarithm. Remainder found by subtracting the logarithm from 10; used in computations by common logarithms to compact addition and subtraction of logarithms into one operation, 10 being subtracted from the sum for each complement used to obtain the required result.

Arithmetical Mean. Half sum of two magnitudes.

Arithmetical Progression. Series whose terms increase or decrease by a constant difference. Analysis of the series shows that any term equals the first term increased by the constant difference multiplied by the number of terms less one: if m =number of terms: a, the first term; d, the difference; and an the last of the n terms, an = a + (n—1) d. (1). The sum of the n terms equals the sum of the first term and last term multiplied by + the number of terms.

n xn = 3 (a + an) (2). Equations (1) and (2)—three elements being known, will solve algebraically all questions in Arithmetical Progression. Arius, 256–336. Heresiarch: Alexandrian presbyter of much ability and learning. His views have been condemned by modern Unitarians, as making Christ to be no more man than God; but they long convulsed Christendom, and his sudden death was regarded by the orthodox as a special providence. See ARIANISM. Arizona. S. w. territory of U. S. Its area is 113,020 sq. m. The n. e. part, including nearly half its area, consists of an arid plateau, having a mean elevation of from 6,000 to 7,000 ft., in which the Colorado River has cut its stupendous series of canons. The s. w. part is ...'...}} low, ranging from near sea level up to 2,000 ft., the limits of the high plateau being sharply outlined in most places by an abrupt descent. This lower region is composed of desert plains and valleys, intersected by narrow, sharp mountain ranges. The climate is extremely hot and arid, and agriculture is impossible anywhere without the aid of irrigation. The industries consist mainly of gold and silver mining, with a little agriculture and sheepraising. The capital is Prescott. A. was organized as a Territory 1863, from lands ceded by Mexico 1848, or purchased 1853. Pop., 1890, 59,620, besides 16,933 Indians. Ark. Vessel in which Noah and his family escaped the Flood; 300 cubits long, 50 wide, and 80 high. It rested on Mt. Ararat: Gen. vi.-viii.-The ark to which the infant Moses was committed was of papyrus reeds: Ex. ii. 8. Ark. Large box or caisson, formerly used to convey coal or ore down a river; the lumber was sold on arriving at its destination. Coal was thus floated down the Lehigh and Delaware from Mauch Chunk to Phila. prior to 1830.

Ark of the Covenant. Chest of acacia-wood, overlaid with gold, 24 cubits long, 13 broad and deep, containing the two Tables of the Law, given to Moses at Sinai, and especially symbolizing the Divine presence. It was lost at the sack of erusalem and never recovered.

Arkansas. One of the s. w. States. Its area is 58,850 sq.m. The n. w. part, including nearly half, its area, is broken and hilly, in some places rising to mountains of 2,500 to 2,800 st., consisting of ridges with e. and w: trend, forming part of the Ozark hill region. The e. part is low and mainly alluvial, and large areas are subject to overflow in time of flood. The principal streams are the Mississippi, Arkansas, White and Washita. The Ozark hill region is composed of carboniferous beds, the hills and mountains being of sandstone. The s. portion is mainly composed of Eocene beds, except the alluvial tracts, which are Quaternary. The dominating industry is agriculture, and chiefly the raising of cotton. In 1890 the value of farm products was ab. $88,000,000. The cotton crop of 1891 was 830,000 bales. The State is covered with magnificent forests, and the cutting and manufacture of lumber is an industry of large and growing importance. Its railroads in 1891 had a total length of 2,287 m. The capital is Little Rock, on

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