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3.18. Smaller States. To the north east of Modena lies Mirandola, a duchy of 19 miles in length, and ten in bredth. Near the sea lies Massa, a small principality in Tuscany, but independent of the Grand Duke, about 16 miles in length, and ten in bredth; famous for its quarries of fine marble. In the dominions of the Pope, is St. Marino, a small independent state, situated on a mountain. This little republic was founded by a mason of Dalmatia, who became a hermit, retired to this hill, and gained such reputation for his austerity and sanctity, that the princes of the country gave him the territory. It contains 5 or 6000 people, who retain great simplicity of manners, and maintain a free government. 3.19. Lucca. Between Massa and Tuscany is Lucca, a small republic, of 28 miles in length by 10 in bredth, containing 120,000 people. The soil is good, and the people industrious; the earth being covered with vines, olive, chesnut, and mulberry trees. The principal exports are oil and silk. The chief city, Lucca, contains 40,000 inhabitants; it is the see of an archbishop, and has considerable manufactures of silk, and gold and silwer stuffs. This little state is said to contain 150 villages. 320. Tuscany. Tuscany is a large principality, bordering on the Mediterranean sea, to which it has given name. It is a part of the ancient Hetruria, which is celebrated in history for its early civilization and improvements. Its extentis about 116 miles in length and 80in bredth. It is a beautiful and fertile region, abounding with corn, pasture, vines and fruits. The mountains yield iron, copper, alum, porphyry and the finest marble, with many precious stones and valuable articles. The principal river is the Arno. The manufactures. of silk and velvet are considerable, and the population is estimated at 1,250,000 souls. This country was subdued by the Romans about 455 years before Christ. In the fifth century after Christ, it shared the fate of Italy and fell into the power of the Ostrogoths. In the year 800, Charles the Great took possession of it; but the large cities afterwards obtained independence. 321. Alorence. Florence, the capital of Tuscany, is

one of the mostbeautiful cities of Italy. It is situated on the Arno, at the foot of the Appenine ; is two leagues

in circumference, contains 9000 houses and 80,000 in

habitants, with 57 churches, 95 convents and 37 hospitals. The Metropolitan church, built in the 13th century, in the Gothic style, has an octagonal cupola, 240 feet high, with sides of 140 feet from angle to angle. The palace of the Grand Duke contains a library of 35,000 volumes, with numerous pictures by the best masters. The city is also embellished with 17 public squares, several fountains, columns, pyramids and beautiful statues. The buildings are magnificent, and the streets well paved and clean. This city was formerly governed by the celebrated family of Medicis. 322. Pisa. On the river Arno, 6 miles from the sea, is situated Pisa, formerly a large city and powerful republic, containing 150,000 inhabitants; but subdued first by the Duke of Milan, and afterwards by the Florentines. In consequence of losing its independence, and the increase of Leghorn, which deprived it of its commerce, Pisa is almost depopulated; the inhabitants being reduced to less than 20,000, and many of the streets being overgrown with grass. It however retains striking evidences of its former grandeur; in particular, many superb edifices, and an acqueduct consisting of 5000 arches, which conveys water from the hills 5 miles distant. 323. Leghorn. Leghorn, or more properly Livorno, is a large city, on the sea coast, and the only considerable sea port of Tuscany. It is a place of extensive trade, but its harbor is too shallow to admit large ships. This city has taken the trade of Pisa, and from a small town, has increased to a population of 80,000 souls. It is well built, with broad streets and well fortified; but is subject to the great inconvenience of being obliged to bring water from Pisa, 14 miles distant. The Jews who are estimated at 15,000, carry on great part of the trade. They occupy a particular part of the city, where they have a synagogue. Foreigners are here indulged in the free exercise of their religion. The light house stands on a rock and contains 30 lamps in one lantern. The

outward harbor is formed by a mole of 600 paces, which serves also for a walk. 324. Piambino and Elba. Piambino is a small state in Tuscany, about 20 miles in length and 18 in bredth, formerly subject to Pisa, but for some ages it has been governed by its own princes. The capital of the same name is a sea port of little account. Opposit to this is Elba, an island of 8 miles in length and three in bredth, celebrated for its mines of iron and load-stone. There being no river on the island, the ore is transported to Piambino to be smelted. This island also contains copper, lead, tin, asbestos, and produces excellent wine, and some oil and flax. 325. The Pope’s Dominions. The ecclesiastical states, under the immediate government of the Pope, as head of the church, extend from the Po to the Neapolitan territories, a length of 250 miles, and include the whole bredth of Italy excepting Tuscany and the small states to the north of it. The whole population is estimated at more than two millions of inhabitants. This territory is watered by the Tiber, and many small streams, chiefly on the east. The divisions of this territory are the Campagna di Roma, the patrimony of St. Peter, Spoleto, Ancona, Urbino, Romagna, the Bolognese and Ferrarese. This country, once the garden of the earth, is not well cultivated; the oppressed inhabitants being very indolent. The wealth of the country is amassed by the convents and rich clergy, while the streets are crowded with beggars. The climate is mild, and the tropical fruits are produced in abundance. 326. Rome. Rome, the metropolis of the Pope's dominions, and once the seat of the most extensive empire on earth, is situated on the Tiber, about 10 miles from its mouth, and mostly on the southern side. It occupied seven hills, or small elevations, which are now scarcely visible. It is nearly of the same extent as in its splendor, during the Augustan age; but its population is greatly reduced; and a considerable part of the city is , now laid out in gardens, fields and vinyards. The population is estimated by different writers at 160,000 and 200,000; of which number more than 8000 are priests, monks and nuns; and the Jews are about as numerous. 327. History. Rome was founded by Romulus 753 years before the christian era; and by a series of martial efforts, and consummate policy, extended its power over Italy, Sicily, Spain, Africa, Greece, Asia, Gaul, Britain, and a part of Germany. It was taken and plundered by the Goths under Alaric in the year 410, and about half a century later, by Genseric, king of the Vandals. In the 9th century, the Papal power was established with temporal jurisdiction, and Rome has since been the seat of Papal dominion. 328. General view of Rome. Notwithstanding the ravages committed on Rome by conflagations and plunder, it retains numerous remains of its former magnificence. Many beautiful squares, superb palaces and churches, with the paintings, statues, theaters, triumphal arches, circuses, columns, fountains, aqueducts, mausoleums and hot baths, still strike the beholder with astonishment. St. Peter's Church exceeds every other modern edifice in size and grandeur. Its length is 730 feet, its bredth 520, and the top of the cross, which crowns the cupola, is 450 feet high. The Pantheon, a Roman temple, still remains to gratify curiosity, and fill the mind with admiration. The amphitheater of Vespasian, still preserved, and sufficiently capacious to hold 80,000 spectators, is a stupendous monument of ancient grandeur. The Vatican, a palace of the Pope, contains 4400 apartments, with a most complete library, and 40,000 manuscripts. o 329. Bologna. Bologna is the chief town in the Bolognese, east of Modena, and is situated near the river Reno, at the foot of the Appenine. It is a handsome town, and an archbishop's see, containing a university, and 80,000 inhabitants. The public edifices are magnificent, and contain a great variety of paintings of the greatest masters. The palaces are numerous, in one of which the Pope's Nuncio resides; and 169 churches. It is a place of great trade, which is facilitated by a canal from the city to the Po. The Reno turns 400 mills employed in the * of silk. The Bolognese is 2

one of the most fertile provinces in Italy, producing all sorts of grain and fruits; and especially the muscadin grape, which is in high esteem. It contains also mines of alum and iron, and the Bolognian stone, a phosphoric substance, which exhibits light without heat. 330. Ferrara. Ferrara, the capital of the Ferrarese, a province north of Bologna, stands upon a plain which is watered by the Po on the north. It is encompassed by a wall and ditch, and surrounded by water, and has a magnificent castle, formerly the residence of the dukes. The park is called Belvidere for its beauty, and behind the duke's garden is a palace of white marble, called the palace of diamonds, for all the stones are cut in the shape of diamonds. The city contains 100 churches, 38 convents, and but 14,000 inhabitants. The Ferrarese is 50 miles in length by 40 in bredth; but the land is low, sometimes overflowed by the Po and its branches, and not well cultivated, nor is the air deemed salubrious. 33 1. Ravenna. Ravenna is an ancient city, in a marshy situation, at the mouth of a small river, originally on the border of the Venetian Gulf; but the sea has retired two miles from the town, which has impaired its conrmerce. Honorius removed the seat of empire from Rome to Ravenna in the year 404 ; hence the name Romania, now Romagna, of which this city is the capital. It was afterwards the residence of the Gothic kings for 72 years, when Justinian conquered the Goths, and the exarchs or governors of the eastern emperors

made it the seat of their government. It contains about 15, inhabitants, and here is seen the mausoleum of King"Theodoric, 15 feet thick, and 28 feet in diameter.

332. Urbino and Ancona. Urbino is the capital of a dutchy of the same name, and the see of an archbishop. It is the birth place of that eminent painter, Raphael, and is remarkable for its manufacture of earthern ware. To the south of Urbino, is the marquisate of Ancona, a fertile, but not a healthful province. The capital town, Ancona, was formerly the finest port in Italy, being built by Trajan; and its ruined trade is again reviving. The town is situated around the harbor on two hills; but is not remarkable for its buildings.- .

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