« PreviousContinue »
thers sessile, sitting on the tips of the pe. other parts of Europe, however, they em. tals; follicle round. There are four species. broider very prettily, and especially in
EMBRACERY, is an attempt to corrupt France. or influence a jury, or any way incline them to There are several kinds of embroidery, be more favourable to the one side than the
as, 1. Embroidery on the stamp, where the other, by noney, promises, letters, threats, figures are raised and rounded, having cotor persuasions; whether the juror, on whom
ton or parchment put under them to supsuch attempt is made, give verdict or nut, port them. 2. Low embroidery, where the or whether the verdict given be true or 'gold and silver lie low upon the sketch, and false, which is punished by fine and impri- are stitched with silk of the same colour, sonment; and the juror taking money, per. 3. Guimped embroidery: this is performed petual infamy, imprisonment for a year, and either in gold or silver; they first make a forfeiture of teufol the value.
sketch upon the cloth, then put on cut velEMBRASURE, in fortification, a hole lum, and afterwards sew on the gold and or aperture in a parapet, through which the silver with silk thread : in this kind of emcannon are pointed to fire into the moat or broidery they often put gold and silver field. Embrasures are generally twelve feet cord, tinsel, and spangles. 4. Embroidery distant from one another, every one of on both sides; that which appears on both them being from six to seven feet wide with sides of the stuff. 5. Plain embroidery, out, and about three within: their height where the figures are flat and even, without above the platform is three feet on that cords, spangles, or other ornaments. side towards the town, and a foot and a half EM BROIDERY, no foreign embroidery, on the other side towards the field; so that on gold or silver brocade, is permitted to be the muzzlé may be sunk on occasion, and imported into this kingdom on pain of being the piece brought to shoot low.
seized and burned, and a penalty of 1001. EMBROCATION, in surgery, an exter- for each piece. nal kind of remedy, which consists in an EMBRYO, in physiology, the first rudi. irrigation of the part affected with some ments of an animal in the womb, before proper liquor, as oils, spirits, &c. by means the several members are distinetly formed; of a woollen or linen cloth, or a spunge, dip- after
which period it is denominated a fætus. ped in the same. The use of embrocation See Fetus and Midwifery. is either to attenuate and dislodge some- EMBRYO, in botany. See CORCULUM. thing obstructed underneath the skin, to EMERALD. This mineral comes chiefly ease pains, or to irritate the part into more from Peru; some specimens have been warmth and a quicker sense of feeling. brouglit from Egypt. Dolomieu found it The pumping used in natural baths is pro- in the granite of Elba. Hitherto it has perly an embrocation.
been found only crystallized. The primi. EMBROIDERY, a work in gold, or silver, tive form of its crystals is a regular six-sided or silk thread, wrought by the needle upon prism; and the form of its integrant molecloth, stuff, or muslin, into various figures. cules is a triangular prism, whose sides are In embroidering stuffs, the work is per- squares, and bases equilateral triangles. The formed in a kind of loom, because the more most common variety of its crystals is the the piece is stretched, the easier it is regular six-sided prism, sometimes with the worked. As to muslin, they spread it upon edges of the prism, or of the bases, or the a pattern ready designed ; and sometimes, solid angles, or both wanting, and small before it is stretched upon the pattern, it faces in their place. is starched to make it more easy to handle. Crystals short; lateral planes sinooth, Embroidery on the loom is less tedious than terminal planes rough; colour emerald the other, in which, while they work flow. green of all intensities; internal lustre beers, all the threads of the muslin, both tween 3 and 4; vitieous ; fracture small, lengthwise and breadthwise, must be conti- imperfect, conchoidal
, with a concealed nually counted; but on the other hand, this foliated fracture, and fourfold cleavage ; last is much richer in points, and suscepti- fragments sharp-edged; transparency 4 to ble of greater variety. Cloths too much 2; causes double refraction ; scratches milled are scarce susceptible of this orna- quartz with difficulty. Specific gravity from ment, and in effect we seldom see them 2.600 to 2.7755. embroidered. The thinnest muslins are left The fossil here described is the occidental for this purpose, and they are embroidered emerald, and appears from antique gems to to the greatest perfection in Saxony; in have beer known in the earlier ages, though at present it comes to us only from South conversation, and seemingly rude, comAmerica. Vauquelin found it to contain of monly mixing oaths in his sentences, though silex 64.5, argil 16, glucine 13, oxide of without any ill intention ; he had strong chrome 3.25, lime 1.6, and water 2. The good natural mental parts, and could disoriental emerald is a green corundum, or course sensibly on any subject, but was alresplendent lustre, superior in bardness to ways positive and impatient of contradicevery stone but the diamond, and of the tion; he spent his whole life
close study, specific gravity of 4.
and writing books, from the profits of which EMERSION, in astronomy, is when any he redeemed his little patrimony from some planet that is eclipsed begins to emerge or original incumbrance; in his dress he was get out of the shadow of the eclipsing body. as singular as in every thing else; he posIt is also used when a star, before hidden by sessed commonly but one suit of cloaths at the sun as being too near him, begins to re- a time, and those very old in their appear. appear or emerge out of his rays.
ance; he seldom used a waistcoat; and his EMERSON (WILLIĄm), in biography, coat he wore open before, except the lower a late eminent mathematician, was born in button; and his shirt quite the reverse of June, 1701, at Hurworth, a village about one in common use, the hind side turned three miles south of Darlington, on the bor- foremost, to cover bis breast, and buttoned ders of the county of Durham; at least it close at the collar behind; he wore a kind is certain that he resided here from his of rusty coloured wig, without a crooked childhood. His father, Dudley Emerson, bair in it, which probably had never been tanght a school, and was tolerably profi- tortured with a comb from the time of its cient in mathematics; and, without his being made; a hat he would make to last books and instructions, perhaps his son's him the best part of a life-time, gradually genius, thongh eminently fitted for mathe. lessening the flaps, bit by bit, as it lost its matical studies, might never have been un- elasticity and hung down, till little or nofolded. Beside his father's instructions, thing but the crown remained. our author was assisted in the learned lan- He often walked up to London when he gnages by a young clergyman, then curate of had any book to be published, revising Hurworth, who was boarded at his father's sheet by sheet himself: trusting no eye but house. In the early part of his life he at- his own, was always a favourite maxim with tempted to teach a few scholars; but whe. him. In mechanical subjects, he always ther from his concise method, for he was tried the propositions practically, making not happy in explaining his ideas, or the all the different parts himself on a small warmth of his natural temper, he made nio scale; so that his house was filled with all progress in his school ; he therefore soon kinds of mechanical instruments, together left it off, and, satisfied with a moderate or disjointed. He would freqnently stand competence left him by his parents, he de- up to his middle in water while fishing, a voted himself to a studious retirement, diversion he was remarkably fond of. He which he thus closely pursued, in the same used to study incessantly for some time, place, through the course of a long life, be- and then for relaxation take a ramble to ing mostly very healthy, till towards the any pot ale-house where he could get any latter part of his days, when be was much body to drink with, and talk to. The late afflicted with the stone. About the close Mr. Montague was very kind to Mr. Emerof the year 1781, being sensible of his son, and often visited him, being pleased approaching dissolution, he disposed of with his conversation, and used freqnently his wbole mathematical library to a book to come to him in the fields where he was seller at York; and on May the 20th, working, and accompany him home, but 1782, bis lingering and painful disorder put could never persuade him to get into a caran end to bis life, at his native village, being riage: on these occasions he would somenearly 81 years of age.
times exclaim, “ Damn your whim-wham! Mr. Emerson, in his person, was rather I had rather walk.” He was a married short, but strong and well made, with an man, and his wife used to spin on an oldopen countenance and ruddy complexion, fashioned wheel, of his own making, a drawbeing of a healthy and hardy disposition ; ing of which is given in his “Mechanics." he was very singular in his behaviour, Mr. Emerson, from his strong, vigorous dress, and conversation ; his manner and mind and close application, bad acquired appearance were that of a rude and rather deep knowledge of all the branches of maboorish countryman; he was of very plain thematics and physics, upon all parts of
which he wrote good treatises, though in a cut and scallop glass, marble, and precious rough and unpolished style and manner. stones. He was not remarkable, however, for ge- EMETIC, a medicine which induces vonius or discoveries of his own, as his works miting. hardly shew any traces of original inven- EMETIC tartar, the old name for tartrite tion. He was well skilled in the science of of antimony. music, the theory of sounds, and the various EMOLLIENTS. See PHARMACY. scales both ancient and modern; bat he EMPETRUM, in botany, heath, a genus was a very poor performer, though he could of the Dioecia Triandria class and order. make and repair some instruments, and Natural order of Ericæ, Jussieu. Essential sometimes went about the country tuning character: male, calyx three-parted; corolla harpsichords.
three-petalled; stamens long: female, calyx The following is the list of Mr. Emer. three-parted; corolla three-petalled; styles son's works, all of them printed in 8vo., ex- nine; berry nine-seeded. There are two cepting his “Mechanics” and his “ Incre- species ; viz. E. album, white-berried heath, ments,” in 4to., and his “ Navigation ” in and E. nigrum, black-berried heath, crow 12mo. 1. The Doctrine of Fluxions. or crake berry. These are low shrubs, sel2. The Projection of the Sphere, Orthu- dom propagated in gardens, unless for vagraphic, Stereographic, and Gnomonical. riety's sake. They are natives of wild 3. The Elements of Trignometry. 4. The mountains, where the soil is heathy and full Principles of Mechanics. 5. A Treatise of of boys. Navigation on the Sea. 6. A Treatise on EMPIS, in natural history, a genus of inArithmetic. 7. A Treatise on Geometry. sects of the order Diptera. Generic cha8. A Treatise of Algebra, in two books. racter: mouth with an inflected sucker and 9. The Method of Increments. 10. Arith. proboscis ; sucker with a single-valved metic of Infinities, and the Conic Sections, sheath and three bristles; feelers short, filiwith other Curve Lines. 11. Elements of form ; antennæ setaceous. These minute Optics and Perspective. 12. Astronomy. insects live likewise by sucking out the 13. Mechanics, with Centripetal and Cen- blood and juices of other animals. There trifugal Forces. 14. Mechanical Princi- are about 30 species. One of the most ples of Geography, Navigation, and Dial- common species is the E, livida, which is a ling. 15. Commentary on the Principia, brownish fly; the wings are transparent, with with the Defence of Newton. 16. Tracts. dark veins. They are observed in 'fields 17. Miscellanies.
and gardens. E. borealis, is of a more slenEMERY, a stone of the ruby family, of der form than the coinmon window fly, and which three kinds are usually distinguished in of a blackish colour, with large, broad, oval commerce; the Spanish, red, and common wings, of a brown colour, and rúfous legs, emery. The first sort is found in the gold mines varied with black. of Peru, and being judged a kind of marcasite EMPLASTRUM, in pliarmacy, a comof that rich metal, is prohibited to be export. position for external use, generally spread ed. The red emery is found in copper mines, upon leather, linen, or some other conveniand the little there is of it in England comes ent thing before it is applied. See Pharfrom Sweden and Denmark. The common MACY. The following is a recipe for making emery is taken out of iron mines, and al- the Ladies' Court Plaster: “ Dissolve five most the only sort used in England; it is of onnces of isinglass in a pint of water, and a brownish colour, bordering a little on red, having ready a quantity of thin black sarseexceedingly hard, and in consequence diffi- net, stretched in a proper frame, apply the cult to pulverize. The English are the only solution warm with a brush equally over the people who have the art of reducing com. surface. Tliis. is to be repeated, after it is mon emery into powder, and thus send it to dry, two or three times.” Some give it a their neighbours. Of the powder, the most coat of gum benzoin dissolved in alcohol ; subtile and impalpable is the best ; as to the but this is injurious rather than beneficial. stone, it should be chosen of a high colour, EMPLEURUM, in botany, a genus of and as free of the rock as possible.
the Monoecia Tetrandria class and order. The consumption of emery is very copsi. Natural order of Aggregatæ. Rutacea, derable among the armourers, cutlers, lock. Jussien. Essential character: male, calyx suniths, lapidaries, masons, and other me- four-cleft; corolla none: female, calyx fourchanics; some of whom use it to polish and cleft, inferior; corolla none; stigma cylinburnish iron and steel works; others, to dric, placed on the lateral toothlet of the
BRITISH ENCYCLOPEDIA. .
ELLIPSIS. ELLIPSIS, in geometry, a curve line re- called the ordinate, or ordinate-applicate'
turning into itself, and produced from to that diameter; and a third proportional the section of a cone by a plane cutting both to two conjugate diameters, is called the laits sides, but not parallel to the base. See tus rectum, or parameter of that diameter CONIC SECTIONS.
which is the first of the three proporThe easiest way of describing this curve, tionals. in plano, when the transverse and conju- The reason of the name is this : let B A, axes AB, ED, (Plate V. Miscell, fig. 1.) ED, be any two conjugate diąmeters of an are given, is this : first take the points F,f, ellipsis (fig. 2, where they are the two in the transverse axis A B, so that the dis- axes) at the end A, of the diameter AB, tances CF, Cf, from the centre C, be each raise the perpendicular AF, equal to the equal to AC-CD; or, that the lincs latus rectum, or parameter, being a third FD, f D, be each equal to AC; then, hav. proportional to AB, ED, and draw the ing fixed two pins in the points F,f, which right line BF; then if any point P be are called the foci of the ellipsis, take a taken in BA, and an ordinate PM be thread equal in length to the transverse drawn, cutting BF in N, the rectangle unaxis A B; and fastening its two ends, one der the absciss A P, and the line PN will to the pin F, and the other to f, with ano- be equal to the square of the ordinate PM, ther pin M stretch the thread tight; then Hence drawing N O parallel to AB, it apif this pin M be moved round till it returns pears that this rectangle, or the square of to the place from whence it first set out, the ordinate, is less than that under the abkeeping the thread always extended so as
sciss AP, and the parameter AF, by the to form the triangle FMf, it will describe rectangle under AP and O F, or NO and an ellipsis, whose axes are A B, DE.
OF; on account of which deficiency, ApolThe greater axis, A B, passing through · lonius first gave this curve the name of an the two foci Ff, is called the transverse ellipsis, from Eda Elm Evy, to be deficient. axis ; and the lesser one D Е, is called the In every ellipsis, as A EBD, (fig. 2), the conjugate, or second axis : these two always squares of the senui-ordinates MP, mp, are bisect each otber at right angles, and the as the rectangles under the segments of the centre of the ellipsis is the point C, where transverse axis A PX PB, Ap X p B, made they intersect. Any right line passing by these ordinates respectively; which holds through the centre, and terminated by the equally true of the circle, where the squares curve of the ellipsis on each side, is called of the ordinates are equal to such rectana diameter; and two diameters, which na- gles, as being mean proportionals between turally bisect all the parallels to each other, the segments of the diameter. In the same bounded by the ellipsis, are called conju- manner, the ordinates to any diameter gate diameters. Any right line, not pass- whatever, are as the rectangles under the ing through the centre, but terminated by segments of that diameter. the ellipsis, and bisected by a diameter, is As to the other principal properties of VOL. III.