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The defendant was restrained (a) by the action sometimes being in duplum (the Institutes add in triplum, but no instances are known) when there was a denial on the part of the defendant, as in cases of damni injuriæ and legacies left to holy places; (6) by the action being for more than the single value, as in the case of theft (1); (c) by infamy, which attends condemnation in an action tutela, mandati or depositi if direct, and pro socio (which is direct for both parties), and which attends not only condemnatio, but an agreement to commit the offence, in actions furti, vi bonorum raptorum, injuriarum, and de dolo. (2.)

The first step in an action was the vocatio in jus, the summons to the defendant to appear before the magistrate. Children, however, cannot summon ascendants, nor freedmen patrons or the children or ascendants of patrons, without having first received the permission of the prætor. If they act without this permission, they are liable to a fine of fifty solidi. (3.)

2. THE OFFICE OF THE JUDGE. —The Institutes first lay down the general duty of the judge, which is to judge according to the law, the constitutions, or customary usage. (Tit. 17. pr.) If the judge gave a sentence wrong on the face of it, or fixed the condemnation below what the prætor had fixed it, the sentence was void, and no appeal was necessary. If the judge was supposed to be wrong otherwise, notice of appeal had to be given within two days (or, if the defendant had appeared by a procurator, three days), enlarged by Justinian to ten days. The Emperor

s), enlarged by Justinian to ten days an idea of the was the final judge of appeal, but Hadrian made the decisions of the Senate final, and Constantine those of the prætorian præfect.

Secondly, the Institutes point out what judgment ought to be given in certain actions :

(a) In a noxal action the judge ought to state the condemnation by ordering a sum to be paid, or the noxa abandoned. (2.)

(6) In a real action, if he determines against the claimant, he ought to absolve the possessor; if against the possessor, he ought to order the thing and its fruits to be given up, and, after the time of Hadrian, all the fruits consumed had to be accounted for, whether the possession was bona fide or mala fide, if the thing possessed was an inheritance. Before Hadrian as to inheritance, and before and after his time as to single objects, the rule was that a bona fide possessor had to account for fruits after the bringing of the action, the mala fide possessor for all. If the possessor showed that he could not give up the possession at once, he obtained a delay on giving security to give up within a time allowed him.

(c) In an action ad exhibendum the defendant must exhibit the thing and everything derived from it, as e.g. the fruits, since the bringing the action; nor will usucapion accomplished subsequently avail him. If he states that he cannot exhibit at once, he can obtain a delay on giving security, but if he neither exhibits nor gives security, he is to be condemned in an amount representing the interest of the plaintiff in having the thing exhibited at once.

(d, e,1) In the actions familiæ erciscunule, communi divillundo, and finium regundorum, the judge ought, if he gives one more than another, and one thus receives more than another, to make this favoured person pay a pecuniary equivalent. (4, 5, 6.) In the action finium regundorum, a person ought to be condemned who has destroyed boundary marks, or opposed, in defiance of the judge's order, the measurement of the land. (6.)

In all these three actions anything adjudged becomes at once the property of the person to whom it is adjudged. (7.)

Crimes.—The subject of public prosecutions being altogether outside the general subject of the Institutes, which treat of private law (Tit. 18. pr.), may be omitted here. A sketch of Roman criminal law is given in the last section of the Introduction.

INDEX.

ANI

ABS
ABSTINENDI beneficium, 217
A Acceptilatio, 391
Accessio, lii, 98
Accrescendi jus, 153, 198
Actio, lx, 325, 423

divisions of actions, lxxii, 424
ad exhibendum, lxxiii, 156, 406, 448,

499
æstimatoria, 364
arbitraria, Ixix, lxxii, 426, 448
bonæ fidei, lxxiii, 326, 426
calumniæ, 496
commodati, 329
communi dividundo, 104, 124, 500
confessoria, 429
contraria, 496
damni injuriæ, 409
de æstimato, 445
de constituta pecunia, 434
de dolo malo, 448
de inofficioso, 211, 213
de peculio et in rem verso, 460
de tigno juncto, 105
depensi, 354
depositi, 330
directa, lxxii, 426
empti, 367
exercitoria, 457
ex testamento, 386
familiæ erciscundæ, 124, 499
fictitia, 426
finium regundorum, 500
furti, 403, 443
hypothecaria, 473
in duplum, 439, 442
in factum concepta, lxxii, 425
in factum præscriptis verbis, lxxii, 426
in jus concepta, lxxii, 426
in personam, 424
in rem, 424
in supplementum legitimæ, 212
injuriarum, 417
institoria, 457
judicati, 461, 465, 467
legis, lxi, lxvii
mandati, 377
mixta, 438, 441
negativa, 429

Actio negotiorum gestorum, 384
noxalis, 462
Pauliana, 433
perpetua, 471
persecutoria rei, 438
pigneratitia, 331
pænalis, 439
popularis, 423
præjudicialis, 437
Publiciana, 431
quasi institoria, 378
quasi Publiciana, 432
quasi Serviana, 135, 368, 434, 448
quod dolo malo, 448
quod jussu, 457
quod metus causa, 443
receptitia, 435
rei uxoriæ, 446
servi corrupti, 402
Serviana, 368, 434, 448
stricti juris, lxxiii, 326, 426
temporalis, 471
tributoria, 458
tutelæ, 73
utilis, lxxii, 426
venditi, 367

vi bonorum raptorum, 409
Actus, 118
Addictio, 15

bonorum, 313
Ademptio legatorum, 244
Aditio hereditatis, 191, 221
Adjudicatio, liii, 124
Adjunctio, 103
Adoption, xl, 40-47, 186

plena, minus plena, 42
Adpromissor, 353
Adstipulator, 353
Adversaria, 358
Ærarium, lxiv, 229
Affinitas, 35
Ager publicus, 486

vectigalis, 92, 372
Agnati, xli, lv ; succession of, 276–289
Agri limitati, 99
Album, xxi, 436
Alluvio, 99
Animus domini, 95, 137, 492

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Animus possidendi, 137, 491

revertendi, 96
Annus utilis, 472
Appeal, xii, lxxiv, 497
Aquæ ductus, 118
Aquilius Gallus, 392
Aquiliana stipulatio, 392
Arbiter, lxii, 426
Arbitraria formula, 448
Argentarius, 435, 455
Arra, 362
Arrogatio, xl, liii, 43; acquisition by,

311
As, 193
Ascripti glebæ, 16
Assertor libertatis, lxvi, 18, 437
Aureus, 67

DENEFICIUM abstinendi, 217
B cedendarum actionum, 337, 356

competentiæ, 376, 446, 454
divisionis, 356
deliberandi, 210
inventarii, 220
legis Corneliæ, 181, 354
ordinis, 356
S. C. Velleiani, 355
separationis, 215
Bona fides, 143
Bona vi rapta, 407
Bonitarium dominium, xlix
Bonorum addictio, 313; cessio, 317

distractio, 318
emptio, 317
possessio, 70, 166, 208, 303-311; sine

re, 310
sectio, 370
Buildings, 105

Cognati, xlii, Iv; succession of, 289

degrees of, 292
Cognitio extraordinaria, XXX
Cognitor, 467
Co-heir, 198
Co-legatee, 226, 230
Collatio bonorum, 270
Colonus, 16, 111, 368, 433, 491
Comitia calata, 164

centuriata, xi, xii, lxxvii
curiata, x, xii, lxxvii

tributa, xiii, xvii, lxxvii
Commercium, xxxvii, 168
Commissoria lex, 366
Commixtio, 104
Commodatum, lvii, 328
Compensatio, 396, 455
Concubinage, xlii
Condemnatio, lxvii, lxix, 449, 498
Condictio, lxv, lxxii, 325

furtiva, 406
Conditions, 195, 366
Conductor, 368
Confarreatio, xlii, 31
Confusio, 104
Connubium, xvii, 32
Consanguinei, 278, 289
Consensus, 321
Consilium, 24
Constitutum, 427
Contract, lv, 3, 6

consensual, lviii, 361
formal, lviii, 321
formless, lviii, 321
literal, lviii, 358
real, lvii, 326

verbal, lvii, 332
Contractus innominati, lviii, 322
Contubernium, 36
Conventio in manum, 32
Conventus, lxvii
Co-rei promittendi, 336

stipulandi, 336
Creditor, lvi, 320
Cretio, 219, 221
Crime, lxxvii, 501
Culpa, 323
Curator, xl, 73; suspected, 84
Curatorum satisdatio, 76

excusationes, 79
Curia, x
Customary law, 12

MADUCA, 198, 228
U Calata, comitia, 164
Calumnia, 259, 496
Capitis deminutio, xliii, 48, 60, 207
Capito, xxvii
Captivi, 180
Caput, 60
Catoniana regula, 230, 242
Causa, 450, 480 ; causa justa, 143
Cautio, 348, 360

judicatum solvi, 468
Census, 18
Centumviri, xxi, Ixii, lxvi, 210
Cessio bonorum, 317

in jure, liji, lxvi, 90, 124
Chirographum, lviii, 359
Civitas, xxxvii, 14
Clausula codicillaris, 262
Code, Theodosian, xxvii

Justinian's, xxxi, xxxiii
Codicils, liv, 261
Celebs, 228
Coemptio, xlii, 31

NAMNUM, 415
U infectum, 415
Damnum injuria datum, 109
Dare, lvi, 320
Debitor, lvi, 320
Decemvirs, xii, xvii
Decretum, 10
Dediticii, 19, 21
Deductio, 445
Deliberandi jus, 219

DEL
Delict, lvi, lix, 397
Demonstratio, lxviii, lxix, 425, 452
Deportatio, 48
Depositum, lvii, 329

miserabile, 330, 439, 442
Derelicts, 115
Detentio, 137, 491
Dies cedit, 227, 235

continui, 83
fasti et nefasti, 310
utiles, 83, 310

venit, 235
Digest, xxxii
Diligentia, 323
Disinheriting, liv, 181-188
Divorce, 39
Dolus, 323, 439, 476
Dominica potestas, 27
Dominium, xlix, 88

bonitarium, xlix

Quiritarium, xlix
Donationes, lii, 147

inter vivos, 149
mortis causa, lii, 148
ante nuptias, 151

propter nuptias, 151
Dos, 151, 233
Duplicatio, 484

INT
DACERE, Ixxvi, 320
T Falcidia quarta, 212, 247
Familia, xxxviii, 14, 27
Familiæ emptor, 165, 171
Feræ, 95
Fictions, 426
Fideicommissa, liv, 249-263, 265
Fidejussor, 352
Fidepromissor, 353
Fiduciarius, 351
Fiduciary tutor, 61
Filiusfamilias, 158, 178, 423, 456, 462,

464
Fiscus, 142, 147, 227, 268, 313
Formula, lxvii
Formulary system, lxviii
Freedmen, 17, 333, 387, 486
Fructus, 125, 131, 498
Fundus, 230
Furiosi, 75
Furti vitium, 141
Furtiva condictio, 406
Furtum, 141, 397

manifestum, 398
nec manifestum, 398

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TDICTUM, xx
V perpetuum, xxi, xxvi, 11

repentinum, 11
Emancipatio, xxxix, 51
Emancipated children, 51, 185, 203, 270
Emphyteusis, li, 134, 369
Emperor, xxv, 10
Emptio et venditio, lviii, 113, 361
Emptio bonorum, 317
Epistola, 10
Exchange, 364
Exceptio, lxx, 474

dilatoria, lxxv, 481
doli mali, 476
jurisjurandi, 477
metus causa, 476
non numeratæ pecuniæ, 359, 477
pacti conventi, 481
peremptoria, 480
personæ cohærens, 484
procuratoria, 482
rei cohærens, 484
rei in judicium deductæ, 479
rei judicatæ, 478

restitutæ hereditatis, 252
Execution, lxv, lxxiv
Executor, lxxv, 442
Exercitor, 378
Exheredatio, lxxiv, 181-188
Existimatio, xliii, 210
Expensilatio, 358
Extranei, 220 .
Extraordinaria judicia, lxxiv, lxxv, 442,

449, 486

TGNORANTIA, 387
| Illustris, 420
Imaginaria solutio, 391
Imperium, lxii
Incorporeal things, 116
In jure cessio, liji, lxvi, 90, 123
In jus vocatio, lxii, 436, 497
Indebiti solutio, 386
Infamia, xliii, 482
Infans, 69, 346
Infanti proximus, 69, 346
Ingenui, 16
Injuria, 416
Inquilinus, 368, 491
Institor, 378, 461
Institutes, xxxii
Institution of heirs, 188
Ipsula, 99
Intentio, lxviii, lxix, lxx
Intercessio, 354
Interdictio aquæ et ignis, 61

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