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nation towards the United States. For some time, Chap.vw. his actions were in the spirit of these professions. 1794.

Not long after the arrival of Mr. Fauchet, the executive government of France requested the recall of Mr. Morris. With this request the pre- GoTMm«r sident immediately complied; and Mr. Monroe, caitSMSu

succeeded by

a senator from Virginia, who had embraced with *• Mou«*. ardor the cause of the French republic, and was particularly acceptable to the opposition party, was appointed to succeed him.

The discontents which had been long fomented in the western country had assumed a serious and alarming appearance.

A remonstrance to the president and congress Kcntucky of the United States from the inhabitants of* Kentucky, respecting the navigation of the Mississippi, was laid before the executive and each branch of the legislature. The style of this paper accorded well with the instructions under which it had been prepared.

In the language of an offended sovereign people, injured by the mal-administration of public servants, it demanded the use of the Mississippi as a natural right which had been unjustly withheld, and charged the government openly with being under the influence of a local policy, which had prevented its making one single real effort for the security of a good which was all essential to the prosperity of the western people. Several intemperate aspersions upon the legislative and executive departments, accompanied with complaints that the course of the negotiations had not been communicated to those who were interested intheevent, and

Chap, via with threats obviously pointing to dismemberment, 1794. were concluded with a declaration that nothing would remunerate the western people for the suspension of this great territorial right; that they must possess it; that the god of nature had given them the means of acquiring and enjoying it; and that to permit a sacrifice of it to any other considerations would be a crime against themselves and their posterity.

In the senate, a resolution on the negotiation was moved by the members from Kentucky, which was referred to a committee, who reported "that in the negotiation now carrying on at Madrid between the United States and Spain, the right of the former to the free navigation of the Mississippi is well asserted and demonstrated, and their claim to its enjoyment is pursued with all the assiduity and firmness which the magnitude of the subject demands; and will doubtless continue to be so pursued until the object shall be obtained, or adverse circumstances shall render the further progress of the negotiation impracticable. That in the present state of the business, it would be improper for congress to interfere. But in order to satisfy the citizens of the United States more immediately interested in the event of this negotiation, that the United States have uniformly asserted their right to the free use of the navigation of the river Mississippi, and have employed and will continue to pursue such measures as are best adapted to obtain the enjoyment of this important territorial right, the-committee recommend that it be resolved by the senate....

"That the president of the United States be, Chap. vm. and he hereby is requested to cause to be com- 1794 municated to the executive of the state of Kentucky,* such part of the existing negotiation between the United States and Spain relative to this subject, as he may deem advisable, and consistent with the course of the negotiation."

In the house of representatives also, a resolution was passed expressive of the conviction of the house, which was founded on the documents laid before them by the president, that the executive was urging the claim of the United States to the navigation of the Mississippi in the manner most likely to prove successful.

Had the measures pursued in the western country been dictated exclusively by a wish to obtain an important good, unmingled with any desire to embarrass the administration, it might be expected that these resolutions, adopted by bodies in which they were themselves represented, would have allayed the ferment which had been excited. That the insinuation that the continuance of their connexion with the Atlantic states depended on obtaining the object they sought, must have an effect upon Spain unfavourable to the attainment of the object, was too apparent to escape the notice of men endowed with an ordinary share of intelligence. But when the real motives for human action are latent, it is vain to demonstrate the unreasonableness of those which are avowed.

• Two months previous to the passage of this resolution, the secretary of state had, by direction of the president, given the governor the most solemn assurances on this point. vol. v. 4 c

Chap. Viii. After the reception of these resolutions, anum

1794. her of respectable citizens from various parts of Kentucky assembled at Lexington, and among many intemperate resolutions passed the following.

mriuSw- "That the general government whose duty it

^t1Sie.of was to put us in possession of this right (the navigation of the Mississippi) have, either through design or mistaken policy, adopted no effectual measures for its attainment.

"That even the measures they have adopted, have been uniformly concealed from us, and veiled in mysterious secrecy.

"That civil liberty is prostituted, when the servants of the people are suffered to tell their masters, that communications which they may judge important ought not to be intrusted to them."

These resolutions concluded with a recommendation of county meetings, of county committees of correspondence, and of a convention when it might be judged expedient, to deliberate on the proper steps for the attainment and security of their just rights.

Accurately to estimate these resolves, it will be necessary to view in connexion with them, the military preparations which were making in that country under the authority of France.

In October 1793, it was alleged by the Spanish commissioners, that four French men had left Philadelphia, empowered by the minister of the French republic to prepare an expedition, in Kentucky, against New Orleans. On receiving information of this fact, it was immediately communicated by Mr. Jefferson to the governor ofchap.viir. that state, with a request that he would use those 1794 means of prevention which the laws enabled him to employ. Binding to good behaviour was particularly recommended. This letter was accompanied by one from the secretary of war, conveying the request of the president that, if preventive means should fail, effectual military force should be employed to arrest the expedition ; and general Wayne was ordered to hold a body of troops at the disposal of the governor should he find the militia insufficient for his purpose.

The governor had already received information, that a citizen of Kentucky was in possession of a commission appointing him commander in chief of the proposed expedition, and that the Frenchmen alluded to in the letter of Mr. Jefferson had arrived and made no secret of their business; but declared, that they only waited for money which they expected soon to receive, in order to commence their operations.

The following extract of a letter from the governor on this subject exhibits a curious specimen of the conclusions to which gentlemen were conducted by the course of political reasoning which prevailed at the day.

After stating the facts above alluded to, he says "I have great doubts, even if they do attempt to carry their plan into execution, (provided they manage their business with prudence) whether there is any legal authority to restrain or punish them, at least before they have actually accom

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