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stant patience whereby they go through so 19. The confession of Barriere, who atgreat and hard matters, and bear so many and lempted agamst my person, doth not infringe so heavy crosses.

that which I bave said. For so far was any 15. Neither do I esteem them the worse, Jesuit from that fact (which you nevertheless for that they be so observant of their rules and affirm) that one of these Fathers of good credit constitutioos. This is that whereby the society advised me of it in time, and another of them doth increase, fourish and better itself every deborted and deterred Barriere from his atday more and more. For this reason I thought tempt, proposing to him God's heavy judgments not good to change any of their constitutions due to such malefactors. or rules, though I have maile some change in 20. As for Catel, all imaginable torments others, which was not approved of all. But were not able to wrest the least word against that is no matter.

Varadius or any one Father of the society. If 16. The Fathers of the society hath many this be not so, why spared you the guilty ? back friends, among some that seem holy and Why let you them go when you bad them fast? religious persons, who speak ill of them. This Why punished you then not according to your no wise man will wonder at. Our age is not laws and court ? come to that sanctity, that ignorance should 21. But to grant you that that never was ; cease to hate learning, or corruption of maaners suppose some one of the society bad attempted leave to eo vy integrity of life. It was so i against my person. Will you condemn all the times past, and so it is still. These moths apostles for one Judas ? sball the punishment always gnawing on learned works. No pros- light on my head, for whatsoever any of the sol-. perity so circumspect, that can escape the diers shall trespass in military license? I actooth of malice, hatred and envy, always at- knowledge the band of God, whose will it was to tended the highest things. I observed, when it have me pressed and bumbled at that time; was consulted about the recalling of the Jesuits the same hand raised me, and set me safe into France, that two sorts of men did specially again. God's goodness and providence be thankoppose themselves, heretics, and loose living ed. I have learnt to forget and forgive inchurch-men: the one was moved thereunto by juries for God's sake, as I willingly do for that their bad faith, the other by their bad life. But king who is greater thau mysell. And now I I am so far froin being hereby moved to alter will be so far from remembering injuries done my intended purpose, that I am more con- unto me, or revenging the same, that I will firmed in resolution.

daily offer up prayers for my enemies. All of 17. The Fathers of the society speak and think us have need of God's mercy, wbich is no ways honourable of the pope, so they should, and so better to be obtained, then by promptly and do I ; I join with them, since I am certain that readily pardoving those who have offended us.” in averring and defending the pope's authority, they differ not from other Catholic divines. Now it is plain by this discourse, that this

18. Neither did their doctrine ever give' oc- great and wise prince bad well considered casion to clergymen to deny nie tribute. Now what he spoke of; and had he found their docis there any to be found whom these Fathers trine to be such as is pretended, he would have words or books animated to killing of kings. been too nearly concerned to have become Whatsoever some have patched together to bring their advocate and protector. them to discredie, is all a fiction and mere fable. As for the pretended horrid ceremony for Thirty years and more are passed since the consecrating a person and dagger, designed for Fathers began to instruct the youth of France a royal massacre. I will only speak of it in both in virtue and learning. Of these some the author's own words; that it is an invention have gone through with all their studies in their of men worse than devils, a lie indeed of so schools. Others have broke off, and applied impudent a nature, that it is enough to amaze themselves to plıysic or law. Tell me whether heaven itself, to see how devils incarnate can any of these ever learnt of their masters to lay out-do in inalice the spirits of everlasting darkhands upon kings, and to kill them? I tell you ness. the Fathers are so clear, that they are content Let any impartial eye observe the countries to appeal even to their enemies judgment, our author sums up to banish the Jesuits; and There are some pulpit-men, among the heretics, besides that, he will find faise causes assigned who were trained up in the Fathers schools : in most, if not all the examples; he does in his ask these men tbeir judgment concerning the last overthrow all that he has said, for if FerJesuits lives and doctrine : but whose cause dinando king of Sweden was expelled his kingis so good as to desire to be tried by enemies ? dom for endeavouring the re-admission of the Yet I am sure in their case this bas been done, Jesuits, then it is as plain that he did not be the ministers bave been asked their judgments lieve they held tenets destructive to kings, as of the Jesuits : and they have given no other it is that these did who destroyed him, as much answer, but, that the Jesuits lives cannot be re- as in them lay by expelling him his kingdom prebended, and for their doctrine, that it is in for defending the Jesuits. Thus malice makes too clear a sun for to be questioned. Surely men blind : but above all, who can believe few can be found that will dare to stand to him, when he says Father Harcourt's letter their enemies judgment, their security of com- about sir Edmondbury Godfrey's murder writscience must needs be great, that fears not any ten three hours after it was done is so publicly adversaries verdict.

to be seen, when any man that reads the trial of the world absolutely denying the matters may perceive it could not be produced ; and if they were accused of, any one of them might it were found since, and so public as he pre- have secured a pardon by confessing His tends, no doubt our author would have as well charge ; they have been all of them of apsecited, as referred to it, for doing so would proved honest conversation in their several callhave been worth all he hath said.

ings during the rest of their lives, and yet we As to their prayers for the judges and accusers, must not believe one tittle of their last words in my judgment they were more likely to pro- spoke so plainly, (if false) to their destruction ceed from charity than malice, let our good both here and hereafter; to their destruction, natured author be of another opinion if he and not the least to their interest: yet on the pleases, but his reason for the contrary is none; contrary we are not so much as allowed to for it is well known St. Stephen at his stoning doubt the fidelity of their accusers, though men did the same, and yet desired neither prayers notorious for scandalous and wicked lives; men nor tears of those that were not of his own pro- who from abject qualities assume to themselves fession; but it is true those prayers may be by this means dignities, and pretend to honours come curses to the witnesses, if the deposition and titles ; and who from the extremest poagainst them be as false, as it is evident some verty and necessity are advanced to opulency of what they have deposed to king and council and plenty for accusing persons of consulting hath been, as I could instance in the case of with them about affairs of so high a nature as Don Johu, and divers other inatters, if I were the alteration of kingdoms, and murdering the minded to disparage the king's witnesses, as best of monarchs. Persons of such qualities they call them: but this I cannot forbear ob- and fortunes, as would with Job have disdained serving, that it may be justly said of some of to set them with the dogs of their fock, who them, as doctor Dup-says of witches, that they if they would have made use of such pitiful inconfess things impossible. But leaving them to struments, would certainly have taken care for the great Judge of all things, I will only remind their support, and not have seconded their imthem of this truth, that if they betray innocent prudent election of such counsellors in matter blood for gain, and make God's name contemp- of so great trust, with a second error of suffertible, by invoking it to a falsehood; no equi- ing them to want when they had trusted them, Focation, nor mental reservation, will shelter but would have provided for them as those we bem from his dreadful vengeance which be in see do sufficiently, who now make use of their bis due time will visit them with: and it is a service; but though we may not call them thousand to one he will for terror to others and perjured persons until convicted, which their despair io themselves, make them the most protectors will easily prevent, by not pero miserable and contemptible wretches breathing mitting them to be indicted, yet none can deny in this world; but if they have sworn truth, let us the liberty of thioking that men will easily thern give a lustre to it by amending their discern the difference between the dying and lives, that they and the nation they have saved the living testimonies, let their prerences and by their discoveries may glory in one another, lies be never so many; but to the God of truth to the confusion and destruction not only of we refer both causes, not doubting but in his these, but all other its enemies.

good time all these secrets will be brought to But to conclude, I will desire but any rea- light to his everlasting glory. souable man to consider the absurdity of their arguing, who pretend that not only these last P. S. Since the former, there is come forth five, but the eight others coudemned by the another paper, called 'An Answer to the Jesame evidence, had dispensations to die with suits Speeches, by Esrael Tongue, D. D.' full lies in their mouths : and that by the doctrine fraught with labour and studied falsehoods, but of equivocation and mental reservation, they so plainly malicious, that nobody who had not and all other papists can say and swear any been a witness of the success of their ill spun thing, when it is plain to all the world, that improbable stories in their first pretended disnothing but their fearing to swear falsely lays coveries, could have had the least bope, these them liable to the laws against popery ; can it should have prevailed with one man, so conhe believed that men who forfeit peerage, trary to the sentiments of human nature. No, offices of honour, trust, power and profit, lose we all too well know sophistry vanishes at the two thirds of their estates, and make themselves approach of infallible death, and that Dr. more obnoxious to more severe laws than ever Tongue, and the mire hardened impostor his was in force against Christianity during the first companion in title and design, will find at the ten persecutions, and all this because they will approach of that grim usher to their eternal not swear against couscience, can have dispen- abodes, no resolution but a good conscience sations so convenient to their earthly well being, can make them follow him siniling, this truth and make no use of them ; nothing can be writ with an indelible character in every breast flote contradictory to human reason than these will save us a labour to answer his frivolous calampies, nor can any indifferent person chuse anatomizing those inens last words, delivered but see through such absurd contradictions. In so cheerfully and heartily at their execution; îne there has thirteen men, of which one a only we may safely make reflection on the last Protestant, have died already by tlie accusa paragraph of his impious and uncharitable tion of these four witnesses, all have gone out paper, where he says, It is no more than they expected, a truth undeniable as to him and his friously guilty of doing so, by a continued secompanions, who cannot but be conscious to ries of cheating, stealing, robberies, perjary themselves whether the evidence given against and buggery, and all other unnatural crimes them be true or false, and from that might well and uncleannesses sufficiently known, and lieved them guilty did or could : But it is in what truth can be expected from a low spirited vain to warn thinking people from making wretch, who for a little money (of which, he natural reflections on these mens dying words, complaios he has been cousened too) can be until it be proved that they made it their prac-contented to debase bis character of divine rice to violate all laws human and divine, by to be the zany or deputy devil to such mountebciter evidence than such as have been noto- banks,

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Anmimadversions on the last Speeches of the five Jesuits, viz.

Thomas White alias WHITEBREAD, Provincial of the Jesuits
in England; William HARCOURT, Pretended Rector of Lon-
don; John FENWICK, Procurator for the Jesuits in England;
John Gavan alias Gawen, and ANTHONY TURNER; who
were all executed at Tyburn for High Treason in conspiring

the Death of the King, &c. June 20, 1679.
PROTESTANTS, who make conscience of their | by this art. And therefore it is no wonder if
words, and count it a horrid crime to speak they decline it not at trials in courts of judica-
otherwise than they think when they are dying, cure, no nor when they are dying and ap-
may be ready to take the measures of others proaching the dreadful tribunal of the Judge of
by themselves, and to judge those guiltless, Heaven and Earth, though truth and sincerity
who, when they are dying, assert their inno be then, if ever, necessary. They have the
cency with the highest asseverations. But confidence to plead the examples of God, of
they will see reason to judge otherwise, if they Christ, of the ancient saints recorded in scrip-
take notice how full and clear the evidence is ture, in justification of it. But our Jesuits
by which these Jesuits were cast, and withall have snore pertinent instances, those of the
understand the principles of the persons exe- same principles, and in the like circumstances,
cuted, and their associates, which they were to encourage thein with oaths and asseverations
greatly concerned to put in practice, are such to assert what could not be true, or deny
as destroy all confidence in their words living what is not false, but by this device.
and dying. For by the common doctrine F. Garnet, predecessor of F. Whitebread
taught and received amongst them, they are both in his office and practices, being principal
furnished with expedients whereby they may of the Jesuits, and chief promoter of the Pow-
deny what is most true, and affirm what is most der plot,sa) when after secret conference be-
false ; and that with most solemn oaths or tween him and Hall, another Jesuit in the
dreadful imprecations, and yet neither lie, nor | Tower, he was asked before the Lords Com-
be forsworn, nor any way sin in the least de missioners, whether Hall and he had any con-
gree; and so may without any scruple endea-ference together, and was desired not to equi-
vour to deceive others by the use of such false. vocate; he swearing upon his salvation, reit-
ness, as at other times, so even when they are erating it with so many horrid imprecations as
dying. Their principal artifice, to wave otbers, wounded their bearts to hear, be denied again
is that which they call mental equivocation, and again that he had any discourse; yet after-
not on account of the ambiguousness in the wards when he knew that the thing was known,
words, thougb they may make their advantage and that Hall had confessed it, he cried the
of this also; but because of a double sense in Lords' mercy, and said he had offended if equi-
some proportion, partly expressed, and partly vocation did not help him.(b) Another time
reserved in their minds ; so that it is true in being asked whether he did not swear upon
their own sense, buc false in the sense of all the holy evangelists, that he had peither writ
that hear it. The use of it is allowed by all nor sent to the Jesuit Tesmond, which he
sorts of Papists, and particularly the Jesuits; it knew to be false? He answered, That he swore
is much endeared to them, and more famili- so lawfully enough, not knowing then that his
arly used by them than any other fraudulent letters were intercepter, and thinking they
arts, because the fraud herein is both more could not have disproved him.
easy, and undiscernable, and innocent in their
account, and the advantage of it admirable; (a) Gunpowder-Treason, p. 176. a Casaub.
there being nothing so false but it may be made Ep. ad Front. Duc.
true, nothing so true but it may be made false b) Ibid, p. 200. Gunpowder-Treason, p. 194.

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Tresham, (c) one of the chief undertakers in not do something which indeed he did do, un. the Powder Plot, upon the examination did derstanding within himself some other thing confess that F. Garnet was privy to the trea- else which he did not do, some other days than son; but afterwards by, the importunities of that wherein he did it, or any other addition his wife, three or foor hours before his death, that is true, this man does not indeed either lie he protested and took it upon his salvation, or forswear (f);" producing many authors for setting it down under his hand, That his former it, and referring to divers others (8). confession was false, and that he had not seen It seems mysterious, that the same thing Garnet in sixteen years before, at the least; should be both true and false; that be should and so he died. His protestation and oath were speak what is false in itself, and in his own not long after proved to be untrue ; yea, and judgment, and that which tends to deceive Garnet himself confessed that within that space others, and yet not lie. But they would clear he had seen him many times. Whereupon it thus; A proposition formed in this case has being demanded what he thought of Tresbam's two parts, one expressed and the other condying oath and protestation? He answered, cealed; that which is expressed is false, but It might be he meant to equivocate.

the part concealed being added to it, the entire Hereupon Garnet thus resolves the case proposition is true, e. g. F. W. did not design about the lawsulness of equivocating at point of to kill the king, this is false; but adding some death, as it was found in his papers communi- secret reserve, viz. king Harry, or king Charles cated to Casaubon by king James : “ If any before he was born, or in Scotland, and the one," says he, "shall enquire whether it be whole is true. And by this device our Jesuits, lawful lo imitate Tresham's equivocating in the though they as fully designed to kill Charles very article of death, upon some necessity, as the 2nd, as ever Ravillac did Harry the 4th; to free a friend from danger? It is truly law. yet they may deny it with all asseverations, ful,” says he, “and we may prove it by an and yet not lie at all (as they believe by virtue argument drawn from confessions; and since of this device): they may assert their innoit is lawful for any one to use this in the course cency in terms which are false in the sense of of his life, why may it not be used also by a all the world, yet by such a reserve all will be dying man?” Casaubon, ibid. p. 202.

true in their own sense; and so in averring Hereby we see that these were their prac- that which is most false, they persuade themtices of old, and justified by their teachers as selves they do no more lie, they do no more sin, lawful even at the hour of death ; therefore we than the child unborn, sbould not be surprised, if we find our Jesuits And here let the world judge what regard is use these arts in their last speeches; this is not due to the words of those, though they be the new to them, nor unwarrautable either at pub- words of dying men, whose doctrine assures the hic trials or executions.

most guilty persons in the world, that if they But their principles are further considerable, persist in a false defence of their inaocency, of which take an account in some severals.

unto death, yet by this method they First, by their doctrine they may lawfully teach them, it will be no lie, it will be no sin at say what is false, making use of a inental re- all. servation, by virtue of which that which is false This may be enough to satisfy us concerning in itself, will be true in their reserved sense; the common expressions wherein they all agree and therefore though it be gross untruth, as ex- to disclaim all guilt. But there is something pressed, and they know it to be so, and use it singular in F. Gavan's speech, which requires a with an intent to deceive others, yet they count particular consideration, and yet it inay be it no lie, and therefore no sin, and so they grounded on the common principle. I cannot need not fear to use it when they are passing imagine how that which he protests with the out of the world. That it is no lie, they gene- last words of a dying man to vindicate bis Sorally maintain. “If a man,” saith P rsons, ciety (for which I wish he were not more soli“ use mental reservation, he doth not offend citous than for his soul) can be true without against the negative precept which forbiddeth some fraudulent reserve, since it is very false in to lie. It is freed froin the nature of a lie, by itself, that the Jesuits allow not the doctrine of the due end just reservation in the speaker's king-killing, but detest and abhor it, or that mind (d),” says he. “By understanding some- none of them hold it lawful for a private perthing in our minds,” saith Navarr, “ we may son to kill a king, but only Mariana. I supmake that true which we affirm, though it be pose the principles of the Jesuit Sanctarellus false ; and that false which we deny, though are little more favourable to kings than those it be true (e)." And Sanchez the Jesuit more fully: “ If a man do swear tbat he did (1) • Si quis juret se non fecisse aliquid quod

revera fecit, intelligendo intra se aliquid aliud, (c) Proceeding against Traitors. Casaub. quod non fecit, vel aliam diem ab ex, in qua Ibid. 281.

fecit, vel quodvis aliud additum verum, revera (d) Mitigation, cap. 10, num. 23, p. 424. non mentitur nec esset perjurus.' Op. mor. (e) • Subintelligendo aliqua quibus fient lib. 3, cap. 6, num. 15. vera quæ annuimus, vel falsa quæ nega. (g) Angelus, Sylvester, Navarr, Valentia, mus.' Comm. in C. human, aures, q. 3, num. Salon, Toledo, Manuel, Philiarchus, Suarez, 13.

Leonardus, Sa. VOL, VII,




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of Mariana, his book on that account being / who may be instead of all. He declares, condemned and burnt by the parliament at “ That all the Jesuits spread far and wide Paris; yet it was printed at Rome, and ap-through the whole world, have entered into a proved by Mutius Vitellescus, the general of league to make away all heretical kings in any ihe Jesuits. And when the chief of that order manner whatsoever : nor will they despair of in France were examined, whether they did be effecting it, so long as any one Jesuit remains lieve as their general did at Rome? or would in the world (k)." do so if they were at Rome? It was answered There is no room to alledge particular docby F. Cotten in the name of the rest, That tors, which might easily be multiplied. That they would change their judgments with the which we charge the Jesuits with, in reference country, and would believe as they did at to the murdering of kings, may be reduced to Rome, when there, though he ridiculously de- two heads : nied that they did believe so while they were in

1. That the pope has power to depose kings France.

for heresy especially. However Mariana had many of the Jesuits

2. That being deposed, any one may kill who expressly owned his doctrine; Ribadeneira, Scribavius, under the name of Bonar- them, at least by the pope's order. scius, Becanus, Gretserus, do partly praise him, The former is the doctrine of their church, and partly defend his opinion. Another patron and not of particular doctors only; being estaof the Jesuits says plainly in an English trea-blished not only by the opinion of all sorts of tise, That they are enemies of that holy name their authors, but by the determination of of Jesus, that condemned Mariana for any such popes, and the decrees of general councils; so doctrine. And bis book having been before that hence the famous Jesuit Lessius deprinted at Toledo with the approbation of the clares, that if the pope had not this power of superiors of the Society, there was a new edi- deposing kings, the church which has taught it tion of it at Mentz by the procurement of the must of necessity err: and to hold that is Jesuits there. It is much if J. G. could make beretical, and a inore intolerable error, than all these to be but one Mariana. And wherein any about the sacrament can be. does Emanuel Sa(g) come short of Mariana greater than he, Cardinal Perron, (in his Diverin that particular wherein the Jesuit would ses Oeures, and Recueil General des Affaires clear the Society ? Or Becanus in his English du Clerge de France) declares it as the sense controversies? Or Suarez? a Jesuit of such of the whole clergy of France (who of all the reputation, chat bis judgment alone is valued Romanists are accounted least favourable to more than a thousand other authors, who ex- the papal power), that all who maintain the presses himself thus :

contrary, are heretics and schismatics. (1) “ When a king is deposed, then he is neither For the latter, we have the declared sense of lawful king nor prince; and if therefore he en- the whole body of the Jesuits in France (tban deavour to keep the kingdom under him by wbom, none of the society in any part of the strength, then he is an usurper, no lawful king, world, were more favourable to kings) in an having no true title to the crown; for that (h) Apology for their doctrine on this subject, to after the decree of deposition, he is altogether Harry the 4th ; yet there they declare in the deprived of bis kingdom, so that he cannot with words of Valentia, consonant to the doctrine a just title possess, and so may be used as a of Aquinas, Cajetan, Sotus, Coveruvius, Salontyrant or usurper, and by consequence may be ins, and others, That a Tyrant who has no slain by any private man."

just title, but usurps authority, may be killed by Here we have multitudes of Jesuits in one, any one. (m) Now there is none of them who allowing the killing of kings by any private man : for not only divers bishops, but the pro- (k) In Epist. ad Concil. Reg. Anglii, p. 22. vincial Jesuits of Portugal and Germany, testify nj Defens. decret. concil. Lateran. p. 46. their approbation of his judgment; and a Ergo tam est certum posse Pontificem coercere whole university declares, “ That there is no- vel punire principes temporales, his pænarum thing in it but ought to be approved, every generibus, quam est certum non posse ecclesiam thing being according to their own opinion and in fide et moribus errare. Here Suarez judgment (i)." Add but one F. Campian, maintains it to be as certain, as that this

church is infallible, Defens. fid. l. 3. c. 23. (g) Vid. Aphor. v. tyr. num. 2, p. 115. 0. 16. (h)At vero post sententiam latam omnino (m) Si est tyrannus secundo modo (viz. per privatur regno, ita ut non possit justo titulo arrogatam sibi in justam potestatem) quilibet illud possidere : ergo ex tunc poterit tanquam possit illum'occidere, Apol. Societ. Jes. in Gall. omnino tyrannus tractari, et consequenter a 1599. append. p. 115, &c. Suarez Defens.

quocunque privato poterit interfici.'Defens. fid. fid. lib. 6. c. 4. n. 14. Si rex talis post depositilib. 6. cap. 1, num. 14 and 17.

onem legitimam, in sua pertinacia perseverans (i) Nihil est in toto hoc opere a nostro regnum per vim retineat, incipit esse tyrannus omnium sensu discordans, cum de hac re sit in titulo, quia non est legitimus Rex, nec justo omnium nostrum eadem vox idem animus titulo regnum possidet. Assertitur hunc tyraneademque sententia.' Cens, academiæ Com. num quoad titulum, interfeci posse, a quacunq. plutensis.

privata persona, idem, ibid. num. 7.

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