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almost divine, guided by the light of mathematics to the individual enjoying that high distinction. His purely his own, first demonstrated the motions and claims to the regard of posterity are not more founded figures of the planets, the paths of comets, and the on his intellectual capacity, than on his moral excauses of the tides ; who discovered, what before his cellence. He maintained a steady and uncomprotime no one had even suspected, that rays of light mising adherence to his principles, at a time when are differently refrangible, and that this is the cause vacillation and change were so common as almost of colours; and who was a diligent, penetrating, and to escape unnoticed and uncensured. From some faithful interpreter of nature, antiquity, and the conscientious scruples, which he shared in common sacred writings. In his philosophy, he maintained with many of the wisest and most pious men of his the majesty of the Supreme Being; in his manners, time, he did not hesitate to sacrifice his views of he expressed the simplicity of the Gospel. Let preferment in the church, although his talents and ! mortals congratulate themselves that the world has learning, joined to the powerful influence of his ! seen so great and excellent a man, the glory of human numerous friends, might have justified him in asnature.'
piring to a considerable station. The benevolence
of his disposition continually appears in the geneJOHN RAY.
rosity of his praise, the tenderness of his censure, Joan Ray (1628-1705), the son of a blacksmith
and solicitude to promote the welfare of others. His at Black Notley, in Essex, was the most eminent of
modesty and self-abasement were so great, that they several distinguished and indefatigable cultivators of
transpire insensibly on all occasions; and liis atfecnatural history who appeared in England about the
tionate and grateful feelings led him, as has been niiddle of the seventeenth century. In the depart
remarked, to fulfil the sacred duties of friendship ment of botany, he laboured with extraordinary
| even to his own prejudice, and to adorn the bust of diligence; and his works on this subject, which are
his friend with wreaths which he himself might more numerous than those of any other botanist have justly assumed. All these qualities were reexcept Linnæus, have such merit as to entitle him
fined and exalted by the purest Christian feeling, to be ranked as one of the great founders of the
and the union of the whole constitutes a character science. Ray was educated for the church at Cam
which procured the admiration of contemporaries, bridge, where he was a fellow-pupil and intimate of
and well deserves to be recommended to the imiIsaac Barrow, His theological views were akin to
tation of posterity.** For the greater part of his the rational opinions held by that eminent divine,
popular fame, however, Ray is indebted to an admirand by Tillotson and Wilkins, with whom also Ray
able treatise published in 1691, under the title of was on familiar terms. The passing of the act of
The Wisdom of God Manifested in the Works of the uniformity in 1662 put an end to Ray's prospects
Creation, which has gone through many editions, in the church; for in that year he was deprived of
and been translated into several continental lanhis fellowship of Trinity college, on account of his
guages. One of his reasons for composing it is thus conscientious refusal to comply with the injunction,
stated by himself: ‘By virtue of my function, I susthat all ecclesiastical persons should make a decla. pect myself to be obliged to write something in ration of the nullity and illegality of the solemn
divinity, having written so much on other subjects; league and covenant. In company with his friend
for, being not permitted to serve the church with my Mr Willughby, also celebrated as a naturalist, he
ralist he tongue in preaching, I know not but it may be my visited several continental countries in 1663 ; both
duty to serve it with my hand in writing; and I before and after which year, his love of natural his.
have made choice of this subject, as thinking myself tory induced him to perambulate England and Scot
best qualified to treat of it.' Natural theology had land extensively. The principal works in which the
previously been treated of in England by Boyle, results of his studies and travels were given to the
Stillingtleet, Wilkins, Henry More, and Cudworth; public, are, Observations, Topographical, Moral, and
but Ray was the first to systematise and popularise Physiological, made in a Journey through part of the
the subject in the manner of Paley's work, the unLow Countries, Germany, Italy, and France (1673);
rivalled merits of which have caused it to supersede and Historia Plantarum Generalis [A General
both the treatise now under consideration, and the History of Plants'). The latter, consisting of two
similar productions of Derham in the beginning of large folio volumes, which were published in 1686 |
| the eighteenth century. But though written in a and 1688, is a work of prodigious labour, and
more pleasing style, and at a time when science had aims at describing and reducing to the author's
attained greater extension and accuracy, the - Natusystem all the plants that had been discovered
ral Theology' of Paley is but an imitation of Ray's throughout the world. As a cultivator of zoology
volume, and he has derived from it many of his and entomology also, Ray deserves to be mentioned
most striking arguments and illustrations. Ray with honour; and he farther served the cause of displays throughout his treatise much philosophical science by editing and enlarging the posthumous
| caution with respect to the admission of facts in works of his friend Willughby on birds and fishes.
natural history, and good sense in the retlections His character as a naturalist is thus spoken of by
ken of br, which he is led by his subject to indulge in. Sevethe Rey. Gilbert White of Selborne, who was addict-ral extracts from the work are here subjoined. ed to the same pursuits : Our countryman, the excellent Mr Ray, is the only describer that con
[The Study of Nature Recommended.] veys some precise idea in every term or word, main
Let us then consider the works of God, and observe taiming his superiority over his followers and imitators, in spite of the advantage of fresh discoveries
the operations of his hands : let us take notice of and and modern information.'* Cuvier, also, gives him * Memoir of Ray, in The Naturalist's Library, Entomology, a high character as a naturalist; and the author of vol. vii. p. 69. a recent memoir speaks of him in the following me + Derham's works here alluded to are, Physico-Theolowy, or a rited terms:- His varied and useful labours have Demonstration of the Being and Attributes of a God, from his justly caused him to be regarded as the father of Works of Creation (1713); and Astro-Theology, or a Demornatural history in this country; and his character stration of the Being and Attributes of a God, from a Surey or is, in every respect, such as we should wish to belong the Heavens (1714). The substance of both had been preached
by the author in 1711 and 1712, in the capacity of lecturer on * Natural History of Selborne, Letter 45. Boyle's foundation,
admire his infinite wisdom and goodness in the for nature hath placed an aponeurosis, or nervous ligamation of them. No creature in this sublunary worldment of a great thickness and strength, apt to stretch is capable of so doing beside man; yet we are deficient and shrink again as need requires, and void of sense, herein: we content ourselves with the knowledge of extending from the head (to which, and the the tongues, and a little skill in philology, or history vertebres of the neck, it is fastened at that end) to the perhaps, and antiquity, and neglect that which to me, middle vertebres of the back (to which it is knit at seerns more material, I mean natural history and the the other), to assist them to support the head in that works of the creation. I do not discommend or posture, which aponeurosis is taken notice of by the derogate from those other studies; I should betray vulgar by the name of fixfax, or pack-wax, or white nine own ignorance and weakness should I do so; I leather. It is also very observable in fowls that wade only wish they might not altogether justle out and ex- in the water, which, having long legs, have also necks clude this. I wish that this might be brought in fashion answerably long. Only in these too there is an examong us; I wish men would be no equal and civil, ception, exceeding worthy to be noted ; for some wateras not to disparage, deride, and vilify those studies fowl, which are palmipeds, or whole-footed, bare very which themselves skill not of, or are not conversant long necks, and yet but short legs, as swans and goese, in. No knowledge can be more pleasant than this, and some Indian birds; wherein we may observe the none that doth so satisfy and feed the soul; in com- admirable providence of Nature. For such birds as parison whereto that of words and phrases seems to were to search and gather their food, whether herbs ne insipid and jejune. That learning, saith a wise or insects, in the bottom of pools and deep waters, and observant prelate, which consists only in the form | hare long necks for that purpose, though their legs, and pedagogy of arts, or the critical notion upon words as is most convenient for swiinining, be but short. and phrases, bath in it this intrinsical imperfection, Whereas there are no land-fowl to be seen with short that it is only so far to be esteemed as it conduceth legs and long necks, but all have their vecks in length to the knowledge of things, being in itself but a kind coinmensurate to their legs. This instance is the of pedantry, apt to infect a man with such odd more considerable, because the atheists' usual faig huinours of pride, and affectation, and curiosity, as will not here help them out. For, say they, there will render him unfit for any great employment. were many animals of disproportionate parts, and of Words being but the images of matter, to be wholly absurd and incouth shapes, produced at first, in the given up to the study of these, what is it but Pygma-infancy of the world; but because they could not lion's frenzy to fall in love with a picture or image. gather their food to perform other functions necessary As for oratory, which is the best skill about words, to maintain life, they soon perished, and were lost that hath by some wise men been esteemed but a again. For these birds, we see, can gather their food voluptuary art, like to cookery, which spoils wholesomne upon land conveniently enough, notwithstanding the meats, and helps unwholesome, by the variety of length of their necks; for example, geese graze upon sauces, serving more to the pleasure of taste than the commons, and can feed themselves fat upon land. Yet health of the body.
is there not one land-bird which hath its neck thus
disproportionate to its legs; nor one watcr one neither, [Proportionate Lengths of the Necks and Legs of
but such as are destined by nature in such manner as
we have mentioned to search and gather their food; Animals. ]
for nature makes not a long neck to no purpose. I shall now add another instance of the wisdom of nature, or rather the God of nature, in adapting the
(God's Echortation to Activity.] parts of the same animal one to another, and that is the proportioning the length of the neck to that of Methinks by all this provision for the use and serthe legs. For seeing terrestrial animals, as well birds vice of man, the Almighty interpretatively speaks to as quadrupeds, are endued with legs, upon which they him in this manner: 'I have now placed thee in a stand, and wherewith they transfer themselves from spacious and well-furnished world ; I have endued place to place, to gather their food, and for other thee with an ability of understanding what is beauticonveniences of life, and so the trunk of their body ful and proportionable, and have made that which is must needs be elevated above the superficies of the so agreeable and delightful to thee ; I have provided earth, so that they could not conveniently either thee with materials whereon to exercise and employ gather their food or drink if they wanted a neck, thy art and strength; I have given thee an excellent therefore Nature hath not only furnished them there instrument, the hand, accominodated to make use of with, but with such a one as is commensurable to them all; I have distinguished the earth into bills their legs, except here the elephant, which hath and valleys, and plains, and meadows, and woods; all indeed a short neck (for the excessive weight of his these parts capable of culture and improvement by thy head and teeth, which to a long neck would have been industry ; I have committed to thee for thy assistance unsupportable), but is provided with a trunk, where in thy labours of ploughing, and carrying, and drawing, with, as with a hand, he takes up his food and drink, and travel, the laborious ox, the patient ass, and the and brings it to his mouth. I say the necks of birds strong and serviceable horse; I have created a mul. and quadrupeds are commensurate to their legs, so titude of seeds for thce to make choice out of them, that they which have long legs have long necks, and of what is most pleasant to thy taste, and of most they that have short legs short ones, as is seen in wholesome and plentiful nourishment; I have also the crocodile, and all lizards; and those that have no made great variety of trees, bearing fruit both for legs, as they do not want necks, so neither have they food and physic, those, too, capable of being meliorated any, as fishes. This equality between the length of and improved by transplantation, stercoration, incithe legs and neck, is especially seen in beasts that sion, pruning, watering, and other arts and devices. feed constantly upon grass, whose necks and legs are Till and manure thy fields, sow them with thy seeds, always very near equal; very near, I say, because the extirpate noxious and unprofitable herbs, guard them neck must necessarily have some advantage, in that it from the invasions and spoil of beasts, clear and fence
annot hang perpendicularly down, but must incline a in thy meadows and pastures, dress and prune thy little. Moreover, because this sort of creatures must vines, and so rank and dispose them as is most suitneeds hold their heads down in an inclining posture able to the climate; plant thee orchards, with all for a considerable time together, which would be very sorts of fruit-trees, in such order as may be most laborious and painful for the muscles; therefore on beautiful to the eye, and most comprehensive of each side the ridge of the vertebres of the neck, plants; gardens for culinary herbs, and all kinds of sallading; for delectable flowers, to gratify the eve without plantations, without corn-fields or vineyards, with their agreeable colours and figures, and thy scent where the roving hordes of the savage and truculent with their fragrant odours; for odoriferous and ever- inhabitants transfer themselves from place to place green shrubs and suffrutices; for exotic and medicinal in wagons, as they can find pasture and forage for plants of all sorts ; and dispose them in that comely their cattle, and live upon milk, and flesh roasted in order as may be niost pleasant to behold, and com- the sun, at the pommels of their saddles; or a rude modious for access. I have furnished thee with all and unpolished America, peopled with slothful and materials for building, as stone, and timber, and naked Indians-instead of well-built houses, living in slate, and lirne, and clay, and earth, whereof to make pitiful huts and cabins, made of poles set end-ways; bricks and tiles. Deck and bespangle the country then surely the brute beast's condition and manner of with houses and villages convenient for thy habita- living, to which what we have mentioned doth nearly tion, provided with out-houses and stables for the approach, is to be esteemed better than man's, and harbouring and shelter of thy cattle, with barns and wit and reason was in vain bestowed on him. granaries for the reception, and custody, and storing up thy corn and fruits. I have made thee a sociable
[All Things not Made for Man.) creature, zoon politikon, for the improvement of thy understanding by conference, and communication of There are infinite other creatures without this earth, observations and experiments; for mutual help, as- which no considerate man can think were made only sistance, and defence, build thee large towns and for man, and have no other use. For my part, I cancities with straight and well-paved streets, and ele- not believe that all the things in the world were so gant rows of houses, adorned with magnificent temples made for man, that they have no other use. for my honour and worship, with beautiful palaces For it seems to me highly absurd and unreasonable for thy princes and grandees, with stately balls for to think that bodies of such vast magnitude as the public meetings of the citizens and their several com- ! fixed stars were only made to twinkle to us; nay, a panies, and the sessions of the courts of judicature, multitude of them there are, that do not so much as besides public porticos and aqueducts. I have im- twinkle, being, either by reason of their distance or planted in thy nature a desire of seeing strange and of their smallness, altogether invisible to the naked foreign, and finding out unknown countries, for the eye, and only discoverable by a telescope; and it is improvement and advance of thy knowledge in geo- likely, perfecter telescopes than we yet have may bring graphy, by observing the bavs, and creeks, and havens, to light many more; and who knows how many lie and promontories, the outlets of rivers, the situation out of the ken of the best telescope that can possibly of the maritime towns and cities, the longitude and be made! And I believe there are many species in latitude, &c., of those places ; in politics, by noting nature, even in this sublunary world, which were never their government, their manners, laws, and customs, yet taken notice of by man, and consequently of no use their diet and medicine, their trades and manufac- to him, which yet we are not to think were created in tures, their houses and buildings, their exercises and vain; but may be found out by, and of use to, those sports, &c. In physiology, or natural history, by who shall live after us in future ages. But though searching out their natural rarities, the productions in this sense it be not true that all things were made both of land and water, what species of animals, plants, for man, yet thus far it is, that all the creatures in and minerals, of fruits and drugs, are to be found there, the world may be some way or other useful to us, at what commodities for bartering and permutation, least to exercise our wits and understandings, in whereby thou mayest be enabled to make large addi- considering and contemplating of them, and so a tions to natural history, to advance those other us subject of admiring and glorifying their and our sciences, and to benefit and enrich thy country by Maker. Seeing, then, we do believe and assert that increase of its trade and merchandise. I hare given all things were in some sense made for us, we are thce timber and iron to build the hulls of ships, tall thereby obliged to make use of them for those purtrees for masts, flax and hemp for sails, cables and poses for which they serve us, else we frustrate this corslage for rigging. I have armed thee with courage end of their creation. Now, some of them serve and hardiness to attempt the seas, and traverse the only to exercise our minds. Many others there be spacious plains of that liquid element; I have assisted which might probably serve us to good purpose, thee with a compass, to direct thy course when thou whose uses are not discovered, nor are they ever like shalt be out of all ken of land, and have nothing in to be, without pains and industry. True it is, many view but sky and water. Go thither for the purposes of the greatest inventions have been accidentally before-mentioned, and bring home what may be useful stumbled upon, but not by men supine and careless, and beneficial to thy country in general, or thyself in but busy and inquisitive. Some reproach methinks particular.'
it is to learned men, that there should be so many I persuade myself, that the bountiful and gracious animals still in the world whose outward shape is not Author of man's being and faculties, and all things yet taken notice of or described, much less their way else, delights in the beauty of his creation, and is of generation, food, manners, uses, observed. well pleased with the industry of man, in adorning the earth with beautiful cities and castles, with plea
Ray published, in 1672, a Collection of English Prosant villages and country-houses, with regular gardens,
verbs, and, in 1700, A Persuasive to a Holy Life. The and orchards, and plantations of all sorts of shrubs,
| latter possesses the same rational and solid character and herbs, and fruits, for meat, medicine, or moderate
which distinguishes his scientific and physico-theodelight; with shady woods and groves, and walks set logical works. From a posthumous volume of his with rows of elegant trees ; with pastures clothed with correspondence published by Derham, we extract flocks, and valleys covered over with corn, and pea- the following affecting letter, written on his deathdows burthened with grass, and whatever else diffe
bed to Sir Hans Sloane : renceth a civil and well-cultivated region from a "Dear Sir—The best of friends. These are to take barren and desolate wilderness.
a final leave of you as to this world: I look upon If a country thus planted and adorned, thus myself as a dying man. God requite your kindness polished and civilised, thus improved to the height by expressed anyways towards me a hundredfold; bless all manner of culture for the support and sustenance, you with a contluence of all good things in this and convenient entertainment of innumerable multi-world, and eternal life and happiness hereafter ; grant tudes of people, be not to be preferred before a bar- us a happy meeting in heaven. I am, Sir, eternally harous and inhospitable Scythia, without houses, I yours-John Ray.
many are preserved in the Ashmolean museum and THOMAS STANLEY-SIR WILLIAM DUGDALE
the library of the Royal Society, prove his researches ANTHONY WOODELIAS ASHMOLE-JOIIN
to have been very extensive, and have furnished AUBREY-THOMAS RYMER.
much useful information to later antiquaries. AuDuring this period there lived several writers of brey has been too harshly censured by Gifford as a great industry, whose works, though not on subjects credulous fool; yet it must be admitted that his calculated to give the names of the authors niuch power of discriminating truth from falschood was by popular celebrity, have yet been of considerable use no means remarkable. Three volumes, published to subsequent literary men. THOMAS STANLEY in 1813, under the title of Letters written by Eminent (1625-1678) is the author of an erudite and bulky Persons in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, compilation, entitled The History of Philosophy ; 8c. with Lives of Eminent Men, are occupied princontaining the Lives, Opinions, Actions, and Dis- cipally by very curious literary anecdotes, which courses of the Philosophers of every Sect. Of this Aubrey communicated to Anthony Wood. THOMAS the first volume appeared in 1655, and the fourth in RYMER, a distinguished historical antiquary, is the 1662. Its style is uncouth and obscure ;* and the last of his class whom we shall mention at present. work, though still resorted to as a mine of informa- Having been appointed royal historiographer in tion, has been in other respects superseded by more elegant and less voluminous productions. SIR WILLIAM DUGDALE (1605–1686) was highly distinguished for his knowledge of heraldry and antiquities. His work entitled The Baronage of England, is esteemed as without a rival in its own department; and his Antiquities of Warwickshire Illustrated (1656), has been placed in the foremost rank of county histories. He published also a History of St Paul's Cathedral; and three volumes of a great work entitled Monasticon Anglicanum (1655-1673), intended to embrace the history of the monastic and other religious foundations which existed in England before the Reformation. Besides several other publications, Dugdale left a large collection of manuscripts, which are now to be found in the Bodleian library at Oxford, and at the Herald's college. ANTHONY WOOD (1632-1695), a native of Oxford, was addicted to similar pursuits. He published, in 1691, a well-known work entitled Athene Oxonienses, being an account of the lives and writings of almost all the eminent authors educated at Oxford, and many of those educated at the university of Cambridge. This book has been of much utility to the compilers of biographical works, though, in point of composition and impartiality, it is held in little esteem. Wood appears to have been a respecter of truth, but to have been frequently misled by narrow-minded prejudices and hastily-formed opinions. His style is poor and vulgar, and his mind seems to have been the reverse of
Thomas Rymer. philosophical. He compiled also a work on the his- 1692, he availed himself of the opportunities of retory and antiquities of the university of Oxford, search which his office afforded him, and in 1704 which was published only in Latin, the translation began to publish a collection of public treaties and into that language being made by Dr Fell, bishop I compacts. under the title of Federa. Contentiones. of Oxford. ELIAS ASHMOLE (1617-1692), a famous et cujuscunque generis Acta Publica, inter Reges Angliæ antiquary and virtuoso, was a friend of Sir William et alios Principes, ab anno 1101. Of this work he Dugdale, whose daughter he married. In the earlier published fifteen volumes folio, being assisted in his part of his life he was addicted to astrology and al-labours by Robert Sanderson, another industrious chemy, but afterwards devoted his attention more antiquary, by whom five more were added after exclusively to antiquities, heraldry, and the collec- Rymer's death in 1715. The Federa,' though imtion of coins and other rarities. His most celebrated methodical and ill digested, is a highly valuable work, entitled The Institution, Laws, and Ceremonies publication, and, indeed, is indispensable to those of the Most Noble Order of the Garter, was published who desire to be accurately acquainted with the in 1672. A collection of rarities, books, and manu- history of England. Fifty-eight manuscript volumes, scripts, which he presented to the university of Ox-containing a great variety of historical materials ford, constituted the foundation of the Ashmolean collected by Rymer, are preserved in the British museum now existing there. John AUBREY (1626- | museum. 1700) studied at Oxford, and, while there, aided in the collection of materials for Dugdale's Monasticon
TOM D'URFEY AND TOM BROWN. Anglicanum;' at a later period, he furnished valuable assistance to Anthony Wood. His only published Very different in character from these grave and work is a collection of popular superstitions relative ponderous authors were their contemporaries Tom to dreams, portents, ghosts, witchcraft, &c., under D'URFEY and TOM BROWN, who entertained the the title of Miscellanies. His manuscripts, of which public in the reign of William III. with occasional * Take the following sentence as a specimen : Scepticism
whimsical compositions both in prose and verse, is a faculty opposing phenomena and intelligibles all manner
which are now valued only as conveying some notion of ways; whereby we proceed through the equivalence of con
of the taste and manners of the time. D'Urfey's trary things and speeches, first to suspension, then to indistur comedies, which possess much farcical humour, have bance."
long been considered too licentious for the stage. As
a merry and facetious companion, his society was which was two hundred years a-building; therefore, greatly courted, and he was a distinguished com- gentlemen, lavish not away all your praises, I beseech poser of jovial and party songs. In the 29th num-you, upon one man, but allow others their share. ber of The Guardian,' Stecle mentions a collection Why, thou diminutive inconsiderable wretch, said I of sonnets published under the title of Laugh and be in a great passion to him, thou worthless irlie loggerFat, or Pills to Purge Melancholy; at the same time head, thou pigmy in sin, thou Tom Thumb in ini. censuring the world for ungratefully neglecting to quity, how dares such a puny insect, as thou art, have reward the jocose labours of D'Urfey, who was so the impudence to enter the lists with Louis le Grand ! large a contributor to this treatise, and to whose Thou valuest thyself upon firing a church, but how! humorous productions so many rural squires in the when the mistress of the house was gone out to assist remotest part of this island are obliged for the dig. Olympias. 'Tis plain, thou hadet not the courage to nity and state which corpulency gives them. In do it when the goddess was present, and upon the spot. the 67th number of the same work. Addison humo. But what is this to what my royal master can boast of, rously solicits the attendance of his readers at a play that had destroyed a hundred and a hundred such for D'Urfey's benefit. The produce seems to have foolish fabrics in his time. * * relieved the necessities of the poet, who continued to lie had no sooner made his exit, but, cries an odd give forth his drolleries till his death in 1723. Tom sort of a spark, with his hat buttoned up before, like Brown, who died in 1704, was a merry fellow' and a country scraper, Uuder favour, sir, what do you libertine, who, having by his immoral conduct lost think of me? Why, who are you? replied I to him. the situation of schoolmaster at Kingston-upon- Who am I, answered he ; why, Nero, the sixth emThames, became a professional author and libeller peror of Rome, that murdered my - Come, said in the metropolis. His writings, which consist of I to him, to stop your prating, I know your history as dialogues, letters, poems, and other miscellanies, well as yourself, that murdered your mother, kicked display considerable learning as well as shrewdness your wife down stairs, despatched two apostles out of and humour, but are deformed by obscene and scur- | the worlal, begun the first persecution against the Chrisrilous buffoonery. From the ephemeral nature of tians, and lastly, put your master Seucca to death. the subjects, very few of them can now be perused (These actions are made light of, and the sarcastic with interest; indeed the following extracts com- shade proceed
me shade proceeds ] Whereas, his most Christian majesty, prise nearly all the readable passages that can with whosc advocate I ain resolved to be against all opposers delicacy be presented in these modern times.
whatever, las bravely and generously starred a million
of poor Hugenots at home, and sent t'other million of [Letter from Scarron in the Next World to Louis XIV.)
them a-grazing into foreign countries, contrary to
solemn edicts, and repeated promises, for no other All the conversation of this lower world at present provocation, that I know of, but because they were runs upon you ; and the devil a word we can hear in such coxcombs as to place him upon the throne. In any of our coffee-houses, but what his Gallic majesty short. friend Vero, thou nav
rogue of is more or less concerned in. 'Tis agreed on by all the third or fourth class; but be advised by a stranger, our virtuosos, that since the days of Dioclesian, no and never show thyself such a fool as to dispute the prince has been so great a benefactor to hell as your pre-eminence with Louis le Grand, who has murdered self; and as much a master of eloquence as I was once more men in his reign, let me tell thee, than thou hast thought to be at Paris, I want words to tell you how murdered tunes, for all thou art the vilest thrummer much you are commended here for so heroically tramp- upon cat-rut the sun ever beheld. However, to gire ling under foot the treaty of Ryswick, and opening a the devil his due, I will say it before thy face, and new scene of war in your great climacterie, at which behind thy back, that if thou badst reigned as many age most of the princes before you were such recreants, years as jy gracious master has done, and hadst had, ay to think of making up their scores with heaven, instead of Tigellinus, a Jesuit or two to have governed and leaving their neighbours in peace. But you, they thy conscience, thou mightest, in all probability, hare say, are above such sordid precedents ; and rather | inåde a much more magnificent figure, and been in. than Pluto should want men to people his dominions, ferior to none but the mighty monarch I have been are willing to spare him half a million of your own talking of subjects, and that at a juncture, too, when you are having put my Roman emperor to silence. I looked not overstocked with them.
about me, and saw a pack of grammarians (for so I This has gained you a universal applause in these guessed them to be by their impertinence and noise) regions ; the three Furies sing your praises in every disputing it very fiercely at the next table; the inatstreet: Bellona swears there's never a prince in Chris- ter in debate was, which was the most heroical age; tendom worth hanging besides yourself; and Charon and one of them, who valued himself very much upon bustles for you in all companies. He desired me his reading, maintained, that the heroical age, proabout a week ago to present his most humble respectsperly so called, began with the Thcban, and ended to you, adding, that if it had not been for your ma- with the Trojan war, in which compass of time that jesty, he, with his wife and children, must long ago glorious constellation of heroes, Hercules, Jason, Thebeen quartered upon the parish ; for which reason he seus, Tidaus, with Agamemnon, Ajax, Achilles, Hecduly drinks your health every morning in a cup of tor, Troilus, and Diomedes flourished ; men that had cold Styx next his conscience. *
| all signalised themselves by their personal gallantry Last week, as I was sitting with some of my ac- and valour. His next neighbour argued very fiercely quaintance in a public-house, after a great deal of for the age wherein Alexander founded the Grecian ! impertinent chat about the affairs of the Milanese, / monarchy, and saw so many noble generals and comand the intended siege of Mantua, the whole company manders about him. The third was as obstreperous fell a-talking of your majesty, and what glorious ex. for that of Julius Caesar, and managed his argument ploits you had performed in your time. Why, gentle with so much heat, that I expected every minute when men, says an ill-looked rascal, who proved to be Hero- these puppies would have gone to loggerheads in good stratus, for Pluto's sake let not the grand monarch earnest. To put an end to your controversy, gentlerun away with all your praises. I have done some-men, says I to them, you may talk till your lungs are thing memorable in my time too ; 'twas I who, out foundered; but this I positively assert, that the preof the gaicté de cour, and to perpetuate my name, sent age we live in is the most heroical age, and that fired the famous temple of the Ephesian Diana, and my master, Louis le Grand, is the greatest hero of in two hours consumed that magnificent structure, / it. Hark you me, sir, how do you make that appear!