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• of Adan), deserveth God's wrath and damna
tion, which he is of himself unable to avert." Here we are taught that ' denial,” preterition,' and reprobation,' are synonymous; and that the election of some to certain privileges, implies that these privileges are denied to the rest of • the human race, who are passed over and left « to their own unassisted power.' His Lordship is here condemned on his own shewing. He allows that all professing Christians are 'elected;' consequently, those who are not professing Christians, to whom the means of salvation were never sent, are 'denied' these means; that is, all who are not elected, in his own sense of the term, are the objects of ' denial,' of 'prete
rition,' and of reprobation,'—and these are by far the greater part of the human race.
$ 10. From his Lordship’s distinct confession, he, no less than the Calvinists, believes that man by his own strength 'cannot’ turn to the appointed mean of salvation ---yea, deserveth God's wrath, which he is of himself unable to avert. Of course, then, those millions of the human race who are not 'elected to the means of salvation, are, according to his own scheme, denied, passed over, left, reprobated. If Election and Reprobation are inseparable, or neces
* Refut. p. 266.
sarily imply each other, as taught by CALVIN and his Lordship, wherein consists the difference between the reformer and the dignitary? Truly in this, that the former regards a number of mankind individually, and the latter a number of them collectively, reprobated. The one parcels out his numbers in retail, the other disposes of them in the gross. Which of these ideas is the most revolting, as implying 'denial,” it is difficult to say. In this voluine, at any rate, no such doctrine is held.
§ 11. All mankind are chosen to enjoy some benefits; a part of them are elected, as nations who enjoy the gospel, to superior benefits; Christian congregations to whom the gospel is faithfully preached, and the ordinances of Christ are duly administered, are elected in a still higher sense; while those individuals among them who have a sincere disposition, and a lively faith, to whom it is given on the behalf of Christ, not only to believe, but also to suffer for his name--those who have preventing and confirming grace, who are kept by the power of God through faith unto salvation - are elected to blessings so great that “eye hath not seen nor ear heard, nor has it entered into the heart of man” to conceive their greatness and excellence. But
while we hold election in different senses or degrees, we disavow the idea of denial' in the active sense.
We maintain no reprobation' except what belongs to those of mankind who are finally (aồoxsuoi) disapproved, in the scriptural sense of this term. By hastily adopting the Hyper-Calvinistic idea of Election and Reprobation as inseparable, though the 17th Article wisely disjoins them, his Lordship exhibits another display of that species of warfare, in which he seems so peculiarly to excel.
12. The attentive reader of the “ Refutation” may perceive many other terms, especially in the quotations from the Fathers, which are used in an equivocal sense, where the reasoning is fallacious, and inconsistent with sentiments avowed by themselves. For instance, they frequently confound necessity and force, cause and occasion, freedom and power, grace, in the objective, and in the subjective sense, election in a connected, and in an unconnected sense, &c. While men consider themselves privileged to use equivocal terms in an undefined sense,--instead of candid controversy, for the purpose of investigating and ascertaining truth, its legitimate end, their contest will invariably degenerate into unprofitable and irritating logomachy. Were theologians and writers on moral science to imitate the laudable example of mathe
maticians and judicious writers on natural philosophy, by fixing either univocal or defined terms to specific ideas, their lucubrations would be far more honourable to themselves and useful to the public.
Assumed Principles of MORAL OBLIGATION.
$1. The “ Refutation" assumes that something more than physical
powers, moral means, and Freedom, is requisite to constitute Moral Obligation. § 2. This assumption exemplified in a variety of quoted phrases. $ 3. To suppose that internal grace is essential
to moral Obligation is subversive of the idea of Moral Government. $ 4. The “ Refutation" assumes that the Liberty of Moral Agents is a
physical Power.--The fallacy exposed. 5. That the efficacy of moral means does not essentially depend on a previous disposition. This proved an inconsistency. $ 6. That an influence followed with a certainty of result in moral actions is incompatible with freedom.--The assumption disapproved. $ 7. That if the event be
certain, means are superfluous.- This proved to be erroneous. $ 8. The true notion of Moral Obligation should be sought from the
Essential Characters of God and the creature ; and $ 9. From the
Relation suhsisting between the Governor and the governed. § 10. The Importance of correct views of Moral Obligation.
§ 1. Anotuer ground of inconsistency with truth and with themselves in the Bishop and the Fathers quoted by him, is the assumption of certain principles of Moral Obligation, which are demonstrably unfounded. One of these is, that something more than physical powers (or faculties), moral means, and freedom, is requisite to constitute obligation, in a moral sense. By “physical powers” I mean, intellect and will, (an intellect to represent an object, a will to choose it,) and a capability of enjoying the chief good, --which is that excellency of our nalure by which we are essentially distinguished