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the several courts, the mayor, recorder, aldermen, and Harrisburg, Penn. April 11th, 1826. select and common councis of the city of Philadelphia, Captaux David Cornell,

and a large assemblage of citizens. A copy of my ad. United States Nary.

dress to Captain Conner, and his reply, are hereto anSir-It affords me great pleasure to convey to you a nexed. copy of a preamble and resolution, unanimously adopt. : Hoping that what has been done will meet with your ed by the legislature of Pennsylvania, and to have the approbation, I have the honor to be, with sentiments of opportunity of communicating to you the high sense the much respect and esteem, your obedient servant, government of Pennsylvania entertains for your good

G. B. PORTER, conduct and intrepidity, displayed as an officer of the

Adj. General Pa. United States navy, in two, among the most brilliant naval engagements of the late war.

Captain Conner-On this, the anniversary of the most Arrangernents have been made to have the sword di- memorable day in the history of nations-and at that rected to be presented to you, prepared for that pur- hall in which the independence of these United States pose, as early as practicable.

was first proclaimed to an astonished world, I have the I have the honour to be,

gratification of performing the most pleasing task which Very respectfully,

could devolve upon me--to communicate to you the Your obedient servant,

high sense which the government of this commonwealth J. ANDW. SHI'LZE. entertains for your good conduct and intrepidity, disSir-I have had the honour to receive your letter of played in two of the most brilliant exploits of our naval the 11th inst. accompanied with a copy of the pream- forces during the late war, and to present to you, in the ble and resolution unanimously adopted by the legisla- name of the Governor of the commonwealth of Pennsyl. ture of Pennsylvania.". This flattering testimony of the vania, an appropriate sword, which has been procured approbation of my native state, so obligingly communi- agreeably to a resolution unanimously adopted by the cated by your excellency, has penetrated me with the legislature. deepest gratitude.

In referring to the account of the capture of his BriIn return, I can only pledge myself to use the sword tannic Majesty's ship Peacock, by the United States which has been so liberally voted to me, in such a cause, sloop of war Hornet, in which you were acting lieutenand on such occasions, as must receive the sanction of ant, your conduct is eminently conspicuous for undauntthe patriotic authorities from which it emanated. ed courage and great bravery, while the battle raged;

Be pleased to accept the assurance of the very high for consummate skill and matchless intrepidity in exe. regard of your excellency's most obedient servant. cuting the order for the removal of the prisoners; and

D. CONNER. for that noble philanthropy and humanity exhibited in His Excellency J. ANDREW SHULZE,

your unexampled exertions to save, at the imminent risk Governor of the state of Pennsylvania.

of your own life, the lives of those whom you had so gala Philadelphia, April 15th, 1826.

lantly defeated. Truly did your commanding officer,

the immortal Lawrence, in his official report to the SeHarrisburg, June 15, 1827.}

cretary of the Navy say, “ he would be doing injustice GEORGE B. Porten, Esq.

to your merits, were he not to recommend you particu. Adjutant General of Pennsylvania.

larly to his notice.” Sir-hy a resolution of the legislature of Pennsylva- Nor, sir, is there less to applaud in your patriotic and nia, of the twenty-fifth of February, 1826, an official meritorious conduct, when, while first lieutenant in the copy of which is herewith transmitted, the governor was same vessel, she captured the Penguin. Not even a requested to procure and present, in the name of the desperate wound, nor the expectation that impending commonwealth, to captain David CONNER, of the Unit- fate seemed to have decreed that in a few moments more ed States' navy, for his good conduct and intrepidity, your gallant spirit should wing its flight to eternity, displayed in two of the naval engagements with the could daunt your courage, while victory was yet uncerenemy, during the late war, an appropriate sword; not tain. No, sir, although exhausted by loss of blood, so to exceed in price the sum of four hundred dollars; and copiously shed for the honour of your country, you the governor baving received information that the sword maintained your post with heroic ardour, and lived to is now prepared and ready for delivery, has instructed witness a glorious victory, in which you acted so noble a me to inform you, that it is his wish that you will repair part, that well might the brave captain Biddle say, as he to the city of Philadelphia, and on his behalf

, and in the did, “ you were an officer of much promise, and that name of the cominonwealth, present the said sword to your conduct was in the highest degree creditable to Captain Conner, agreeably to the said resolution of the yourself

, and called for his warmest recommendation." legislature.

This, sir, is not Aattery. It is honour to the brave, for I am, with much respect, your obedient servant, conduct which has aided in establishing for our country

I. D. BARNARD. a character the most exalted, and which has covered ADJUTAXT GENERAL'S OFFICE, you and the other officers of our navy, with imperisha. Lancaster, November 9, 1827.

ble glory. His Excellency, J. ANDREW SHULZE,

Pennsylvania has always vied with her sister states; Governor of Pennsylvania.

has taken a just pride in conferring honours on her naSir-It becomes my duty to report to you that agree. tive citizens. And I can truły say, no one more heartily ably to your wish, as expressed in the letter of the Se applauds this patriotic zeal, ihan our present executive, cretary of State of the 15th of June last, I repaired to the Governor Shulze. It is a source of pleasure and satiseity of Philadelphia, and on the 4th day of July present. faction to him, that during bis administration he has the ed, on your behalf

, and in the name of the common opportunity of procuring and presenting this sword, to wealth of Pennsylvania, to captain David Conner, of the one so justly entitled to it; whose achievements have United States' navy, the sword which had been prepar- aided so much in convincing the world that, man to man, ed by Messrs. Fletcher and Gardiner, under your direc- and ship to ship, the star spangled banner is invincible; tions, agreeably to a resolution of the legislature, passed that however contemptible the “striped bunting" had on the twenty-fifth day of February, 1826. The cere been in the eyes of the British navy, their proud banners mony of presentation was performed in front of the state were and ever will be humbled by the unconquerable houca, in the presence of commodore Bainbridge, cap- bravery and superior skill of American spirits. tain Elliott, and the other naval officers attached to the In this sentiment permit me to tell you, I most cor. station, and then in the city, General Patterson's bri- dially concur. And although I regret, exceedingly, that gade of volunteers, the Cincinnati society, the Judges of this « tribute of respect” this honour justly duc, bus been so long withheld; which can only be accounted for where each axle-tree is subjected tufriction. Fourteen by your extreme modesty, and that of your friends, in wagons move together in a section, and two sections go not presenting your claims and services to the notice of down at the same time. All being ready, the bigle of the government of your native stute; yet I trust you will the coachman sounded, and the company saw the lon not consider it the less acceptable, when you are assur- sections start. Very little effort was necessary to set ed that the resolution which I present you was unani. them in motion. At first they went off slowly, gaining mously adopted, as soon as it was offered, and that every velocity as they advanced. One man is sufficient to citizen of Pennsylvania believes, that should the go- each section of the wagons, and of course twenty-one vernment of the United States, at any time hereafter, be tons of coal. He mounts a little box behind, and by the come engaged in war upon the ocean, nothing but an simple pulling of a rope, restrains their speed to any opportunity will be wanting to convince them, that you point between twenty miles and one nile an hour. He continue worthy of their partiality and kind feeling; that has the train in perfect command. Next to the two secyou will do honour to the state which gave you birth; that tions, and perhaps 40 perches in the rear, came the you are deserving of that high recommendation, which pleasure carriages filled with company from the Hotel, in your youth you obtained; that you are capable of tak- ladies and gentlemen. Of these there were fourteen or ing the place of Decatur, Perry, Lawrence, and those fifteen. The coachman, a merry fellow, yet exceedingother naval worthies, who, though called from this to, ly civil and obliging, took his seat, called to his horses, we trust, a better world, have left their names and cha- cracked his whip, and away we went at fine speed. racters as imperishable as the world itself; that you are After us came a section of boxes, filled with mules destined to be one of the most honoured and illustrious and horses, troughs before them filled with provender, among the bravest of the brave.

which they eat with as much freedom as if in their staCAPTAIN CONNER'S REPLY.

bles, as they roll along the rail-way. The road is made It is with emotions of the deepest sensibility that I re- by laying logs across it, perfectly bedded and levelled, ceive this most gratifying evidence of the approbation a foot perhaps a part; on these, lengthwise, and running with which the government of my native state has view. with the road, and on each side wide enough apart for ed my public services. A splendid testimonial of this the wheels to run, are fastened two timbers six or secharacter, emanating from a state, distinguished for her ven inches square. On these are nailed bars of iron. enlightened patriotism, constitutes the highest reward This simple-very simple construction, constitutes the to which an officer can aspire. The sons of Pennsylva-rail-road. Consider yourself standing a few perches nia engaged in the national service, may well be proud from the way. Hear you that distant rumbling sound of their birthright, since she loses no opportunity of re- like an earthquake? In an instant behold those wagons! warding the humblest of them, who have acquitted with what speed they coine, yet how regular are their themselves in a satisfactory manner, while engaged with movements !-how easily they guicie!-- with what facithe enemies of our country.

lity they turn with every turning of the road! A lever For the kind and flattering manner in which you have is fixed to each wagon from near the front left wheel, been pleased to notice my humble services, I offer to and rises above the side of the car; by pulling that leyou my most respectful thanks. I also beg leave to of- ver back, by the most simple machinery, every whecl is fer, through you, to the members of the legislature, and clasped by two semi-circular pieces of wood. The fricto the distinguished patriot who now occupies the exe- tion thus produced retards or instantly stops the wagon, cutive chair of the state, and whom you now represent, however fast it may be going. All these levers are fastmy most heartfelt thanks for the honour which has ened together by å rope, the end of which is held by the been this day conferred upon ine. The splendour of the one who guides, so that at pleasure, he can stop the reward which you have so handsomely bestowed, has whole train with scarce an effort. far exceeded my deserts; and though I cannot hope to Behold the pleasure carriages coming! The driver has fulfil the high expectations which you have been pleased let the coal train get a mile ahead-for that moves only to express; yet it shall be my constant duty to exercise about five miles:n hour', though it might go 10 or 15, or all the talents and zeal I may possess, when an opportu- even more, but five is deemed most prudent. The rogue nity shall again offer, to defend the rights of our beloved has let the way become clear 10 show the company the country.

(Journal of the Senate. speed of his Heet steeds. They are of the same train

with those of Achilles, begotten by the wind-aeriar (From the Village Record.)

coursers. Imagination can scarcely conceive their swiftMAUCH CHUNK-IN CONClusiox.

He cracks his whip-speaks sharply, as if he had A few steps from the landing of the raft brought me really Xanthus and Balius before him; the carriages to the Mauch Chunk Hotel, a large and elegant build- glide with the velocity of the swallow, and almost with ing, well finished and furnished, and crowded with well its apparent ease-a breeze seems to meet you, so dressed, fashionable people, evidently strangers, on a swiftly do you press upon the air-the respiration bevisit to the mines. A glance round the tea-table, told comes more hurried. Scarcely have you tasted the me there was both beauty and grace among the female pleasure of this rapid motion before you approach the visitants. An examination of the book, where each per. coal train. The driver calls gently to his steeds, and in a son's name is recorded, informed me that some of the moment, by his lever, the carriages are moving slowly first characters and talent of the state, were guests at and gently along the smooth way. the mansion. After an early breakfast, the bugle And lastly, what do you see?' Did even imagination, sounded to rally all the company who wished to visit in its wildest flights, ever picture to itself wagons laden the mines and view the rail-road. Behold us on the with twenty-two tons running for many miles without summit level, a mile from the mine-and eight from the aid, and more than this, that mules and horses should river, preparing to return-a sky clear-a gentle ride in coaches, feasting by the way like London turtle breeze and pure air, bracing the frame, and giving fed alderren! The whole view of the descent of the buoyancy to the spirits. A brigade of fifty-three wagons wagons, coaches, and mule boxes, is one of the most inwas drawn up on the rail-road, each loaded with a ton citing, extraordinary--pleasing and wonderful, that I and a half of coal. The wagons are square boxes, wid. have ever beheld. Wonderful-wonderful! again and ening at the top; some of wood-some of sheet iron, again, exclaimed every one to whom it was new.

On running on low cast iron wheels, of 18 to 24 inches dia- returning, three mules draw up four carts c: wagons. meter-the felloes four inches broad, cast with a flange The ascent being moderate the labour is light. Two on the inner edge to keep the wheel in its place on the hundred tons are delivered at the landing a day, at a rail-way. The axle-tree, of iron, turns with the wheel. cost of about 22 cents per ton. I used to give 3 and 4 A tin tube is inserted, having a piece of sponge at the dollars a ton for hauling coal from the mine. The coal bottom, to permit oil to trickle through constantly, field itself is an object of curiosity. Rail-roads are laid



through the openings in all directions, and numerous Millerstown to Seger's

12 hands employeit in quarrying coal, loading wagons, and Seger's to Hogenbaugh's, at Lehighton 12 removing rubbish. No description can give a just idea Lehighton to Mauch Chunk

3 or the depth, extent, and value of this vast and inexhaust- All the houses mentioned are excellent, Sumneyible mine. Coal enough seems presented to the eye to town would be the best stopping place for the night. last for centuries, and yet examination shows, that for On returning, by all means come through Dethlehem, several miles in various directions from the place now and see that beautiful plaee. working, there is coal in abundance. When the wagons arrive at the brink of the mountain

LONGEVITY. near Mauch Chunk, they are one at a time let down the John Ange, a planter, between Broad creek and the chute to the coal house, which projects over the water, head of Wicomoco river in swampy grounds, at that and from which the boats are laden. The chute is 700 time reputed Maryland, now of the territory of Pennfeet in length--the perpendicular height 230 feet. You sylvania, died about five years ago, aged one hundred will at once see how extremely steep must be the de- and forty years, according to his own calculation, and scent, and how heavy the pressure of 30,000 weight of his neighbours firmly believed it, from the tradition of coal in a heavy wagon. Yet so simple and stire is the their fathers. He had been totally blind with age some process of descending, that without the slightest acci- years before his death. He left a son of about eighty dent or disorder, thousands of tons are let down yearly years, or more, who is already a great-grand-father, yet The loaded wagon in descending draws up the empty more hale, lively, and active than most men in their wagon, there being a double rail-way down the chute. prime, and has no grey hairs. · Both he and his father A large drum, round which the rope is wound, turning, were of lean constitutions, and lived poor and sparing, lets off the rope which is fastened to the descending i. e. on simple and natural food; not the nerve-destroywagon, and at the same time winds up the rope to ing teas and coffee; not kept in perpetual fevers by which the empty car is attached. It is curioas to see the strong Madeira, nor provoking a sickly appetite by rich car which has left its load, starting as if by itself-for the and high seasoned dishes; while the pure moisture of distance is so great you ean scarcely observe the rope the soil prevented the pestilential, nervous, or putrid that draws it—and coming rapidly up the steep. To fevers and Auxes, so often epidemical and fatal in high prevent the drum from revolving too rapidly, and letting and dry grounds, in these warm climates. the wagon descend too swift, a band of iron clasps one


M. W. end. This band is drawn close, by a lever, or loosened, June 30, 1775.

(Pa. Mag. giving at pleasure any velocity to the cars the manager

STEAM BOAT NAVIGATION. pleases, or stopping both mid-way, in a moment. I feel Statement showing the amount of steam-boat tonnage of how very imperfect is this description. Words cannot each state and territory of the United States; a'so, the give an idea of these works-much less those so feeble duty collected on the same, during the year 1827. as mine. To awaken liberal curiosity is rather my ob

Steam-boat tonnage. Duty collected. ject than to gratify it. Except the steam engine, I

Tons. 95ths. Dolls. Cts. know nothing that gives so lively and strong an impres. Maine.....

...350 00

21 00 sion of what the power and ingenuity of man may accom- Rhode Island.

...178 07

10 68 plish. The astonishing ascendancy of mind over matter. Connecticut..

1,652 72

99 12 These works are worth a journey across the Atlantic to New-York.

10,264 88

615 84 The intelligent and liberal should visit-admire New Jersey.

. 1,078 92

64 68 and enjoy. The boats and other works I described Pennsylvania... 1,580 04

94 80 when there two or three years ago, and need not repeat. Delaware...

.372 56

22 32 The wild mountain scenery-the pure air and active Maryland...... 2,207 49

132 42 exercise; are codlucive to health and pleasure. The District of Columbia......873 12

52 38 excellent aceommodations of Mr. Kimball, yield the tra. Virginia...... ...946 57

56 76 veller every comfort that the city would afford. To South Carolina, ...3,233 79

193 98 look along a table so well spread, having between 30 Alabama.... ..3,100 21

186 00 and 40 guests, attended by ready, neat, and obliging Louisiana..

.17,003 37

1,020 18 waiters—the handsome furniture the beautiful flowers Georgia.

.719 43

43 14 upon the mantle-piece--you experience all the pleasure

Department, of intelligent and refined society in the midst of a dense Register's office, April 15, 1828. population. Go to the window, and the lofty mountain,

JOSEPH NOURSE, Register. rugged and inaccessible, presents you the aspect of nature in her rudest form. You may there partake of the Statement of the Ridge Turnpike Company affairs, for pure spring, as it gushes from beneath the mountain

the year 1827 rock; or the bland Madeira from the “south side," and Balance on hand 1st January, 1827... $299 49 the finest vintage. At ten steps from the door you may Tolls in 1827...

9,662 69 penetrate the wildest solitude; or sitting in the neat carpetted parlour, surrounded by books, listen to the

$9,962 18 sweet-toned piano, touched with taste and feeling by some fair and accomplished hand.


$5,272 64 The canal to the Delaware is in a rapid state of ad- Salaries..

2,085 39 vancement, and will be wholly or nearly finished this Expenses.

111 10 fall.

7,469 13 The reverse of my course home, may be agreeable to those who should like to visit Mauch Chunk.

Balance on hand ......2,493 05

Miles. From West-Chester to White Horse

6 Certificates of debt, bonds, White Horse to Moore's (Pawling's bridge) 9


..$104,673 46 Moore's to Cross Roads

2 Interest on same, unpaid... 46,305 29 Cross Roads to Evansburg 5

$150,978 75 Evansburg to Perkiomen


THOS. H. WHITE, Treasurer. Up Turnpike

03 Philadelphia, January 1, 1828. Turnpike to Sumneytown

8 Sumneytown to Millerstown


PRINTED BY WM. F. GEDDES, (Orleave Millerstown half a mile on your left.} No. 59, Locust street, near Eighth, Philadelphia.








VOL. II.-NO. 4.


NO. 32.


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forms a part of our plan, and as it can only be correctly Under this title we purpose occasionally to furnish furnished by such societies themselves, we would be such documents and facts as we may obtain, on a subject, glad to receive a regular series of the reports they have which, notwithstanding pauperism has existed from the severally published; or, where they have published earliest ages, and the time and talents of philanthropists none, such written information, as will enable us to acand statesmen have been devoted to it, appears to be complish our purpose. The annual statements of the still involved in mystery and doubt. It has always ap

directors of the different poor houses throughout the peared to us, that before any correct theory can be form- state, would be acceptable for as long a series of years ed with regard to the cause of pauperism, or to the pro

as can be furnished. per remedies to be applied to its prevention, removal,

PENNSYLVANIA LEGISLATURE: or mitigation, we must be possessed of more facts on the subject; and these facts are to be derived only from the report of the Committee appointed to inquire into the opepoor themselves. It is, therefore, a cause of regret,

ration of the Poor Laws. Read, January 29th, 1825. that more attention has not been paid to this investiga- The Committee appointed to inquire into the operation

MR. MEREDITH, Chairman. tion by the different institutions established for the sup- of the Poor Laws in this Commonwealth, and to deport or employment of the poor. Had a register been vise means for remedying the evils of which the prekept by each institution from its commencement, in sent system is productive, and to whom was also rewhich were noted the principal circumstances attending

ferred the petition of the Society for the promotion of

public economy, the history of every applicant at the time of his admission upon the funds, it is easy to conceive, that in the That they have considered the subject with that sés course of a few years, an immense amount of informa- riousness and deliberation which its importance demands; tion might have been collected, from which correct meditae reach, has not been so full and minute as to

und have to lament that the information within their imtheories could be established, as to the cause and reme- justify them in the belief that it is possible, at this time, dies of an evil, which has rather increased than diminish. to make a thorough and complete reform in the system. ed under all the benevolent exertions which have been at the same time, they think that something may be safe.

ly done at once, and that the necessary future inquiries made for its extermination. Therefore, though late, we

may he put in such a train, as to insure, at no distant would call the attention of benevolent institutions to day, the consummation of those wishes which all enlightthis subject, and recommend to them immediately to ened men must entertain on the subject. commence the work of registering all their present and

The system of poor laws which prevails in this comfuture poor, obtaining from each, every information

monwealth, was borrowed, in its leading features and

principles, from that which was adopted in England, in which may throw any light upon the subject. Some libe reign of Elizabeth. It provides for raising, by a little trouble would attend this operation at first; but if, compulsory tax, a fund for the support of the indigent, after the present number on the list is taken, each who are disabled froin labour, by age, sickness, or in future applicant were examined, and the circum- such of the poor as are able to work. It has been said

firmity, and for providing labour and sustenance, for stances recorded at the time of his application, the labour in England, (and the argument appears to be well would be light, and the advantages of it important. founded,) that it was not originally intended to provide In 1821, the attention of the legislature was directed to for the latter class, more than an occasional relief; but it

must be admitted that the uniform practical construction the subject, and commissioners were appointed to col- of the law, both in England and in this state, has been, lect information; arid in 1825 the interesting report of a to place the relief granted to the able bodied poor, or committee of the house, which we now publish, was pre- the same permanent footing with that which is extended sented. As it imbodics much information, we presume thus understood, was introduced into this State, by an

to the old, the sick, infirm, and Jisabled. The system it will be read with considerable interest at the present act of Assembly; passed in the year 1771, and it is not time.

to be doubted that the intentions of the framers of The late radical change in the poor system forms an that act, were most humane and charitable. The mode important cra in the history of this state; and is, we con. then adopted was considered at the time as the best

which could be devised, for the purposes of relieving ceive, a favourable period for presenting to view what the poor, and dininishing the mass of human misery. has already been accomplished-90 that after the new Under this system, we have gone on, for more than fifty system may have been in operation a suficient length of ycars, and it is found that the burtheris upon the commu. time to test its effects, a comparison may be made of the nity have been increased, that the number of paupers

has been augmented, that the calls upon private chaoperations and advantages of both. As a history of the rity have acccumulated, and under these circumstances, different claritable institutions of our city and state t becomes necessary scriously to inqnire, whether thers VO, JI.


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be not some fault in the system itself, or some imperfec- In the third place it is asserted, that the most operation in its details, which renders it injurious to the com- tive stimulus to exertion, among the labouring classes, inunity at large, without being beneficial to the particu- is the fear of want. That the ambition of a labouring lar class, for whose relief it was intended.

man is, by his exertions during the more vigorous period With regard to the question of radical defect in the of his life, to lay up something for his own future supsystem itself, it is not the intention of your committee port, and to provide a fund for the maintenance of his to enter at large into a speculative argument upon it, in family when death shall have taken him from them, or this report. it has, however, been the subject of keen age or infirmity shall have rendered him incompetent to and voluminous discussion in England, for many years contribute to their sustenance, by his own industry, past, and a very succinct summary of a few of the lead. That this desire, so long as he is conscious that its fulfiling arguments which have been there used, may not ment depends entirely upon himself, renders him indusperhaps be unacceptable.

trious, frugal and provident. But that if it be proclaimThe opponents of the system have alleged, that while cd to such a man, that he shall be supported whenever it must always be admitted that charity is the first of our he shall choose to relinquish a laborious employmentduties, and most grateful to our feelings as men, and that his wife, his family, shall be provided for, whenever consonant with our sentiments as Christians, yet it bas he shall cease to provide for them, he is deprived by the been wisely ordained by Providence to be a duty of im- assurance thus given, of his sole or principal motive for perfect obligation, and left to be enforced by the opera- exertion; he soon falls into babits of idleness—idleness tion of religious motives, and that sympathy for the dis- leads to profligacy-profligacy is sure to end in disease, tressed which is natural to the human heart. That cha- and he becomes a wretched being, useless to himself, rity, no more than gratitude, or any other duty of a simi- useless to his family and to society; and for the remainlar nature, is the proper object of human laws, or to be der of his miserable existence, au incumbrance-a dead enforced by human sanctions. That, left unrestrained weight upon the public bounty. Or that at least, the and uncompelled, while on the one hand the constitution temptations thus held out to him will operate gradually of our nature and the dictates of religion, render any to relax his frugal and industrious habits; that he wisl general failure of charity extremely improbable, there learn to indulge in unnecessary expenses; that he will is on the other hand such an uncertainty attending the imperceptibly become improvident and careless of the relief, which may be required in any particular case, that future, and at last end his days in the poor bouse. That no individual is tempted to rely upon others, while he the natural tendency of the system (supposing those can find a support in his own industry or resources. That who arc affected by it, to be actuated by the ordinary an individual too, who is about to make a voluntary gift motives which operate on human nature, will always be at his own expense, will generally take reasonable care

to swell the number of paupers to an unlimited degree, that it is bestowed upon a proper object-upon the de- and to destroy or diminish the virtue and industry of the serving and unfortunate; and that those who have con

labouring classes. And that moreover, as the temptatributed, by their own abandoned and dissolute habits, tion held out will be indefinite and universal

, while the to reduce themselves to penury, will then, and ought al- fund itself must always be limited within some bounds, ways, to find the access to relief hard and difficult. And the public provision will never be found adequate to the that moreover, there is always a feeling of humiliation, relief of the paupers

, which it has contributed to create; attendant upon alms taking, which is unpleasant and that the needy surplus must fall at last upon the private degrading, and which affords a pledge, that this mode charity of the citizens, and that in proportion as the of subsistence will generally not be resorted to, while number is increased of those who depend upon public any other remains open.

bounty, will also be augmented the number of those;

whose sole resource must be in the individual sympaThen, upon the effects of a system of relief by a thies of their fellow men,--sympathies already weakencompulsory public provision for the poor, it has been ed, by the circumstance that the public have undertasaid, that there is, in the first place, no feeling of huma: ken, however inefficiently, to do away the necessity for nity, of kindness, of tenderness, on the one side, and

their exertion. no sense of humiliation or gratitude, on the other, and that a great obstacle to the increase of pauperism is thus impair the social affections of the poor. That the sense

Fourthly, it is alleged, that the system tends also to removed; that the relief, which the law awards to the of 'dependence in the members, upon the head of a fanecessitous, is unblushingly demanded as a right, and is mily; - the consciousness, on his part, that to him, and pngraciously granted, because it cannot be refused; that bin alone, must those who are most dear to liim, look the givers and receivers, the rich and the poor, are alike for protection and support that these feelings on the dissatisfied and exasperated; the former, by the sense, that if they have already given much, more is still to be links, at least, which would be indissoluble, if the

one side and the other, form strong and indissoluble links required from them; and the latter, by the conscious- poor laws did not destroy them all, by removing all ness, that all they have received has not been enough, sense of necessary dependence on the one hand, and of and that they are still uncomfortable, necdy and depemul indispensable protection on the other. ent.

And lastly, it is insist od that the poor laws encourage It is observed, in the next place, that the relief can improvident marriages, among those who are entirely not be, and in point of fact, never is in practice, restrict- unable by their own exertions to support a family, and ed to deserving objects. That it is plainly impossible thus tend to breed generation after generation, of here for a few officers, to whom the administration of the ditary paupers, who, through their whole lives, never funds is entrusted, to investigate with any minuteness, know any other mode of subsistence than that which is the former habits and conduct of the individual appli- atlorded to them by the public bounty. cants, and that they are palpably without all motive for Upon the whole, it has been concluded that the sysattempting to do so, since they have themselves no inter- tem of a compulsory public provision for the poor, will est in practising even ordinary economy, in the distribu. always increase and aggravate the evil which it is intendtion of supplies which are raises from the resources of ed to remove; create an acerbity of feeling between the others. That it is therefore to be expected, that the different classes of society; demoralize, to a greater or system in question will always raise a competition, on less extent, the labouring classes; promote idleness and the part of the improvident, the dissolute, and the un- licentiousness among the poor; destroy their frugal and worthy, against the claims of those who have been re-industrious habits; impair their social affections, and duced to want by unavoidable misfortune or calamity; throw upon the diligent and provident, the burden of and that the relief which ought to be granted to the lat- maintaining the idle and profligate. That the necessity ter alone, will often be yielded to the more clamorous for private charity will be increased, while the sentiment and importunate demands of the former.

of charity itself will be weakened-that the number of

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