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propensity for musing and solitude. When about the most solemn occasion. Acting upon these views, nineteen years of age, he was one day vexed by a he sometimes went into churches while service was disposition to intemperance which he observed in going on, and interrupted the clergymen by loudly two professedly religious friends whom he met at a contradicting their statements of doctrine. By these fair. I went away,' says he in his Journal, “and, breaches of order, and the employment of such unwhen I had done my business, returned home; but ceremonious fashions of address, as, 'Come down, I did not go to bed that night, nor could I sleep; thou deceiver!' he naturally gave great offence, which but sometimes walked up and down, and sometimes led sometimes to his imprisonment, and sometimes prayed, and cried to the Lord, who said unto me, to severe treatment from the hands of the populace. “ Thou seest how young people go together into | At Derby he was imprisoned in a loathsome dunvanity, and old people into the earth; thou must geon for a year, and afterwards in a still more disforsake all, young and old, keep out of all, and be a gusting cell at Carlisle for half that period. To this stranger to all." ' This divine communication, as in ill-treatment he submitted with meekness and rethe warmth of his imagination he considered it to signation; and out of prison, also, there was ample be, was scrupulously obeyed. Leaving his relations opportunity for the exercise of the same qualities. and master, he betook himself for several years to As an illustration of the rough usage which he frea wandering life, which was interrupted only for a quently brought upon himself, we extract this affectfew months, during which he was prevailed uponing narrative from his Journal :to reside at home. At this time he seems to have been completely insane. In the course of his melan

[Fox's Il-treatment at Ulverstone.] choly wanderings, he sometimes, for weeks together, passed the night in the open air, and used to spend

| The people were in a rage, and fell upon me in entire days without sustenance. My troubles,'

the steeple-house before his (Justice Sawrey's] face, says he, "continued, and I was often under great

t knocked me down, kicked me, and trampled upon temptations. I fasted much, walked abroad in soli

me. So great was the uproar, that some tumbled

orer their seats for fear. At last he came and took tary places many days, and often took my Bible and sat in hollow trees and lonesome places until night

me from the people, led me out of the steeple-house, came on; and frequently in the night walked mourn

and put me into the hands of the constables and fully about by myself; for I was a man of sorrows

other officers, bidding them whip me, and put me out in the first workings of the Lord in me.' On another

of the town. Many friendly people being come to the occasion, ‘I was in a fast for about ten days, my

market, and some to the steeple-house to hear me, spirit being greatly exercised on truth's behalf.' At

divers of these they knocked down also, and broke

their heads, so that the blood ran down several; and this period, as well as during the remainder of his life, Fox had many dreams and visions, and sup-|

Judge Fell's son running after, to see what they

would do with me, they threw him into a ditch of posed himself to receive supernatural messages from

water, some of thern crying, Knock the teeth out of above. In his Journal he gives an account of a par

| his head.' When they had haled me to the common ticular movement of his mind in singularly beauti

moss side, a multitude following, the constables and ful and impressive language : • One morning, as I

other officers gave me some blows over my back with was sitting by the fire, a great cloud came over me, willow

me: | willow-rods, and thrust me among the rude multitude, and a temptation beset me, and I sate still. And it

who, having furnished themselves with staves, hedgewas said, All things come by nature; and the Ele- |

stakes, holm or holly-bushes, fell upon me, and beat ments and Stars came over me, so that I was in a

me upon the head, arms, and shoulders, till they had moment quite clouded with it; but, inasmuch as I deprive

$ deprived me of sense; so that I fell down upon the still and said nothing, the people of the house | wet common. When I recovered again, and saw myperceived nothing. And as I sate still under it and self lying in a watery common. and the people standlet it alone, a living hope rose in me, and a true / ing about me. I lay still a little while, and the power voice arose in me which cried, There is a living God of the Lord sprang through me, and the eternal rewho made all things. And immediately the cloud | freshings revived me, so that I stood up again in the and temptation vanished away, and the life rose over strengthening power of the eternal God, and stretching it all, and my heart was glad, and I praised the liv- out my arms ainongst them, I said with a loud voice, ing God.' Afterwards, he tells us, “the Lord's power-Strike again! here are my arms, my head, and broke forth, and I had great openings and prophe-cheeks!' Then they began to fall out ainong themcies, and spoke unto the people of the things of selves. God, which they heard with attention and silence, and went away and spread the fame thereof.' Con

In 1635, Fox returned to his native town, where ceiving himself to be divinely commissioned to he continued to preach, dispute, and hold conferconvert his countrymen from their sins, he began, ences, till he was sent by Colonel Hacker to Cromabout the year 1647, to teach publicly in the vici- well, under the charge of Captain Drury. Of what nity of Dückenfield and Manchester, whence he followed, his Journal contains the subjoined partitravelled through several neighbouring counties, culars. haranguing at the market-places against the vices of the age. He had now formed the opinions, that

[Interview with Oliver Cromwell.] a learned education is unnecessary to a minister; After Captain Drury had lodged me at the Merthat the existence of a separate clerical profession maid, over against the Mews at Charing-Cross, he is unwarranted by the Bible; that the Creator of went to give the Protector an account of me. When the world is not a dweller in temples made with he came to me again, he told me the Protector rehands; and that the Scriptures are not the rule either quired that I should promise not to take up a carnal of conduct or judgment, but that man should follow sword or weapon against him or the government, as *the light of Christ within.' He believed, moreover, it then was; and that I should write it in what words that he was divinely commanded to abstain from I saw good, and set my hand to it. I said little in taking off his hat to any one, of whatever rank; to reply to Captain Drury, but the next morning I was use the words thee and thou in addressing all persons moved of the Lord to write a paper to the Protector, with whom he communicated; to bid nobody good-by the name of Oliver Cromwell, wherein I did, in the morrow or good-night; and never to bend his knee presence of the Lord God, declare, that I did deny to any one in authority, or take an oath, even on the wearing or drawing of a 'carnal sword, or any other outward weapon, against him or any man; and answering objections both verbally and by the pubthat I was sent of God to stand a witness against all lication of controversial pamphlets. In the course violence, and against the works of darkness, and to of his peregrinations he still suffered frequent imturn people from darkness to light ; to bring them prisonment, sometimes as a disturber of the peace, from the occasion of war and fighting to the peaceable and sometimes because he refused to uncover his Gospel, and from being evil-doers, which the magis | head in the presence of magistrates, or to do violence trates' sword should be a terror to. When I had to his principles by taking the oath of allegiance. written what the Lord had given me to write, I set After reducing (with the assistance of his educated my name to it, and gave it to Captain Drury to hand disciples Robert Barclay, Samuel Fisher, and George to Oliver Cromwell, which he did. After some time, Keith) the doctrine and discipline of his sect to a Captain Drury brought me before the Protector him

more systematic and permanent form than that in self at Whitehall. It was in a morning, before he which it had hitherto existed, he visited Ireland and was dressed ; and one Harvey, who had come a little the American plantations, employing in the latter among friends, but was disobedient, waited upon nearly two years in confirming and increasing his him. When I came in, I was moved to say, 'Peace followers. Ile afterwards repeatedly visited Holland, be in this house ;' and I exhorted him to keep in the and other parts of the continent, for similar purposes. fear of God, that he might receive wisdom from him; He died in London in 1690. aged sixty six." that by it he might be ordered, and with it might

That Fox was a sincere believer of what he order all things under his hand unto God's glory. I

preached, no rational doubt can be entertained ; and spoke much to him of truth ; and a great deal of dis

that he was of a meek and forgiving disposition course I had with him about religion, wherein he

towards his persecutors, is equally unquestionable. carried himself very moderately. But he said we |

His integrity, also, was so remarkable, that his quarrelled with the priests, whom he called ministers.

word was taken as of equal value with his oath. I told him, 'I did not quarrel with them, they quar

Religious enthusiasm, however, amounting to madrelled with me and my friends. But, said I, if we

ness in the earlier stage of his career, led him into own the prophets, Christ, and the apostles, we cannot

many extravagances, in which few members of the hold up such teachers, prophets, and shepherds, as the

e respectable society which he founded have partaken. prophets Christ and the apostles declared against ; The severities so liberally inflicted on him were ori. but we must declare against them by the same power and spirit.' Then I showed him that the prophets,

ginally occasioned by those breaches of the peace Christ, and the apostles, declared freely, and declared

already spoken of, and no doubt also by what in his

speeches must have appeared blasphemous to many against them that did not declare freely; such as preached for filthy lucre, divined for money, and

of his hearers. His public addresses were usually preached for hire, and were covetous and greedy, like

prefaced by such phrases as, • The Lord bath opened the dumb dogs that could never have enough; and

to me;' 'I am moved of the Lord ;' I am sent of that they who have the same spirit that Christ, and

the Lord God of heaven and earth.' In a warning the prophets, and the apostles had, could not but

to magistrates, he says, “ All ye powers of the earta, declare against all such now, as they did then. As

Christ is come to reign, and is among you, and ye I spoke, he several times said it was very good, and

know him not.' Addressing the seven parishes at it was truth. I told him, That all Christendom (so

the Land's End,' his language is equally strong: called) had the Scriptures, but they wanted the power

'Christ,' he tells them, 'is come to teach his people and spirit that those had who gave forth the Scrip

himself; and every one that will not hear this protures, and that was the reason they were not in fellow

phet, which God hath raised up, and which Moses ship with the Son, nor with the Father, nor with the spake of, when he said, -* Like unto me will God Scriptures, nor one with another.' Many more words raise you up a prophet, him shall you hear;" every I had with him, but people coming in, I drew a little one, I say, that will not hear this prophet, is to be back. As I was turning, he catched me by the hand, cut off.' And stronger still is what we find in this and with tears in his eyes said, “Come again to my passage in his Journal: “From Coventry I went to house, for if thou and I were but an hour of a day | Atherstone, and, it being their lecture-day, I was together, we should be nearer one to the other ;' add moved to go to their chapel, to speak to the priest ing, that he wished me no more ill than he did to his and the people. They were generally pretty quiet; own soul. I told him, if he did, he wronged his own only some few raged, and would have had my relasoul, and admonished him to hearken to God's voice, tions to have bound me. I declared largely to them, that he might stand in his counsel, and obey it; and that God was come to teach his people himself, and if he did so, that would keep him from hardness of to bring them from all their man-made teachers, to heart; but if he did not hear God's voice, his heart hear his Son; and some were convinced there.' In would be hardened. He said it was true. Then I conformity with these high pretensions, Fox not went out ; and when Captain Drury came out after only acted as a prophet, but assumed the power of me, he told me the lord Protector said I was at liberty, working miracles--in the exercise of which he claims and might go whither I would. Then I was brought to have cured various individuals, including a man into a great hall, where the Protector's gentlemen whose arm had long been disabled, and a woman were to dine. I asked them what they brought me troubled with King's Evil. On one occasion he ran thither for. They said it was by the Protector's order, with bare feet through Lichfield, exclaiming, Wo that I might dine with them. I bid them let the to the bloody city of Lichfield !' and, when no calaProtector know I would not eat of his bread, nor drink mity followed this denouncement as expected, found of his drink. When he heard this, he said, "Now I no better mode of accounting for the failure than see there is a people risen that I cannot win, either discovering that some Christians had once been slain with gifts, honours, offices, or places ; but all other there. Of his power of discerning witches, the folsects and people I can.' It was told him again, “That lowing examples are given in his Journal :-'As I we had forsook our own, and were not like to look for was sitting in a house full of people, declaring the such things from him.'

word of life to them, I cast mine eyes upon a woman,

and I discerned an unclean spirit in her; and I was The sect headed by Fox was now becoming moved of the Lord to speak sharply to her, and told numerous, and attracted much opposition from the

her she was a witch; whereupon the woman went pulpit and press. He therefore continued to travel out of the room. Now, I being a stranger there, Through the kingdom, expounding his views, and and knowing nothing of the woman outwardly, the

people wondered at it, and told me afterwards I had The writings of George Fox are comprised in discovered a great thing, for all the country looked three folio volumes, printed respectively in 1694, upon her as a witch. The Lord had given me a 1698, and 1706. The first contains his Journal, spirit of discerning, by which I many times saw largely quoted from above; the second, a collection the states and conditions of people, and could try of his Epistles ; and the third, his Doctrinal Pieces. their spirits. For, not long before, as I was going to a meeting, I saw women in a field, and I discerned

ROBERT BARCLAY. them to be witches; and I was moved to go out of my way into the field to them, and to declare unto ROBERT BARCLAY (1648–1690), a country gentle. them their conditions, telling them plainly they were man of Kincardineshire, has already been mentioned in the spirit of witchcraft. At another time, there as one of those educated Quakers who aided Fox in came such an one into Swarthmore Hall, in the systematising the doctrines and discipline of the meeting time, and I was moved to speak sharply to sect. By the publication of various able works in her, and told her she was a witch ; and the people defence of those doctrines, he gave the Society of said afterwards, she was generally accounted so.' Friends a much more respectable station in the eyes

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wine. Ury House, Kincardineshire, the seat of Robert Barclay. of people of other persuasions than it had previously, be always with his children, to lead them into all occupied. His father, who was a colonel in the truth, to guard them against the devices of the army, had been converted to Quakerism in 1666, enemy, and to establish their faith upon an unmoveand he himself was soon after induced to embrace able rock, left them not to be principally ruled by the same views. In taking this step, he is said to that which was subject, in itself, to many uncerhave acted chiefly from the dictates of his under- tainties; and therefore he gave them his Spirit as standing; though, it must be added, the existence their principal guide, which neither moths nor time of considerable enthusiasm in his disposition was can wear out, nor transcribers nor translators corindicated by a remarkable circumstance mentioned rupt; which none are so young, none so illiterate, by himself-namely, that, feeling a strong impulse to none in so remote a place, but they may come to be pass through the streets of Aberdeen clothed in sack- reached and rightly informed by it.' It would be cloth and ashes, he could not be easy till he obeyed erroneous, however, to regard this work of Barclay what he supposed to be a divine command. His most as an exposition of all the doctrines which have been celebrated production is entitled An Apology for the or are prevalent among the Quakers, or, indeed, to True Christian Divinity, as the Same is held forth and consider it as anything more than the vehicle of Preached by the People in Scorn called Quakers. This such of his own views, as in his character of an work, which appeared in Latin in 1676, and in Eng- apologist he thought it desirable to state. This lish two years after, is a learned and methodical ingenious man,' says Mosheim, 'appeared as a patron treatise, very different from what the world expected and defender of Quakerism, and not as a professed on such a subject, and it was therefore read with teacher or expositor of its various doctrines; and he avidity both in Britain and on the continent. Its interpreted and modified the opinions of this sect most remarkable theological feature is the attempt after the manner of a champion or advocate, who to prove that there is an internal light in man, undertakes the defence of an odious cause. How, which is better fitted to guide him aright in reli- then, does he go to work? In the first place, he gious matters than even the Scriptures themselves ; observes an entire silence in relation to those fundathe genuine doctrines of which he asserts to be ren- mental principles of Christianity, concerning which dered uncertain by various readings in different it is of great consequence to know the real opinions manuscripts, and the fallibility of translators and of the Quakers; and thus he exhibits a system of interpreters. These circumstances, says he, and theology that is evidently lame and imperfect. For much more which might be alleged, puts the minds, it is the peculiar business of a prudent apologist to even of the learned, into infinite doubts, scruples, pass over in silence points that are scarcely suscepand inextricable difficulties; whence we may very tible of a plausible defence, and to enlarge upon safely conclude, that Jesus Christ, who promised to those only which the powers of genius and eloquence

may be able to embellish and exhibit in an advan- their just and lawful commands, not in titles and tageous point of view. It is observable, in the designations. second place, that Barclay touches in a slight, super- Secondly, we find not that in the Scripture any ficial, and hasty manner, some tenets, which, when such titles are used, either under the law or the gospel; amply explained, had exposed the Quakers to severe but that, in speaking to kings, princes, or nobles, they censure; and in this he discovers plainly the weak used only a simple compellation, as, 'O King !' and ness of his cause. Lastly, to omit many other that without any further designation, save, perhaps, observations that might be made here, this writer the name of the person, as, ' o King Agrippa,' &c. employs the greatest dexterity and art in softening Thirdly, it lays a necessity upon Christians most and modifying those invidious doctrines which he frequently to lie; because the persons obtaining these cannot conceal, and dare not disavow; for which titles, either by election or hereditarily, may frepurpose he carefully avoids all those phrases and quently be found to have nothing really in them determs that are made use of by the Quakers, and are serving them, or answering to them: as some, to whom peculiar to their sect, and expresses their tenets in it is said, “Your Excellency,'having nothing of excelordinary language, in terms of a vague and inde- lency in them; and who is called, Your Grace,' finite nature, and in a style that casts a sort of appear to be an enemy to grace; and he who is called mask over their natural aspect. At this rate, the l'Your Honour,' is known to be base and ignoble. I most enormous errors may be held with impunity; / wonder what law of man, or what patent, ought to for there is no doctrine, however absurd, to which oblige me to make a lie, in calling good evil, and evil a plausible air may not be given by following the good. I wonder what law of man can secure me, in insidious method of Barclay; and it is well known so doing, from the just judgment of God, that will that even the doctrine of Spinoza was, with a like

make me count for every idle word. And to lie is artifice, dressed out and disguised by some of his something more. Surely Christians should be ashamed disciples. The other writers of this sect have de

that such laws, manifestly crossing the law of God, clared their sentiments with more freedom, perspi.

should be among them.

*

* cuity, and candour, particularly the famous William

Fourthly, as to those titles of “Holiness,' • EmiPenn and George Whitehead, whose writings deserve

nency,'and 'Excellency,’used among the Papists to the an attentive perusal preferably to all the other pro

pope and cardinals, &c.; and 'Grace,' • Lordship,' and ductions of that community.'* The dedication of

Worship,' used to the clergy among the Protestants, Barclay's ' Apology' to King Charles II. has always

it is a most blasphemous usurpation. For if they use been particularly admired for its respectful yet

Holiness' and 'Grace' because these things ought to

be in a pope or in a bishop, how come they to usurp manly freedom of style, and for the pathos of its allusion to his majesty's own early troubles, as a

that peculiarly to themselves ? Ought not holiness reason for his extending mercy and favour to the

and grace to be in every Christian! And so every

Christian should say “Your Holiness' and Your persecuted Quakers. “Thou hast tasted,' says he, of prosperity and adversity; thou knowest what it

Grace' one to another. Next, how can they in reason is to be banished thy native country, to be over

| claim any more titles than were practised and reruled, as well as to rule and sit upon the throne;

ceived by the apostles and primitive Christians, whose

successors they pretend they are ; and as whose sucand, being oppressed, thou hast reason to know how

cessors (and no otherwise) themselves, I judge, will hateful the oppressor is to both God and man: if,

confess any honour they seek is due to them! Now, after all these warnings and advertisements, thou

if they neither sought, received, nor admitted such

f* dost not turn unto the Lord with all thy heart, but

honour nor titles, how came these by them! If they forget him, who remembered thee in thy distress,

say they did, let them prove it if they can : we find and give up thyself to follow lust and vanity, surely

and vanily, surely no such thing in the Scripture. The Christians speak great will be thy condemnation. But this appeal to the apostles without any such denomination, neither had no effect in stopping persecution ; for after his saving If it please v

saying, If it please your Gra. e,” your Holiness, nor return from Holland and Germany, which he had

your Worship;' they are neither called My Lord visited in company with Fox and Penn, he was, in Peter, nor My Lord Paul; nor yet Master Peter, nor 1677. imprisoned along with many other Quakers, | Master Paul: nor Doctor Peter. nor Doctor Paul: but at Aberdeen, through the instrumentality of Arch

singly Peter and Paul; and that not only in the bishop Sharp. He was soon liberated, however, and Scrinture hu

Scripture, but for some hundreds of years after: 80 subsequently gained favour at court. Both Penn that this appears to be a manifest fruit of the apostacy. and he were on terms of intimacy with James 11. ; For if these titles arise either from the office or worth and just before the sailing of the Prince of Orange of the persons, it will not be denied but the apostles for England in 1688, Barclay, in a private conference deserved them better than any now that call for them. with his majesty, urged him to make some conces. But the case is plain; the apostles had the holiness, sions to the people. The death of this respectable the excellency, the grace; and because they were holy, and amiable person took place about two years after excellent, and gracious, they neither used nor adthat event.

mitted such titles; but these having neither holiness, We extract from the 'Apology for the Quakers' excellency, nor grace, will needs be so called to satisfy what he says

their anıbitious and ostentatious mind, which is a manifest token of their hypocrisy.

Fifthly, as to that title of 'Majesty' usually as[Against Titles of Honour.)

cribed to princes, we do not find it given to any such We affirm positively, that it is not lawful for Chris. in the Holy Scripture ; but that it is specially and tiang either to give or receive these titles of honour, peculiarly ascribed unto God. We find in the Scripas, Your Holiness, Your Majesty, Your Excellency,

ture the proud king Nebuchadnezzar assuming this Your Eminency, &c.

title to himself, who at that time received a sufficient First, because these titles are no part of that obe

reproof, by a sudden judgment which came upon him. dience which is due to magistrates or superiors; neither

Therefore in all the compellations used to princes in doth the giving them add to or diminish from that

the Old Testament, it is not to be found, nor yet in subjection we owe to them, which consists in obeying

the New. Paul was very civil to Agrippa, yet he gives

him no such title. Neither was this title used among * Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History. Cent. xvii., chap. tv., 1 Christians in the primitive times. sec. 6.

Besides the work already mentioned, Penn wrote WILLIAM PENN.

Reflections and Marims relating to the Conduct of WILLIAM PENN (1644-1718), the son of an Eng. Lije, and A Key, gc., to discern the Difference belish admiral, is celebrated not only as a distinguished tween the Religion professed by the Quakers, and the writer on Quakerism, but as the founder of the Misrepresentations of their Adversaries. To George state of Pennsylvania in North America. The prin- Fox's Journal, which was published in 1694, he ciples which he adopted gave much offence to his prefixed A Brief Account of the Rise and Progress of father, who repeatedly banished him from his house; the People called Quakers. The first of the subjoined but at length, when it appeared that the son's opi- specimens of his composition is extracted from his nions were unalterable, a reconciliation took place No Cross, no Crown,' where he thus argues between them. Like many other members of the Society of Friends, Penn suffered much persecution,

[Against the Pride of Noble Birth.] and was repeatedly thrown into prison. During a confinement in the Tower of London, he wrote the That people are generally proud of their persons, is most celebrated of his works, entitled No Cross, too visible and troublesome, especially if they have no Crown, in which the views of the Quakers are any pretence either to blood or beauty; the one has powerfully maintained, and which continues in high raised many quarrels among men, and the other esteem among persons of that denomination. After among women, and men too often, for their sakes, and his liberation, he spent much time in defending his at their excitements. But to the first : what a pother principles against various opponents--among others, has this noble blood made in the world, antiquity of Richard Baxter, with whom he held a public dispu- name or family, whose father or mother, great grandtation, which lasted for six or seven hours, not, as father or great-grandmother, was best descended or it appears, without considerable asperity, especially allied ? what stock or what clan they came of ? what on the part of Baxter. In 1681, Charles II., in con coat of arins they gave? which had, of right, the presideration of some unliquidated claims of the de- cedence! But, methinks, nothing of man’s folly has ceased Admiral Penn upon the crown, granted to less show of reason to palliate it. William, the son, a district in North America, which

For, first, what matter is it of whom any one is dewas named Pennsylvania by his majesty's desire, scended, that is not of ill fame; since 'tis his own and of which Penn was constituted sole proprietor virtue that must raise, or vice depress him ? An an. and governor. He immediately took measures for cestor's character is no excuse to a man's ill actions, the settlement of the province, and drew up articles but an aggravation of his degeneracy; and since virof government, among which the following is one of tue comes not by generation, I neither am the better the most remarkable :- That all persons in this nor the worse for my forefather : to be sure, not in province, who confess and acknowledge the one al God's account; nor should it be in man's. Nobody mighty and eternal God to be the creator, upholder, would endure injuries the easier, or reject favours the and ruler of the world, and that hold themselves more, for coining by the hand of a man well or ill deobliged in conscience to live peaceably and justly in scended. I confess it were greater honour to have had society, shall in no ways be molested or prejudiced

no blots, and with an hereditary estate to have had

a lineal descent of worth: but that was never found; for their religious persuasion, or practice in matters of faith and worship; nor shall they be compelled, no, not in the most blessed of families upon earth ; Í

To be descended of wealth and at any time, to frequent, or maintain, any religious titles, fills no man's head with brains, or heart with worship, place, or ministry whatever.' Having gone truth'; those qualities come from a higher cause. out to his colony in 1682, he proceeded to buy land 'Tis vanity, then, and most condemnable pride, for a from the natives, with whom he entered into a treaty of peace and friendship, which was observed while man of bulk and character to despise another of less the power of the Quakers predominated in the size in the world, and of meaner alliance, for want of colony, and which for many years after his death the foriner has only the effects of it in an ancestor :

because the latter may have the merit, where caused his memory to be affectionately cherished and though the one be great by means of a forefather, by the Indians. Be then fixed on the site of his the other is so too, but 'tis by his own; then, pray, capital, Philadelphia, the building of which, on a which is the bravest inan of the two? regular plan, was immediately commenced. After spending two years in America, he returned to Eng: good world since we have had so many upstart gentle

O,' says the person proud of blood, it was never a land in 1684, and was enabled, by his intimacy with inen!" But what should others have said of that man's James II., to procure the release of his Quaker ancestor, when he started first up into the knowledge brethren, of whom fourteen hundred and eighty were of the world? For he, and all inen and families, ay, in prison at the accession of that monarch. When and all states and kingdoms too, have had their upJames, in order, no doubt, to facilitate the re-esta- starts, that is, their beginnings. This is like being blishment of the Catholic religion, proclaimed liberty the True Church, because old, not because good; for of conscience to his subjects, the Quakers sent "P families to be noble by being old, and not by being an address of thanks, which was delivered to his virtuous. No such matter: it must be age in virtue, majesty by Penn. This brought a suspicion of or else virtue before aye; for otherwise, a man should popery upon the latter, between whom and Dr be noble by means of his predecessor, and yet the pre

Tillotson a correspondence took place on the sub- decessor less noble than he, because he was the acject. Tillotson, in his concluding letter, acknow- quirer ; which is a paradox that will puzzle all their ledged himself convinced of the falsity of the accu heraldry to explain. Strange! that they should be sation, and asked pardon for having lent an ear to more noble than their ancestor, that got their nobility it. After the Revolution, Penn's former intimacy for them! But if this be absurd, as it is, then the with James caused him to be regarded as a dis- upstart is the noble man; the man that got it by his affected person, and led to various troubles ; but he virtue : and those only are entitled to his honour still continued to preach and write in support of his that are imitators of his virtue; the rest may bear his favourite doctrines. Having once more gone out to name from his blood, but that is all. If virtue, then, America in 1699, he there exerted himself for the give nobility, which heathens themselves agree, then improvement of his colony till 1701, when he finally families are no longer truly noble than they are virreturned to England. This excellent and philan- tuous. And if virtue go not by blood, but by the thropic man survived till 1718.

qualifications of the descendants, it follows, blood is

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