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diminution of weight, and at the end of 36 partments, and left the other almost empty, hours it had lost 54 grains of the water with only a few drops of water in it. When which had formerly entered it, and the con- the zinc pole of a galvanic pile was placed in tained milky Auid had grown putrid. the full compartment, and the copper pole in Here, then, we have exhibited to us two op- the empty one, the water passed from the posite actions of the organic membrane ;– full into the empty compartment, and rose Ist, that by which the water is imbibed ; and in the latter much higher than it originally 2nd, that by which it is expelled. In the stood in the former. Following up the idea first of these cases the milk, or internal Auid, suggested by this remarkable experiment, M. was denser than the water, or external fluid; Dutrochet tied the extremities of two tubes, and while this state of the fluid continued, one of which was capillary, to the pod of the the cæcum continued to imbibe the water ; Colutea arborescens. He now introduced but as soon as the milky fluid became putrid, the negative wire of the galvanic pile through and thinner than the external water, the a cork in the ordinary tube, into the pod, and latter passed out of the cæcum as rapidly as then immersed the positive wire into a vessel it formerly entered it.
of water in which the pod was placed. The To these two powers, by which an external pod quickly became turgid by the imbibition fluid can be taken into an organic cavity, and of the external water, and the water rising in again discharged from it, M. Dutrochet has the capillary tube, flowed over its upper exgiven the names of Endosmose and Exos. tremity exactly in the same manner as it mose ; the one derived from ardor, inward, would have done in virtue of the force of and wouos, an impulse ; and the other from endosmose, had the pod separated two fuids 5, out, and as juos, an impulse.
of different densities. The same result was As the turgidity produced by the imbi- obtained by substituting the cæcum of a bition of the water, in the preceding experie chicken in place of the vegetable membrane. ment, stretches the sides of the cæcum, so as That endosmose is an electrical action, was to cause them to react on the inclosed Auid, rendered highly probable by the following our Author was of opinion that this reaction experiment:-Our author introduced the would be capable of causing the fluid to rise white of an egg into the cæcum of a chicken, in a tube fixed to the cæcum, when in a state and when it was nearly full, he closed it and of endosmose. He accordingly took a glass plunged it in water. The cæcum became tube, 24 inches long, and about one-fifth of speedily turgid ; and after the action had an inch in bore, and fixed one end in the continued some hours, a layer of coagulated cæcum of a chicken containing a solution of albumen was found upon its inner surfacegum arabic. The glass tube being held in a one of the known effects of voltaic action. vertical position, and the cæcum being im. From the experiments which we have now mersed in rain water, the inclosed fluid rose briefly described, we are entitled to conclude in the tube, and at the end of 24 hours it with M. Dutrochet, That it is by the action began to discharge itself from the upper of endosmose that the sap is raised to the orifice. This overflow continued for two highest summits of trees, contrary to its na. days, when it began to sink. Upon opening tural gravity; and that this new force is the the cæcum on the fourth day, the inclosed result of electrical action. fluid was found in a state of putridity. M. Such is the conclusion of the first section Dutrochet obtained similar results by sub- of M. Dutrochet's latest Memoir, which was
stituting for the cæcum the inflated bladder read before the Royal Academy of Sciences on • of the Colutea arborescens, or bladder senna. the 17th of March, 1828. The section which
Having thus discovered a force capable of contains the application of these discoveries impelling the sap imbibed by the spongioles to physiology-to the phenomena of animal into the cells and capillary vessels of plants, and vegetable life, has, we believe, not yet our Author was desirous of ascertaining the appeared, and we look forward to its public cause of so singular an effect. An experi- cation with high interest. In his original ment by Porret, to which Professor Amici work, “ L'Agent Immédiat," he has entered alludus, * could not fail to suggest, that very fully into this important subject; but the phenomenon exhibited by animal or beautiful as are many of his explanations of vegetable membranes was the result of elec some of the most important functions an! trical action. This chemist having divided condition of the animal frame, and profound a cylindrical jar into two compartments by a and ingenious as are all his views, yet they piece of bladder, he filled one of the com. must soon be greatly modified and extended,
by his subsequent discoveries of the activity
and inactivity of different solids and fluids in • The professor observed, by the aid of a micro- the production of endosmose, and of the convulgaris; he saw transparent globules of various version of active into inactive fluids, by the sizes circulating in regular and uninterrupted mo. introduction of a small portion of acid. tion, in two opposite alternating streams, in the When we consider that the organs of two halves or sections of the single cylindrical canal, animal bodies consist of a congeries of vesi. or vessel, which runs through the fibres of the plant.
cles composed of permeable membrane, and Vol. I.
“By, multiplying these instruments, which property of double refraction, form an essenare provided at little expense (since iron rods tial part of the siliceous grasses, and that all of the thickness of the finger, and even less, the separate crystals have their axes arranged, are sufficient for the purpose), we multiply not in parallel lines, but so as to form geometheir beneficial effects, and extend their use trical figures by the light which they depoad infinitum.
larise, points out a new relation between the “ This apparatus having been raised with laws which govern the crystallization of incare in the middle of a garden, the happiest animate matter, and those which regulate the effects were perceived-viz. different plants, operations of vegetable life. herbs, and fruits, in greater forwardness than The recent observations, too, of our disusual, were multiplied, and of superior qua- tinguished countryman, Mr. Robert Brown, lity. These facts are analogous to an obser. respecting what appear to be the active molevation which I have often made-that plants cules of bodies, whether of mineral or vegegrow fast, and are most vigorous near thunder- table origin, promise a rich harvest of discorods, where their situation favours their de- very. He has announced the singular fact, velopment. They likewise serve to explain that active spherical molecules exist in the why vegetation is so vigorous in lofty forests, grain and pollen of most plants along with and where the trees raise their heads far from its proper particles, and that these molecules the surface of the earth, so that they seek, as have a spontaneous or inherent motion when it were, the electric fluid at a far greater immersed in water. Even when the pollen height than plants less elevated, while the has been immersed in weak spirits for nearly sharp extremities of their leaves, boughs, a year, the apparent vitality of the particles and branches, serve as so many points, grant- still exists, nay, it remains in plants which ed them by the munificent hand of nature, have been dead for more than a century, and to draw down from the atmosphere that elec- survives even the most intense heat to which tric fluid which is so powerful an agent in animal and vegetable fibre can be exposed. forwarding vegetation, and in promoting the These primary molecules exist in almost all different functions of plants."
minerals, and even in pounded glass. They It would have been very desirable that the occur, not only in their simple state, but also Abbé Bertholon had mentioned the specific in a compound form. Oval particles, equal facts upon which he has founded these very to about two molecules, and supposed to be vague and general, though, at the same time, primary combinations of these, often appeared, curious views. That they are not entirely and were in general more vivid in their movespeculative, is proved by the facts previously ments than the simple molecules, revolving discovered by Mr. Maimbray, of Edinburgh, most commonly on their longer axis, and freand the Abbé Nollet. The first of these ex- quently exhibiting a flattened form. Other perimentalists found that two myrtle trees, compound molecules were seen res
resembling electrified during the month of October, short fibres, and somewhat moniliform, and 1746, put forth small branches, and blossom- having their transverse diameter equal to that ed much earlier than other shrubs that were of the primary molecule. These fibrils, not electrified ; and the Abbé Nollet having whether composed of two or three molecules, sowed seeds in two pots filled with the same or of four or five, were generally in motior. mould, and kept in the same place, found This motion was, at least, as vivid as that of that the seeds in one of the pots which had the simple molecules, and might be said to been electrified two or three hours a day for be somewhat vermicular. Whatever be the fifteen days, exhibited sprouts two or three substance in which they occur, Mr. Brown days sooner than those in the unelectrified considers the simple molecules to be of unipots, and threw out larger shoots, and a form size, and, from various measurements, greater number of them, in a given time. he regards them as about the twenty thout
Having, thus, given as distinct an account sandth part of an inch in diameter. as we can of the great discovery of endos The same curious subject is occupying the mose, which the Royal Academy of Sciences attention of the French botanists; and M. has honoured with a gold medal, we cannot Adolphe Brongniart has published the results take leave of M. Dutrochet without express- of some of his observations in his “ Reing our anxious hope that we shall soon have cherches sur le Génération et le Developpean opportunity of announcing the successful ment de l'Embryon dans les Végétaux Phacontinuation of his labours, and that he will nérogames," which was read before the Acanot allow the subject to pass into other hands, demy of Sciences, and has been published in till he has brought within the dominion of the “ Annales des Sciences Naturelles.” his general principles the leading phenomena From the talents and activity of these two of vegetable life.
botanists, we may expect with confidence The science of vegetable physiology is now some highly important results, and we trust anived at a point where great discoveries may we shall soon have an opportunity of again be soon expected. The extraordinary fact calling the attention of our readers to so curidiscovered by Dr. Brewster, that innumerable ous a subject. crystals of silex, possessing, distinctly the In consequence of observations which we
those pictures, would give an aid unequalled ing to regale the divine nostrils. In a hall 'in any other country; and by the same in another of their Joss-houses, were three honourable, wise, and feeling patronage which stupendous images of Fo, dressed in the gave public employment to the man of oriental or rather Indian manner. They had ability, the nation would be laying up for black Caffre hair, and monstrous ears. Each itself a treasure of the richest remembrances of these figures was seated upon a couched that ever stirred the spirit of a mighty em. lion of proportionate dimensions, which were pire.
by no means ill executed in marble. We have not the slightest hesitation in I do not remember having seen any other pronouncing Haydon a great artist, a man of variety of the godhead in these Joss-houses, an original mind, of remarkable powers of but in the one to the north of the suburbs of execution, and requiring only the commands Canton I saw an immense gilt or brazen of the public to distinguish himself and it, image of a prodigiously fat laughing Joss in more than he has ever done, or can ever do a recumbent posture ; he looked like the jolly without them. Let the traffickers of their god of wine and wit, and may perhaps be thousands and ten thousands for Italian pic- the Chinese Bacchus. I was informed that tures-often the rubbish of Italian galleries, it was a representation of Fo in a state of often the fabrication of German, French, and beatitude, and his appearance certainly cor. English garrets- look to this; look to Hay. roborated the assertion. don, telling him that his pencil waits only There appeared to be a very large estatheir disposal, and think of the fruitless blishment of priests attached to the Jossprodigality of raising monuments over the houses that I have above attempted to degraves of men of genius, whom the hundreth scribe; they are supported by the contribupart of the expenditure would have kept in tions of the devout laity; who, however, active, opulent, and nationally-honourable would seein to be few in the land, for, unlike existence. What has Scotland gained by her the priesthood of other countries, these lamas statues and cenotaphs to the memory of were very thin, haggard, wretched looking Burns, but the scoff of all who know that she beings, as if they really practised from choice suffered that great and unfortunate genius to or necessity that abstinence and penance, perish, rather than mulct herself of a farthing. which is only affected by the priesthood of But ostentation will give tons of gold, where other religions. The crown of their heads charity, common-sense, and national honour was shaven, they were clothed in a kind of cannot extract grains. Let our Grosvenors, gray camblet domino, like “ the friars of Staffords, and Farnboroughs, we say, look to orders gray," and round their necks was Haydon.
suspended a string of beads, which they continually fumbled and mumbled over, like a Catholic with his rosary. We were conducted
into a large hall, where all the monks of this CANTON
Chinese priory were gathered together for the important purpose of discussing
their dinner, (From the Calcuttu Oriental Magazine.) which was laid out upon two or three long
tables, much in the same manner as at the Of the lions of Canton none are more worthy before their appointed seats, and the ceremony
colleges in Oxford. They were all standing of a visit than the Joss-houses. The word
commenced by the chief priest, or da-lama, joss is a corruption of the Portuguese Deos tinkling a small bell, upon which they all (God), so that a Joss-house merely signifies with one accord began chanting a gracea temple; but the deity himself, whose de
om mani but me kom"'+-"om mani padma signation is Fo, has, in process of time, be- huon." The meaning of which mystical coine familiar tó Europeans by the Christian phrases is disputed by the learned, but which name of Joss. In the centre of one of the
on this occasion probably signified “ glory to Joss-houses we were permitted to enter, stood Fo, &c. &c." or something to that effect. erect an immense statue of Fo. Like Siva This chanting continued about five minutes, he was blessed with three eyes, one being when the bell again tinkling, the parties fell situated in the centre of the space which
to at their rations with their chopsticks, as usually separates the eyes of mortals. This eagerly as pigs at a newly filled trough. Talkaugust divinity stood behind a long and well ing of pigs, there is a very respectable piggery polished oak table like a tradesman behind attached to the establishment. The Joss the counter, on which were placed a number pigs, i. e. those which are consecrated to Fo, of carved pewter and copper tripods, &c. from which incense* was perpetually ascend.
from these united burnt offerings is so great as to
form a dense cloud, which hovers over the city like * These vessels were blled with sand, in which the more smutty exhalations of the London chimwere stuck several small lighted sticks, called “Joss pies. sticks." They are kept burning wight and day; at + Klaproth translates this cabalistic sentence, sunset a bunch of their Joss sticks is lighted at the cach syilable of which is considered a tower of door of every house in Canton, to proteci the inmates safety against all earthly
and spiritual calanities: from the visits of evil spirits. "The smoke arising " Oh, precious lotus!"-Timkouski, vol. ii, p. 349.