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Oporinus, a printer, who, being mployed one very regular in their periods, both as to night in correcting the copy of a Greek book, arrival and duration. fell asleep as he read, and yet ceased not to Her usual time for sleeping was fortyread, till he had finished not less than a eight hours. She would in the intermediate whole page, of which, when he awoke, he day be very well, till twelve at night, when retained no recollection.
she went to bed. Sometimes she would awake There are many curious histories of sleep. for a few minutes, take some warm fluid, ing prodigies on record. The Philosophical which was always
kept ready with a lamp ; Transactions have several : in one, a man but found any effort to remain awake un. slept from August till January. There is a availing, and the bare notion of attempting it case, read before a society of physicians in gave her great horror. 1756, of Elizabeth Orvin, who began her Amongst the sleepy people of modern sleeping fit in 1738, by a four days' nap, times, the case of Elizabeth Perkins, of and for ten years afterwards never slept less Morley St, Peter, in Norfolk, should be than seventeen hours out of the four-and- noticed as a case somewhat resembling that twenty. Dr. Brady relates, that some strange just alluded to. For a considerable time she methods were resorted to to rouse her-such was very regular in her times of waking, as rubbing her back with honey, and in a which was once in seven days, after which hot day exposing her to a hive of bees, till they became irregular and precarious, and, her back was full of bumps ;-making a though of shorter duration, they were equally pincushion of her, and performing acu-punc. profound ; and every attempt at keeping her turation with pins and needles ; - flagella- awake, or awaking her, were vain. Various tion, and “other odd experiments," which experiments were tried ; and an itinerant the doctor informs us he thinks better “ to empiric, elated with the hope of rousing her pass over in silence," all of which might from what he called “her counterfeit sleep,' as well have been spared, for she was very blew into her nostrils the power of white sulky, and good-for-nothing, when she was hellebore, being a very powerful sternuta. awake. This sulkiness, however, should be tive ; but the poor creature remained insennoticed, as being connected with the com. sible to the inhumanity of the deed, which, plaint. Previously to this somnolent disease, instead of producing the boasted effect, exmany of the persons have become uneasy, coriated the skin of her nose, lips, and sullen, and surly. In all, the mind has evi. face. dently been affected ; and in some, where Buonaparte was polite enough to say to a there has been extreme abstinence, their gentleman, “ J'irai dormir vite pour vous ;" waking hours have been characterised by de. from which we may conclude, that he pos. cided mental aberration.
sessed some of the properties of the man who · A lady in perfect health, twenty-three advertised, in the spectator, that he intended years of age, was asked by the parents of a to sleep at the Cock and Bottle, in Little friend to be present at a severe surgical ope- Britain. ration. On consideration, it was thought The following account of this affair is wrong to expose her to such a scene, and the from a scarce tract in the British Museum : operation was postponed for a few hours. _" The sleepy man awakened of his five She went to bed, however, with the imagina- days' dream ; being a most strange and wontion highly excited, and awoke in alarm, derful true account of one Nicholas Heart, a hearing, or thinking she heard, the shrieks Dutchman, a patient of St. Bartholomew's of her friend under the agony of an opera. Hospital, in West Smithfield, who sleeps tion. Convulsions and hysterics supervened, five days every August : and you have a and, on their subsiding, she went into a pro- true relation how his mother fell in one of found sleep, which continued sixty-three her sleeps on the first of August, she then hours. The most eminent of the faculty being near the time of her labour; and on were then consulted, and she was cupped, the fifth day she wakened, and was delivered. which awoke her ; but the convulsions re. As soon as he was born, he sleeped for five turned, and she again went to sleep, and days and five nights; together with the true slept with few intermissions for a fortnight. dream which he and his mother dreamt every For the next twelve months she remained year alike. But what is more particular perfectly well. The sleeping began again than all the rest, he gives an account of one without any apparent cause, which, in irre- Mr. William Morgan, who he saw hurried gular periods, continued for ten or twelve to a dismal, dark castle ; and one Mr. John years, the length of the sleeping fits being Paimer, he saw him going into a place of from thirty to forty hours, diminished in bliss : these two men were patients in the duration as time went on, till she got well. hospital, and dy'd while he was in his sleep. Then arrived irritability, and total want of London: printed by Edward Midwinter, at sleep for three months, which was succeeded the Sun, "Pye Corner, Smithfield.”
We by aberration of mind. This state continued have here given the whole of the title, which about six months, when, to the relief of her tells nearly all about this sleepy set. friends, her sleeping fits returned, and were
RECENT DISCOVERIES IN VEGE. the fluid never can raise it to he top of the
tube, and cause it to flow from its upper TABLE PHYSIOLOGY.*
orifice. Here, then, we have a criterion, by
which we can ascertain whether or not the (From the Foreign Review.- No. V.)
sap of plants ascends by capillary attraction. If the sap rise to the top of the capillary
vessels, and flow over their summits, its While the spirit of philosophy has been
ascent and its discharge must be produced by taking possession of almost all the other na
some other power than capillary attraction. tural sciences, it seems somewhat upac.
That the sap thus ascends, and then overcountable that it should have been so long in flows, is too notorious to require even to be transfusing itself into the accumulated mass stated ;-nay, if we cut a portion out of the of observations and experiments which con.
stem of some plants, the sap of the exscinded stitute the science of vegetable physiology; portion will flow out at both of its extremi. By the labours of Grew, Lewenhoek, and ties, an effect which would be prevented in many accurate observers who followed in place of being promoted by capillary attractheir footsteps, the structure of the organs of tion. Hence it is demonstrable that, whatplants has been ascertained with tolerable
ever may be the intluence of the capillarity correctness; and a very considerable amount of the vessels of plants, there must be some of information respecting the functions of other power than that of capillary attraction those organs has been derived from the ex- which produces the ascent of the sap. periments and reasonings of Duhamel, Hales,
M. Dutrochet commences his inquiry with Malpighi, and others. Still, however, the the determination of the channels by which physiology of plants has never yet assumed the sap is conveyed through plants. M. Dethe form and dignity of a science. The mens
candolle had supposed that the sap ascends divinior was wanting, to separate its essential through what he calls the lymphatic vessels, from its useless facts, to groupe them under the fausses tracheæ of Mirbel; and the general principles, and to exhibit those prie truth of this conjecture has been put beyond mary laws, which are absolutely necessary to
a doubt by M. Dutrochet. These vessels the progress of science. The aecumulation
are situated both in the laburnum and the of facts and experiments had almost over. heart wood, but they are never found in the whelmed the few points of rational theory of bark nor in the medulla. These sap-vessels which vegetable physiology could boast, and
are simple tubes without valves, and have no a number of doctrines half established, and lateral communication with each other, speculations ingenious and plausible, usurped
That the force which causes the sap to the place of tixed principles and rigorous ascend through these vessels resides in the views.
roots, may be readily proved, according to That plants derive their nourishment from
our author, by the following fact: If in the soil in which they grow, and that this spring we cut the stem of a vine close to the nourishment, in the state of a fluid, is ab- ground, the separated portion of the stem sorbed by the roots, and ascends through the
ceases to bleed, while the surface of the por. stem and branches, are facts which must tion attached to the roots continues to bleed have forced themselves upon the notice of the freely. If we make successive sections, pro. most careless observer ; but, through what ceeding downwards, till we reach the radicles, channels the fluids thius absorbed rise in the the same effect will be produced ; and hence plant, and by what forces they are sustained it follows that the force which causes the in the most elevated branches, contrary to sap to flow from the divided extremity of the their natural gravity, no physiologist could plant must reside in the spongiole, or small decide, till within these few years. As the conical body which forms the termination of vessels of the largest plants were of a capil- each radicle. lary nature, the force of capillary attraction
Our limits will not permit us to enter into was almost universally regarded as the pri- the details of these experiments, which first mary agent in producing the ascent of the led our author to the discovery of the force sap; and as no other force could be found, now mentioned. Our principal object is to an opinion so plausible seems never to have show how he established the leading doebeen subjected to a rigid examination. Al. trine. though the force of capillary attraction in. Having taken the cæcum, or blind.gut of creases with the sinallness of the tube which exerts it, yet, however small a capillary tube water, he filled it half full with 196 grains
& young chicken, and cleaned it with pure may be, and however great may be the of milk; and having tied up its open ex, affinity which its substance has for the fluid tremity, he placed it in water. At the end it contains, the force which it exerts upon of 24 hours, the cæcum had imbibed 73
grains of water; and in 12 hours more the * L'agent immédiat du Mouvement vital dévoilé quantity of water imbibed was 117 grains, Végétaux et chez les Avimaux. Par .M. H. Dus and the cæcum had become turgid. "Froni
this period the cæcum experienced a gradual diminution of weight, and at the end of 36 partments, and left the other almost empty, hours it had lost 54 grains of the water with only a few drops of water in it. When which had formerly entered it, and the con- the zinc pole of a galvanic pile was placed in tained milky Auid had grown putrid. the full compartment, and the copper pole in Here, then, we have exhibited to us two op- the empty one, the water passed from the posite actions of the organic membrane ;- full into the empty compartment, and rose ist, that by which the water is imbibed ; and in the latter much higher than it originally 2nd, that by which it is expelled. In the stood in the former. Following up the idea first of these cases the milk, or internal Huid, suggested by this remarkable experiment, M. was denser than the water, or external fluid ; Dutrochet tied the extremities of two tubes, and while this state of the fluid continued, one of which was capillary, to the pod of the the cæcum continued to imbibe the water; Colutea arborescens. He now introduced but as soon as the milky fluid became putrid, the negative wire of the galvanic pile through and thinner than the external water, the a cork in the ordinary tube, into the pod, and latter passed out of the cæcum as rapidly as then immersed the positive wire into a vessel it formerly entered it.
of water in which the pod was placed. The To these two powers, by which an external pod quickly became turgid by the imbibition fuid can be taken into an organic cavity, and of the external water, and the water rising in again discharged from it, M. Dutrochet has the capillary tube, flowed over its upper ex. given the names of Endosmose and Exos. tremity exactly in the same manner as it mose ; the one derived from sdor, inward, would have done in virtue of the force of and wouos, an impulse ; and the other from endosmose, had the pod separated two Auids ef, out, and wipos, an impulse.
of different densities. The same result was As the turgidity produced by the imbi- obtained by substituting the cæcum of a bition of the water, in the preceding experi- chicken in place of the vegetable membrane. ment, stretches the sides of the cæcum, so as That endosmose is an electrical action, was to cause them to react on the inclosed fluid, rendered highly probable by the following our Author was of opinion that this reaction experiment:-Our author introduced the would be capable of causing the fluid to rise white of an egg into the cæcum of a chicken, in a tube fixed to the cæcum, wben in a state and when it was nearly full, he closed it and of endosmose. He accordingly took a glass plunged it in water. The cæcum became tube, 24 inches long, and about one-fifth of speedily turgid ; and after the action had an inch in bore, and fixed one end in the continued some hours, a layer of coagulated cæcum of a chicken containing a solution of albumen was found upon its inner surface gum arabic. The glass tube being held in a one of the known effects of voltaic action. vertical position, and the cæcum being im. From the experiments which we have now mersed in rain water, the inclosed fuid rose briefly described, we are entitled to conclude in the tube, and at the end of 24 hours it with M. Dutrochet, That it is by the action began to discharge itself from the apper of endosmose that the sap is raised to the orifice. This overflow continued for two highest summits of trees, contrary to its na. days, when it began to sink. Upon opening tural gravity ; and that this new force is the the cæcum on the fourth day, the inclosed result of electrical action. fluid was found in a state of putridity. M. Such is the conclusion of the first section Dutrochet obtained similar results by sub- of M. Dutrochet's latest Memoir, which was stituting for the cæcum the inflated bladder read before the Royal Academy of Sciences on of the Colutea arborescens, or bladder senna. the 17th of March, 1828. The section which
Having thus discovered a force capable of contains the application of these discoveries impelling the sap imbibed by the spongioles to physiology-to the phenomena of animal into the cells and capillary vessels of plants, and vegetable life, has, we believe, not yet our Author was desirous of ascertaining the appeared, and we look forward to its publicause of so singular an effect. An experi- cation with high interest. In his original ment by Porret, to which Professor Amici work, “ L'Agent Immédiat," he has entered alludus, * could not fail to suggest, that very fully into this important subject; but the phenomenon exhibited by animal or beautiful as are many of his explanations of vegetable membranes was the result of elec- some of the most important functions and trical action. This chemist having divided condition of the animal frame, and profound a cylindrical jar into two compartments by a and ingenious as are all his views, yet they piece of bladder, he filled one of the com- must soon be greatly modified and extended,
by his subsequent discoveries of the activity
and inactivity of different solids and fluids in • The professor observed, by the aid of a micro- the production of endosmose, and of the conscope, a regular circulation in the map of the chara version of active into inactive fluids, by the pulgaris ; he saw transparent globules of various sizes circulating in regular and uninterrupted mo. introduction of a small portion of acid. tion, in two opposite alternating streams, in the When we consider that the organs of two halves or sections of the single cylindrical canal: animal bodies consist of a congeries of vesi, or vessel, which runs through the fibres of the plant.
cles composed of permeable membrane, and VOL. I.
that the vascular systems are the channels by natural philosopher with the knowledge and which those membranes are supplied with new patient observation of the botanist. organic matter in a Auid state-and when To have discovered the fact and the opewe consider, also, how these fluids may be ration of endosmose must have immortalized changed, from active to inactive fluids, and any philosopher ; but M. Dutrochet has from inactive to active fluids, either by the placed his reputation on a still more secure addition of a new ingredient, or by the abstrac- basis, by discovering its origin. That election of one which they already contain, and tricity is the direct cause of this singular how active membranes may become inactive effect cannot now be doubted; and we are by a change of porosity, by the partial or sanguine in the hope that means may be discomplete filling up of their capillary ducts, or covered of promoting and modifying vegeby a permanent change of condition-when tation by the stimulus of the electric fluid, we consider, in short, the general structure of obtained either by artificial means, or drawn animal bodies, and the changes which dis- from the atmosphere. The opinions of the ease super-induces upon their individual Abbé Bertholon, on this subject, are ex. parts—we perceive in the discoveries of M. tremely remarkable, and we cannot resist the Dutrochet the foundation of a new system of temptation of laying them before our readers physiology, and a wide extension of the —not as being, in the least degree, an antici. boundaries of medical science.
pation, of the discoveries of M. DutrochetSince the fluids and solids which compose but, in so far as they are correct, as a con. the human frame are actually agents, which firmation of the general principle. by their mutual contact produce electricity, In his work Del’Electricité des Végétaur," varying in its intensity and in its impulsive he describes an instrument, called an electroeffect by the condition of these agents, and vegetometer, a sort of thunder-rod for bringsince we really find that the action of the pile ing down the electricity of the atmosphere; is capable of supplying some of the con. and he proposes to convey it to particular ditions necessary to the development of this spots, for the purpose of enriching the soil, electricity, may we not expect that the ex- and renovating the healths of plants. ternal application of electricity, supplied “ By means, says he, of the electro-rege. either by its artificial production or by the at. tometer, we may be able at our pleasure to mosphere itself, may become an important accumulate this wonderful fluid, however auxiliary in the healing art ? When the diffused in the upper regions, and conduct it Abbé Bertholon * maintained, that the elec. to the earth's surface in those seasons when it tricity of the atmosphere had a principal is either scantily supplied, or its quantity is share in the number of deaths, and particu- insufficient for vegetation ; for though it larly sudden deaths, and that it has a decided may be, in some degree, sufficient, yet it can influence on generation, conception, and par- never produce the effects of a multiplied and turition, he perhaps obtained a distant glimpse highly increased vegetation. So that we of truths yet unrevealed, and in the discove. shall, by these means, have an excellent vegeries of future times his memory may yet table manure or nourishment brought down, receive some compensation for the ridi. as it were, from heaven, at an easy expense; cule which has been thrown upon his for, after the construction of this instrument, opinions. +
it will cost nothing to maintain it. It will, To the science of vegetable physiology the besides, be the most efficacious that can be discoveries of M. Dutrochet have a more im- employed, as no other substance is so active, mediate application. They form, indeed, an penetrating, or conducive to the germination, epoch in its history: as from a new goal, growth, multiplication, or reproduction of the science starts with powerful instruments vegetables. This heavenly manure is that of research, and with fresh prospects of suc- which nature employs over the whole habit.
The discovery of endosmose, and of able earth, not excepting even those regions the cause of the ascent of sap in plants, is, to which are esteemed barren, but which, however, vegetable physiology, what the establishment are often fecundated by those agents which of the law of gravity was to astronomy. nature knows so well to employ to the most While it binds together the scattered elements useful purposes. Perhaps there was nothing of the science, it lays the foundation of an in- wanting to bring to a completion the useful ductive superstructure, which can be reared discoveries that have been made in electricity, only by men of varied talent, who combine but to show the advantages of the art of emthe accomplishments of the chemist and the ploying electricity as a manure, and, conse
quently, that all the effects which we have Del Electricité du Corps humain dans l'état de already mentioned, depend on electricity Santé et de Maladie, 2 vols. 8vo.-See vol. ii. p. 435. alone, and that all these effects-viz. acce. insensible
perspiration, as indicated by the experi- leration in the germination, the growth, and ments of M. de Boyes,'M. Nollet, and Van Marum, production of leaves, flowers, fruit, and their and the curious results obtained by M Achard re multiplications, &c., will be produced even specting its influence in accelerating the putrifaction at a time when secondary causes are unfa. of animal bodies, may perhaps receive some explanation from M. Dutrochet's discoveries.
vourable to it.
“By multiplying these instruments, which property of double refraction, form an essenare provided at little expense (since iron rods tial part of the siliceous grasses, and that all of the thickness of the finger, and even less, the separate crystals have their axes arranged, are sufficient for the purpose), we multiply not in parallel lines, but so as to form geometheir beneficial effects, and extend their usetrical figures by the light which they depoad infinilum.
larise, points out a new relation between the “This apparatus having been raised with laws which govern the crystallization of incare in the middle of a garden, the happiest animate matter, and those which regulate the effects were perceived_viz. different plants, operations of vegetable life. herbs, and fruits, in greater forwardness than The recent observations, too, of our disusual, were multiplied, and of superior quan tinguished countryman, Mr. Robert Brown, lity. These facts are analogous to an obser- respecting what appear to be the active molevation which I have often made-that plants cules of bodies, whether of mineral or vegegrow fast, and are most vigorous near thunder- table origin, promise a rich harvest of discorods, where their situation favours their de- very. He has announced the singular fact, velopment. They likewise serve to explain that active spherical molecules exist in the why vegetation is so vigorous in lofty forests, grain and pollen of most plants along with and where the trees raise their heads far from its proper particles, and that these molecules the surface of the earth, so that they seek, as have a spontaneous or inherent motion when it were, the electric fluid at a far greater immersed in water. Even when the pollen height than plants less elevated, while the has been immersed in weak spirits for nearly sharp extremities of their leaves, boughs, a year, the apparent vitality of the particles and branches, serve as so many points, grant- still exists, nay, it remains in plants which ed them by the munificent hand of nature, have been dead for more than a century, and to draw down from the atmosphere that elec- survives even the most intense heat to which tric fluid which is so powerful an agent in animal and vegetable fibre can be exposed. forwarding vegetation, and in promoting the These primary molecules exist in almost all different functions of plants."
minerals, and even in pounded glass. They It would have been very desirable that the occur, not only in their simple state, but also Abbé Bertholon had mentioned the specific in a compound form. Oval particles, equal facts upon which he has founded these very to about two molecules, and supposed to be vague and general, though, at the same time, primary combinations of these, often appeared, curious views. That they are not entirely and were in general more vivid in their movespeculative, is proved by the facts previously ments than the simple molecules, revolving discovered by Mr. Maimbray, of Edinburgh, most commonly on their longer axis, and freand the Abbé Nollet. The first of these ex- quently exhibiting a flattened form. Other perimentalists found that two myrtle trees, compound molecules were seen resembling electrified during the month of October, short fibres, and somewhat moniliform, and 1746, put forth small branches, and blossom- having their transverse diameter cqual to that ed much earlier than other shrubs that were of the primary molecule. These fibrils, not electrified ; and the Abbé Nollet having whether composed of two or three molecules, sowed seeds in two pots filled with the same or of four or five, were generally in motior. mould, and kept in the same place, found This motion was, at least, as vivid as that of that the seeds in one of the pots which had the simple molecules, and might be said to been electrified two or three hours a day for be somewhat vermicular. Whatever be the fifteen days, exhibited sprouts two or three substance in which they occur, Mr. Brown days sooner than those in the unelectrified considers the simple molecules to be of unipots, and threw out larger shoots, and a form size, and, from various measurements, greater number of them, in a given time. he regards them as about the twenty thout
Having, thus, given as distinct an account sandth part of an inch in diameter. as we can of the great discovery of endo3. The same curious subject is occupying the mose, which the Royal Academy of Sciences attention of the French botanists; and M. has honoured with a gold medal, we cannot Adolphe Brongniart has published the results take leave of M. Dutrochet without express- of some of his observations in his “ Reing our anxious hope that we shall soon have cherches sur le Génération et le Developpean opportunity of announcing the successful ment de l'Embryon dans les Végétaux Phar continuation of his labours, and that he will nérogames,” which was read before the Acanot allow the subject to pass into other hands, demy of Sciences, and has been published in till he has brought within the dominion of the “ Annales des Sciences Naturelles." his general principles the leading phenomena From the talents and activity of these two of vegetable life.
botanists, we may expect with confidence The science of vegetable physiology is now some highly important results, and we trust anived at a point where great discoveries may we shall soon have an opportunity of again be soon expected. The extraordinary fact calling the attention of our readers to so curidiscovered by Dr. Brewster, that innumerable ous a subject. crystals of silex, possessing, distinctly the In consequence of observations which we