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7. Reduce 3qr. 3na. to the fraction of a yard.

8. What part of 7lb. is 13oz. 14dr. ?

9. What part of 576 grammes is 43 centigrammes ? 10. Reduce 6sq. ft. 130sq. in. to the fraction of a rood.


Reduce 10oz. 15dwt. 22gr. to the decimal of a Þ. dwt.=.916dwt. Therefore, 15dwt. 22gr.=15.916dwt.=15.9160z. =79583oz. Then, 10oz. 15dwt. 22gr.=10.79583oz.=10.79583. =.89965271b.



Commence with the lowest denomination, annex decimal O's, and reduce each denomination to the decimal of the next higher, by dividing as in ordinary reduction.

In the following examples, the numbers are all to be reduced to the decimal of the highest denomination mentioned.

1. Add £11 11s. 11d.; £4 3s. 7d. ; 2s. 6d. 3qr.; and 9s. 6d.

2. Add 6gal. 3qt. 1pt. 3gi.; 2qt. 1pt. 1gi.; 5gal. 3gi.; and 4gal. 1qt.


3. From 197. 10cwt. subtract 15cwt. 3qr. 14lb.
4. From 7 Cong. 70. subtract 1 Cong. 7f3.

5. Multiply 14Y. 36d. 12h. by 9.4.

6. Divide 17 63 43 by 5.

7. Divide 29r. 4yd. 2ft. by 3yd. 1ft. 6in.

8. Reduce £591 9s. 3d. to Federal Money, at $4.85 per £.

9. Reduce 28 ducats 9 carlins 7 grains of Naples, to dollars and cents, at 83cts. per ducat.

10. Reduce 28C. 7C. ft. 4c. ft. to cords and decimals

of a cord.


11. What is the value of 94 francs 79 centimes, at 18 cts. per franc?

12. What is the value of 75 milrees 2 crusades, at $1.15 per milree?

£. S. 20" 16"

11" 0 ❝

9" 19"

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41" 17" 4" 2 sum, 6qr. 1d. 2qr. and carry the 1d. to of d. is 28d. 2s. 4d. and carry 2s. to the column of s. Write 17 beneath the column of s. and of £. The sum of the £ is 41, which is written down, as there is no higher denomination.

What is the sum of £20 16s. 9d. 3qr.; £11 7d. 1gr.; and £9 19s. 11d. 2qr.? Writing the numbers as in Simple Addition, placing those of the same denomination in the same perpendicular column, I commence with the column of farthings, and find its write the 2qr. beneath the column of qr., the column of d. The sum of the column Write the 4d. beneath the column of d. There are 37s.=£1 17s. carry £1 to the column


qr. 9" 3 766 1 11" 2


Write the numbers as in Simple Addition, placing those of the same denomination in the same vertical column. Commence at the right hand to add, and reduce the sum of each column to the next higher denomination. Write the remainder underneath, and carry the quotient to the next column.

1. Add 9Qr. 1C. 2bu. 3pk; 4Qr. 1bu. 1pk. 1gal.; 3bu. 3pk. 1qt.; and 5Qr. 2pk., and reduce the result to quarts.

2. Add 3 Cong. 70. 15f3 7ƒ3 59m.; 7 Cong. 3f 3 ; 40. 9f3 4f3; and 2Cong. 4f3 1 m, and find the weight of

the whole.

3. Add 116gal. 3qt. 1pt.; 59gal. 1pt. 3gi.; 76gal. 2qt. and 291gal. 1qt. 1pt. 1gi., and reduce the result to gallons and decimals of a gallon.

4. Add 147. 9cwt. 3qr. 17lb.; 9T. 1qr. 25lb. 5oz.; 16lb. 3oz. 14dr.; and 17T. 18cwt. 1qr. 27lb. 2dr.

5. Add £19 7s. 6d. 3qr.; £276 19s. 11d.; 14s. 3qr.; £278 138.; and £190 5s. 5d. 2qr.

6. Add 5. 113 73 29 18gr.; 7. 14gr; 33 33; and 15. 43 19gr. and reduce the 3, &c., to the fraction of


7. Add 55yd. 3qr. 3na.; 7yd. Ina. 1 in.; 4yd. 2qr. 1na.; 63yd. 2na.; and 175yd. 1qr. 2na. 2in., and reduce the result to decimal yards.

8. Add 3C. 7C. ft. 15c. ft. 1719c. in.; 14C. 3c. ft. 96c. in.; 2C. ft. 14c. ft.; 47C. 6C. ft.; and 19C.

9. Add 9sq. m. 627A. 3R. 30r.; 3sq. m. 248A. 39r. ; 41sq. m. 27r. ; and 163A. 2R. 12r. and reduce the result to rods.

10. Add 17m. 7fur. 39r. 4yd. 2ft. 11in.; 19m. 3fur. 3yd.; 6fur. 18r. 1ft. 9in.; and 41m. 24r. 2ft. 7in.

11. How many deniers in 4 Louis d'ors 1 ecu 5 livres +13 Louis 2 livres 19 sous 10 deniers+2 livres 7 sous+ 4 livres 13 sous 9 deniers?

12. Add 19 ducats 8 carlins 7 grains; 12d. 3c. 5gr.; 9c. 8gr.; and 29d. 2c. and find their value at 81 cts. per ducat.

13. Add 19 ft. 11′ 8′′ 5′′; 3 ft. 4" 9""; 10' 10"; 8ft. 6'; 15ft.; and 29ft. 2' 7" 11".



bu. pk. qt. pt. 39" 13" 1 1925 “1 19" 2" 6" 0

From 39bu. 1pk. 3qt. 1pt. take 19bu. 2pk. 5qt. 1pt. Commencing at the right hand, as in Simple Subtraction, I say 1pt. from 1pt. leaves Opt. 5qt. cannot be taken from 3qt., I therefore increase both numbers by 1pk. or 8qt. and say, 5qt. from 11qt. leaves 6qt., 3pk. from 5pk. leaves 2pk., and 20bu. from 39bu. leaves 19bu.


Write the numbers as in Compound Addition, and commence at the right hand to subtract. If the number representing any denomination in the minuend, is less than that in the subtrahend, increase each by one of the next higher denomination, and proceed as in ordinary subtraction.


1. From 28chal. 3bu. 1pk. take 18chal. 31bu. 2pk. 7qt. 2. What is the difference between 187gal. 3qt. 1pt. 3gi. and 216gal. 2gi.?

3. Subtract 7Y. 191d. 18h. 59min. 2sec. from 8Y. 32d. 17h.

4. From 19 Cong, subtract 70. 11f3 3f3 41m, and reduce the remainder to m.

5. A grocer purchased 19cwt. 1qr. of sugar. How much had he left after selling 11cwt. 2qr. 17lb. 12oz.?


6. A man sold his horse for £40, which was £9 8s. 6d. more than it cost him. What did he give for the horse?

7. Subtract 9 73 73 19 11gr. from 16 33 9gr. 8. Subtract 19yd. 3qr. 3na. from 117yd. 1qr. 2na. 9. A ship left port Nov. 29th, 1841, and returned Aug. 18th, 1844. How long was her voyage?

10. From a lot of land containing 490 Acres, 163A. 3R. 17r. were sold. How much was left?

11. From a board measuring 13ft. 9' 11", a piece was sawed containing 4ft. 0' 3" 8"". How much was left?

12. How many seconds elapsed from 20min. past 5 A. M. 8th mo. 18, 1829, to 17min. past 3 P. M. 5th mo. 3, 1831? 18

13. Subtract 9 marcs 13 schillings 11 pfennings Hamburg, from 10m. 3sch., and reduce the remainder to the fraction of a marc.

14. From 7m. 3fur. 9ch., subtract 7fur. 3p. 187., and reduce the remainder to miles and decimals of a mile.


Multiply 9yd. 2ft. 11in. by 15. Multiplying the inches by 15, we find 165in.=13ft. 9in. Write 9in. below the line, and carry 13ft. 15 times 2ft. 30ft. and 13ft. to carry, make 43ft. =14yd. 1ft. Write lft. in the column of feet, and carry 14yd. 15 times 9yd.=135yd. and 14yd. to carry, make 149yd.


yd. ft. in.



149 6


1 66 9

Commence with the smallest denomination, and reduce each product to the next higher denomination, writing the remainder underneath, and carrying the quotient as in Compound Addition.

1. Multiply 13 Y. 79d. 18h. 43m. 12s. by 43. X 2. Multiply 19m. 7fur. 4r. 4yd. 11in. by 81. 3. Multiply £96 11s. 11d. 1qr. by 57.

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4. Multiply 41yd. 2qr. 3na. lin. by 79.

5. Multiply 28T. 18cwt. 2qr. 13lb. by 47. 6. Multiply 781gal. 1gi. by 46.

7. Multiply 83 Cong. 7 f3 41 m by 23.

8. How many acres, roods, &c., in 73 pieces of land, each of which is 73.8 ro long, and 31.3 rod wide?

9. How many cords, &c., of wood, in 61 piles, each pile being 12.5ft. long, 4ft. wide, and 8.75ft. high?

10. How many seconds in 13 times 4 Y. 18d. 13h.?

11. How many feet, primes, &c., in 86 times 39′0′′ 4"" ?

12. Multiply 7m. 3fur. 5ch. by 17, and reduce the fur. and ch. to the fraction of a mile.

13. Multiply 19 4′ 2′′ 11" by 29, and reduce the result to "".

14. Add 425lb. 13oz. 15dr.; 37lb. 14oz.; 91lb. 2oz. 11 dr. ;-subtract 500lb. 15oz. 14dr. 2sc. from the sum;— multiply the remainder by 11, and reduce the result to grains.



Divide 19yd. 2ft. 9in. by 5. Dividing the 19yd. we have a quotient of 3yd. with a remainder, 4yd. The 4yd. undivided, are equi3" 2" 113 valent to 12ft., which, added to the 2ft. make 14ft. 14ft.-5=2ft. with a remainder, 4ft. The 4ft. undivided, are equal to 48 inches, which, added to the 9 inches, make 57 inches. 57 in.÷5=113 in.

yd. ft. in. 5)19" 2"



First divide the highest denomination. Whenever there is any remainder, reduce it to the next lower denomination, and add it to the number (if any) already in that denomination. Then divide as before, and so proceed until the division is completed. If both the divisor and the dividend are compound numbers, reduce them to the same denomination, and divide as in simple division.

1. What is the price of a qr. of sugar, at £2 3s. per cwt.?

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