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DR. HERSCHEL'S HYPOTHESIS OF them ; we may therefore admit, that in the THE SUN BEING INHABITED. very extensive atmosphere of the Sun, from

causes of the same nature, similar phenomena ( From the Philosophical Transactions.) will take place; but with this difference, that

the continual, and very extensive decomposi.

tions of the elastic fluids of the Sun are of a Among the celestial bodies the Sun is cer- phosphoric nature, and attended with lucid tainly the first which should attract our appearances, by giving out light. notice. It is the fountain of light which il

The exceeding subtilty of light is such, that lumines the earth! It is the cause of that in ages of time its emanations from the Sun heat which maintains the productive power cannot very sensibly lessen the size of this of nature, and makes a fit habitation for man! great body. To this may be added, that, It is the central body of the planetary system ; very possibly, there may also be ways of and what renders a knowledge of its nature restoration to compensate for what is lost by still more interesting to us, is, that the num- the emission of light; though the manner in berless stars which compose the universe ap- which this can be brought about should not pear, by the strictest analogy, to be similar appear to us. Many of the operations of bodies. Their innate light is so intense, that nature are carried on in her great laboratory, it reaches the eye of the observer from the which we cannot comprehend ; but now and remotest regions of space.

then we see some of the tools with which she That our Sun has an extensive atmosphere is at work. We need not wonder that their cannot be doubted; and that this atmosphere construction should be so singular as to induce consists of various elastic fluids, that are more us to confess our ignorance of the method of or less lucid and transparent, and of which employing them, but we may rest assured that the lucid one is that which furnishes us with they are not a mere lusus nature. I allude light, seems also to be fully established by to the great number of small telescopic comets all the phenomena of its spots, of the faculæ, that have been observed; and to the far greater and of the lucid surface itself.

number that still are probably much too small There is no kind of variety in these ap- for being noticed by our most diligent searchers pearances, but what may be accounted for after them. This throws a mystery over their with the greatest facility, from the continual destination, which seems to place them in the agitation which we may easily conceive must allegorical view of tools, probably designed take place in the regions of such extensive for some salutary purposes to be wrought by elastic Auids. It will be necessary, however, them; and whether the restoration of what is to be a little more particular as to the manner lost to the Sun by the emission of light, the in which I suppose the lucid matter of the Sun possibility of which we have been mentioning to be generated in its atmosphere. This lucid above, may not be one of these purposes, I matter is neither liquid nor an elastic fluid, shall not presume to determine. The motion as is evident from its not instantly filling up of the comet, discovered by Mr. Messier, in the cavities of the spots, and of the uneven- June, 1770, plainly showed how much its orbit ness of the mottled parts. It exists, therefore, was liable to be changed, by the perturbations in the manner of lucid clouds, swimming in of the planets ; from which, and the little the transparent atmosphere of the Sun; or agreement that can be found between the elerather of luminous decompositions taking ments of the orbits of all the comets that have place within that atmosphere. An analogy, been observed, it appears clearly that they drawn from the generation of clouds in our may be directed to carry their salutary inown atmosphere, seems a very proper one, and fluence to any part of the heavens. full of instruction. Our clouds are, pro My hypothesis, however, does not lay me bably, decompositions of some of the elastic under any obligation to explain how the Sun fuids of the atmosphere itself, when such can sustain the waste of light, nor to show natural causes, as in this grand chemical that it will sustain it for ever; and I should laboratory are generally at work, act upon also remark, that, as in the analogy of

• The following observations were made with an generating clouds, I merely allude to their proimproved apparatus, and under the most favourable duction, as owing to a decomposition of some circumstances

of the elastic fluids of our atmosphere, that The Sun is mottled every where.

analogy, which firmly rests upon the fact, The mottled appearance of the Sun is owing to an will not be less to my purpose, to whatever inequality in the level of the surface. The Sun is equally mottled at its poles and at its equator; but

cause these clouds may owe their origin. It the mottled appearances may be seen better about

is the same with the lucid clouds, if I may the middle of the disc than towards the circum so call them, of the Sun. They plainly exist, ference, on account of the Sun's spherical form. The unevenness, arising from the elevation and de

because we see them; the manner of their pression of the mottled appearance on the surface of being generated may remain an hypothesis ; ihe Sun, seems, in many places, to amount to ag and mine, till a better can be proposed, may much, a to nearly as much as the depression of the stand good; but whether it does or not, the shising substance, without including faculæ, which consequences I am going to draw from what are protuberant.

has been said will not be affected by it. VOL. I.

E

No. 2.-NOVEMBER 8, 1828.

From the luminous atnosphere of the height, at an altitude where clouds can very Sun I proceed to its opaque body, which, by seldom reach, to shelter them from the direct calculation, from the power it exerts upon rays of the Sun, we always find regions of ice the planets, we know to be of great solidity; and snow. Now, if the solar rays themselves and from the phenomena of the dark spots, conveyed all the heat we find on this globe, many of which, probably, on account of their it ought to be hottest where their course is high'situations, have been repeatedly seen, and least interrupted. Again, our aëronatus all otherwise denote inequalities in their level, confirm the coldness of the upper regions of we surmise that its surface is diversified with the atmosphere ; and sincc, therefore, even mountains and vallies.

on our Earth the heat of any situation What has been said enables us to come to depends upon the aptness of the medium to some very important conclusions, by remark- yield to the impression of the solar rays, we ing, that this way of considering the Sun and have only to admit, that, on the Sun itself, the its atmosphere, removes the great dissimi. elastic Suids composing its atmosphere, and larity we have hitherto been used to find the matter on its surface, are of such a nature between its condition, and that of the rest of as not to be capable of any excessive affection the great bodies of the solar system.

from its own rays; and, indeed, this seems The Sun, viewed in this light, appears to to be proved by the copious emission of them; be nothing else than a very eminent, large, for if the elastic fluids of the atmosphere, or and lucid planet, evidently the first, or in the matter contained on the surface of the Sun, strictness of speaking, the only primary one were of such a nature as to admit of an easy of our system; all others being truly secondary chemical combination with its rays, their to it. Its similarity to the other globes of emission would be much impeded. Another the solar system, with regard to its solidity, well known fact is, that the solar focus of the its atmosphere, and its diversified surface; largest lens, thrown into the air, will occasion the rotation upon its axis, and the fall of no sensible heat in the place where it has been heavy bodies, leads us on to suppose that it kept for a considerable time, although its is, most probably, also inhabited, like the power of exciting combustion, when proper rest of the planets, by beings, whose organs bodies are exposed, should be sufficient to are adapted to the peculiar circumstances of fuse the most refractory substances. From that vast globe.

these, and the foregoing arguments, I conWhatever fanciful poets might say, in clude that the Sun is a planet, abundantly making the Sun the abode of blessed spirits, stored with inhabitants. or angry moralista devise, in pointing it out as a fit place for the punishment of the wicked, it does not appear that they had any other foundation for their assertions than mere

STANZAS TO opinion and vague surmise. I think myself

ROSALIND "Wear this for me authorised, upon astronomical principles, to

(Giving a chain

from her neck).-As You Like It, Act 1. S. 2. propose the sun as an inhabitable world ; and am persuaded that the foregoing ob. servations, with the conclusions I have drawn

OH! wear this simple chain for me,

Thai, whro long years have pass d away, from them, are fully sufficient to answer Each sever'd link may offer thee every objection that may be made against it. Au emblem of my own decay. It may not, however, be amiss to remove a

Yet, no! an hour may see thai chain,

United by the hand of art; certain difficulty, which arises from the effect

But what can ever join again, of the Sun's rays upon our globe. The heat The rent links of a broken heart! which is here, at the distance of ninety-five Recal the hours when Love's warm kiss, millions of miles, produced by these rays, is Gave transport to our cloudless youth; so considerable, that it may be objected, that which lingerd fondly -- like my bliss the surface of the globe of the Sun itself must

Then fled for ever-like thy truth.

The cold world's frown—the proud man's scombe scorched up beyond all conception. This

To be by all forgot-reviledmay be very substantially answered by many Oh! these, and more, I could have borne, proofs drawn from natural philosophy, which

Had'st thou but loved-bad'st thou but smiled. show, that heat is produced by the Sun's rays My love has been “ too deep for tears.”. only when they act upon a calorific medium; And sigbs have told it-iwas consess'd they are the cause of the production of heat, By ruin & health and blighted yenis, by uniting with the matter of fire, which is Yet wear this smple chain for me, contained in the substances that are heated; And keep it as a parting token as the collision of flint and steel will inflame Of one, whose youthful love to thee,

Unlike his heart, remain'd unbroken. a magazine of gunpowder, by putting all the latent fire it contains into action. But an

* The Monthly Magazine, for October, p. 427, instance or two of the manner in which the says "According to M. Fourier, the temperature of solar rays produce their effect, will bring this the space occupied by our planetary system,

is very home to our most conimon experience.

nearly futy octogesimal degrees, or ninely degrees

of Fahrenheit's scale colder than the temperature of On the tops of mountains of a sufficient freezing ice."-Ed.

M. CHERVIN'S RESEARCHES ON THE 80 deeply engaged in his studies, that he NATURE OF YELLOW FEVER. forgot to write to his friends of New Orleans,

who were so certain of his death, that, in the

Medical Society of that town, a funeral oraThis distinguished individual has been en- tion was read to his memory. They were gaged, during nearly the whole of his life, in soon, however, agreeably surprised at the the study of this formidable disease; neither news, that M. Chervin, after staying two dangers nor pecuniary sacrifices could change months at Savannah, had pursued his journey his intention to visit almost every part of towards the North. He visited North Carolina, America where this calamity reigns. He did Virginia, Alexandria, George's Town, Washa not return, until after ten years of incessant ington, Baltimore, Philadelphia, and New study and incredible toil, to his native country, York. In the beginning of 1822, he left to reap the fruits of his admirable zeal. By Boston for Guadaloupe, and having visited the following concise account of his travels, Paramaribo, Cayenne, Demerara, Barbadoes, ve intend to call the attention of our readers &c., he sailed from Martinique to Spain, to the work of M. Chervin, which is shortly where he arrived in February, 1823. expected to appear.

The number of documents which M. In the year 1814, he left Paris for Guada. Chervin has collected exceeds eight hundred ; loupe, which he reached in December of the they consist, mostly, in authentic statements same year. Before he began his journey, he of the physicians and the magistrates of those had eagerly studied all French, Italian, En. towns and districts which he visited, and glish, and Spanish works on the subject, and which are subject to the epidemy. Besides from them he was disposed to believe in the the valuable results of the most ample expecontagious nature of the yellow fever ; but rience as to its treatment, they contain most he endeavoured to make his own observations, important materials for deciding the question free of all prejudices, in order to arrive at á of its contagious or non-contagious nature. clear result. During the year 1815, he had

Chervin has made more than FIVE HUNno opportunity of observing the disease, but DRED post-mortem examinations. He has in 1816 and 1817, he met with it very fre. often swallowed some of the black fluid found quently, under the most varied circumstances; in the stomach of the deceased; he rubbed he then began to doubt the correctness of his the whole surface of his body with it, and former opinion. He then went to Martinique, always remained free from infection. Antigua, St. Christophe, St. Martin, St. The following are the general results of his Thomas, and Portorico. In August, 1817, inquiries :-Of more than five-hundred comhe arrived at St. Domingo, where the yellow petent practitioners, only forty-eight are in fever happened to rage in its most malignant favour of the contagiousness of the yellow form. Having made many observations there, fever, four-hundred and eighty-three being he went to Jamaica, thence to Cuba, and decidedly against it. In those parts of Port-au-Prince. He adapted his route always America where it most frequently rages, as much as possible to the course of the nobody believes in contagion ; the extension disease. During his absence from Jamaica, of the disease seems entirely owing to the atthe fever had made terrible ravages amongst mospheric constitution, and to local causes ; two newly-arrived regiments; on his return, the latter consists, partly, in putrid effluvia; it was still very violent, and afforded him the there exists, in no case, a clear proof of conbest opportunity of examining the most im. tagion having taken place, and all assertions portant circumstances with regard to its con to the contrary are founded either on false tagious or non-contagious nature.

testimonies, on defective observations, or on In November he went to Havannah, where erroneous inferences from correct observahe remained till the 12th of February, 1820. tions.-Lancet. At New Orleans he arrived at the period when the fever generally appears; the epidemy was terrible; he witnessed it during six months, and then left for Savannah, being COMPARATIVE HAPPINESS OF informed that the disease raged there with an

THE SEXES. unprecedented malignity. He was, however, disappointed ; by neglect of the Captain, his

(From the Oriental Herald.) ship proceeded at once to Charlestown, where he was very well received. He remained but a short time, and went to Savannah, notwith. [In a new French Periodical, entitled “Le standing the most anxious representations of Gymnase,” is an article on this interesting his friends, and in spite of the information subject, which we have deemed worthy of that no less than six physicians of that place translation for our pages, under the convichad fallen a sacrifice to the fever. When he tion, that there is no country in which, and arrived, in October, the rage of the epidemy no'class of readers by whom, it may not be had by no means subsided, and he found an perused with interest. The great general ample field for observation. He was, indeed, question undertaken to be discussed by the

writer is this Is there an inequality in the of dependence. Made for the use of another, division of moral and natural advantages as creation clearly indicates, she is attached among the different classes of society ? If this to his destiny, she is subordinate to him, and, inequality exists, what are its causes ? And in her existence, completely secondary ; to ought these causes to be perpetuated ?”. The wish to belong to herself

, and to live on her first branch of this inquiry is on the collateral own account, would be almost to revolt question—“Are women generally less un- against “Genesis.” To be two, to lead a happy than men ?” and this is discussed of association, like those cyphers whose below. We shall watch the progress of these only value is derived from those to which papers with care, and continue to select from they are joined, is her true vocation. It is them such as may appear to us to be of the not gallant, but it is nevertheless true, to af. greatest merit, without, however, wishing it firm, that we could more easily live without to be understood that we concur in all the females than they could without us; what views taken by the writers, as the papers are is with us a desire, is with them an absolute controversial, and will contain very opposite necessity. Hence it follows, that they await opinions from different pens.-- Ed.] happiness, that they receive their condition,

instead of seeking it and making it for them. ARE WOMEN GENERALLY LESS UNHAPPY selves. THAN MEN?

I place the second element of happiness in

an enfranchisement, as complete as can be I will suppose that an inhabitant of the other realisod, from all social restraints and shackles, world suddenly finds himself transported into Now, females are in general the victims of one of our circles. He sees men whose dress society, inasmuch as its sceptre weighs still is plain, and entirely destitute of grace, wan. more heavily on them than on us. Madame dering about like shadows, and standing, like de Staël was right to depict them as bent belacqueys, around women, to whom they proffer neath the leaden mantle of Dante, which the most assiduous and respectful attentions; mediocrity throws over the shoulders of those these latter adorned in the most elegant man. who pass beneath its yoke. All their movener, sparkling with jewels, seated like queens ments are prescribed to them, as to automa. on their thrones, and, if they make a single tons. Should it have pleased nature to endow step, attracting all eyes towards them. Ask them richly with intellectual faculties, the him which of these two beings is the happier. world exacts that, instead of cultivating, they Assuredly he will not hesitate for a moment: should smother them, and their talents cannot we shall appear to him nothing better than be exhibited to the world under pain of being poor wretches drawn in the train of our exposed to the severest ridicule. Should sovereign's car-slaves humbly destined to their feelings be deep and intense, obliged by adorn their triumph.

duty to dissimulate, and by modesty to conBut this being of the other world must not ceal them, they are reduced to the necessity be caught by these appearances. In order to of hiding from every eye all their warmest be convinced that they do not deceive him, he and most dearly-cherished sentiments. The must interrogate the females. But, what will Italian lines be his surprise when he hears almost uni. versally from these gay dancers, with their

"Mi sento morire, flowers and their trinkets, nothing but elegies

Ma non posso dir perche," on their fate, but bitter complaints on the would be an appropriate motto for them. If inequality of their lot? Will he, from this they attempt to rebel against this code, which alone, change his opinion ? He might be is not the less imperious from its not being a tempted to do so; for, if it is a personal written one, they only render their fate more thirg, and it depends exclusively on the wretched by the public blame, which crushes judgment of the individual, it is happiness; them with its vengeance. in the same manner as to believe ones' self Women are particularly the victims of the unhappy, is to be so in reality. But he is social institution called marriage. Young desirous first to consult an inhabitant of the men marry when they please-young females country on so singular a contradiction. From when they can ; which is very different, and him he will learn that women have a right to almost always by the choice of their parents, complain ; and this, according to my ideas, is a choice which frequently empoisons irrevothe manner in which he will explain this solu- cably the remainder of their lives. A husband tion :

expects to receive them pure in the most The principle of happiness being within us, rigorous sense of the word, and only brings its first basis consists in the manner of being them in exchange a heart and a person equally completely individual, which we have the used. Slight infractions of conjugal fidelity, power of creating within ourselves. Now, it he allows himself as a mere trifle, whilst, in is impossible that any but a powerful and in return, he imposes on them the most severe dependent being should thus be able to trace reserve. And this is not all; they are obliged out his own course. Passive, rather than to study, and conform to his taste, to keep active, woman is necessarily always in a state alive his love by the charm of variety ; and,

as if all the obligations were on their side, and ephemeral kind of existence.' In growing old, he owed them nothing, claims the right with they survive themselves--they remain on the impunity to be ill-tempered, neglectful, and stage after their part has been performed. unkind : seeming to act like Count Almaviva, Gray hairs, which are so great an ornament on the principle, that it is the task of man to to the brow of a veteran, are with them a win them; theirs to retain us. The law kind of degradation. They are compelled, itself seems to be an accomplice in this therefore, to abdicate with a good grace and inequity. Provided the husband does not in good time ; to say adieu, under pain of carry on an open and avowed intercourse with ridicule, to ribbons and adorers, to resign bis mistress, it countenances all his other themselves to the cap and the melancholy faults, as mere peccadillos, to which it is isolation of grandmothers. The abdication necessary to appear blinded ; and these same of the Diocletians and the Syllas can give but faults, on the part of the wife, are made the an imperfect idea of such a heart breaking cause of a separation, and often of an igno- struggle as this. The latter, at least, were minious confinement. And to whose judg- supported by a hidden sentiment of glory and ment are they submitted ? To that of persons ambition, but for the former, nothing supports who are animated by an esprrit de corps them, and no recompense awaits their humble against the whole sex.

courage; they are brutally put aside, to be Another source of unhappiness to females no more thought of. is, the false and illiberal interpretations to It is time to pass from the principal points which their conduct is subjected. It is now of our thesis to the objections. First, then, a thing acknowledged, that a contempt for women, it is said, possess more sensibility public opinion is rather a subject of pride to than we do; if their heads have a point less, man ; females, on the contrary, dare not brave their hearts have a fibre more; consequently it. All in this point resemble the wife of the delights of maternity, the pleasures of the Cæsar ; they must not even be suspected. senses, are felt by them with greater intensity,

The facility of following the laws of nature To this it is sufficient to reply, that if they is undoubtedly a third basis of happiness. meet with more misery than happiness, this Now, woman is created for love, for tender. sensibility itself is a fatal gift, which turns to ness, for the affections of an impassioned soul. the disadvantage of those to whose lot it beAnd yet her nature is incessantly at variance longs. It would, however, be a capital error with her duty, and with prudence; in the to imagine that happiness consists in those struggle of the passions, martyrdom is her lot. lively pleasures and delights which give one Marceline has truly said. Traitées en mi. a distaste for the ordinary enjoyments of life. neures pour lours biens, elles sont punies en But, it is added, women are freed from the majeures pour leurs faules.

embarrassment of literary labours, serious They are therefore condemned, by the business, and especially from the weight of necessity of overcoming their inclinations, to public affairs. an eternal constraint, to the most bitter tears. To this many answers may be returned. On a small or large scale they are so many in the first place, this protecting love which Sapphos, Didos, and Ninas, forsaken lovers, treats them with so high a hand, which recals consuming their days in melancholy, or the age in which sages hesitated to allow groaning, like Phædrus, beneath the stroke them a rank amongst the human race, the of fate. What is to us a mere episode, an possession of a soul, and a right to the enjoyamusement, is to them an entire history, and ment of another life-this insolent manner of death : their only resource, is an exalted de- confining them like children to the domestic votion, taken, as by Julia, as the soul's hearth ; of treating them like inferior beings, opium, as a relief to their tender sighs. It is like perpetual minors, whom it is requisite to necessary for them to deceive themselves by defend against their own imbecility; of in. another kind of love_to detach themselves terdicting them even from the acquirement of from their earthly miseries by something su- knowledge as pedantry, and fame as an éclat pernatural, which elevates their imagination inconsistent with their delicacy-offends and to the ethereal regions. The cross of the humiliates many, and is towards a great Saviour is the refuge of hopeless love, ac- number an injustice, which time only has cording to the enthusiast, Améliê des Bri- consecrated. The more they feel themselves gands, and the convent is the Christian's capable of higher things, the more oppressive Leucadian leap.

becomes to them this incapacity of action, this Old age, which with man comes late, with sacrifice of the noblest faculties. woman arrives at a very early period ; and Were this contempt merited, what would with it disappears her capacity to please. result from it—a soporific langour created by There are very few wbose merit, in the eyes the uniformity of their existence. Instead of of the world, lasts longer than their youth the multiplied interests which diversify that and beauty ; whilst, in the life of man, there of man, sewing, embroidery, the most insipid are various epochs, and a great age seems and trivial conversation, would form the only only an additional dignity to him. They occupations of their lives. Ennui would be. appear to have only one destination, but an come a real malady, which would pursuc, and

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