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clared applicable for salvation to every man, and the manner or condition of the application is at the same time shewn in those words, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish. From this testimony we incontrovertibly conclude, that the death of Christ by the ordination of God is applicable to every man, and would be applied if he should believe in Christ. Shew me an individual of the human race to whom the minister of the Gospel may not truly say; God hath so loved thee, that he gave his only begotten Son, that if thou shouldest believe in him, thou shalt not perish but have everlasting life. This, on the certainty of his believing, might be announced to any individual. Therefore the death of Christ is applicable to every man according to this will and ordination of God. I know that some learned and pious Divines, by the world here understand the world, or whole body of the elect, and rely on this argument, that it is said, the Son of God was given. that whosoever believeth in him should not perish: and the elect alone are they who so believe in Christ that they should not perish, but have everlasting life. But I answer, that nothing else can be inferred from hence, than that the death of Christ brings salvation eventually to the elect alone, and is actually applied by means of faith : but it cannot be inferred that it was not a remedy applicable to others, and by the ordination of God to be applied, if they should believe. We will illustrate this by a case in some measure parallel. Suppose that all the inhabitants of a certain city laboured under some epidemic and mortal disease; that the King sent to them an eminent physician furnished with a most efficacious medicine, and caused it to be publicly proclaimed, that all should be cured that were willing to make use of this medicine. Doubtless we might truly say of this king, that he so loved that city, as to send his own most skilful physician to it; that all who were willing to attend to his advice, and take his medicine, should not die, but recover their former health. But if any should object that this physician was sent only to those who should follow his prescriptions, and that his medicine was applicable by the appointment of the king only to those who were willing to take it, he would in reality not only make the beneficence of the king appear less illustrious, but affirm what was evidently false. For medical assistance was offered to all, without any previous condition on the part of the person sent, or of the sick ; healing medicine applicable to all without exception was provided. The willingness to receive the pbysician and take the medicine had no connexion with the intention of the Sovereign in sending the medical assistance, but with the certain restoration of health.
The antient Fathers seem to have been much pleased with this similitude. Prosper has respect to it, when Vincentius objected, That according to the opinion of Augustine, our Lord Jesus Christ did not suffer for the salvation and redemption of all men, he replies, For the disease of original sin, by which the nature of all men is corrupted, the death of the Son of God is a remedy. And a little after, This cup of immortality has indeed in itse'f this virtue that it may benefit all men, but if it be not taken it will not heal. Our faith therefore is required not merely to assent to the proposition, that God has given or ordained his Son to be a remedy for us, but that being given and ordained, He should be received by us to the obtaining of eternal life. Rhemi and Haimo enlarge the aforesaid similitude on those words Hebrews ii. That he by the grace of God should taste death for every man. Whom, if you please, you may consult.
2. The second testimony is derived from two passages conjointly considered and compared. The first is John iii. 17, 18, God sent not his Son into the world to condemn the world, but that the world through him might be saved. He that be. lieveth in him is not condemned; but he that believeth nol is condemneil already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God. Let us annex to these words those of John xii. 47, 48, If any man hear my words and believe not, I judge him not, for I came not to judge the world but to save the world. He that rejecteth me and receiveth not my words, hath one that judgeth him; the word that I have spuken, the same shall judge him in the last day. In these words we learn that the Son of God was sent by the Father, that he might bring an universal remedy applicable to the whole world. Nor can the sense be restrained to the world of the elect. For, first, this world, to save which Christ was sent is divided into believers and unbelievers. But the world of the elect consists only of believers, or at least, of those who shall ultimately believe. Secondly, because some will be condemned, to save whom it is here affirmed Christ was sent. But none of the elect shall be damned. Thirdly, because those who are here declared to be condemned, are said to have come under condemnation because they have not believed in the only begotlen Son of God, or, because they have rejected him. In which manner of speaking, it is implied in a way sufficiently perspicuous, that he was offered to them by God, and sent to save then. But how, or in what sense can we rightly understand that Christ was sent to save those who perish by their own fault, that is, through their own unbelief? Not otherwise than is expressed in our proposition ; namely, that the death of Christ is an universal cause of salvation appointed by God and applicable to every man on the condition of faith, which condition these by their own voluntary wickedness have despised. Thus did Calvin understand these words ; for on John iii. he has observed, That the word world is repeated again and again, that no one might snppose that he should be driven away, if he kept the way of faith. And on John xii. 47, he has observed, In order that the minds of all men might be inclined to repentance, salvation is here offered to all men without distinction. It appears, therefore, from these passages, that the death of Christ is to be proposed and considered as a remedy, applicable to all men for salvation, by the appointment of God, although it may be rejected by the unbelieving.
3. The third testimony we produce from Acts xiii. 38, &c. Be it known unto you therefore, men and brethren, that through this man (Jesus Christ) is preached unto you the forgiveness of sins; and by him all that beliere are justified from all things, from which ye could not be justified by the law of Moses. Beware, therefore, lest that come upon you which is spoken of in
the prophets, Behold, ye despisers, and wonder, and perish. Then, in the 46th verse, It was necessary that the word of God should first have been spoken to you; but seeing ye put it from you, and judge yourselves unworthy of everlasting life, 10 ! we turn to the Gentiles. From which words it is evident, That, by the appointment of God, the death of Christ is proposed and offered to mankind without distinction, as a remedy applicable to each and every man for the obtaining of remission and eternal life. It is plain, also, that according to the will and appointment of God, this remedy was applicable, not only to those to whom it is actually applied through faith, but even to the despisers, who rejected Christ and eternal life by their unbelief. And from the 48th verse it likewise appears, that faith itself, (by means of which the divinely appointed remedy applicable to all, is actually applied to some) is not found in unbelievers through their own fault, and is produced in them that believe through the special favour of a merciful God. And here the mystery of election at length presents itself. But let us not hy an unreasonable and too deep speculation into an awful subject, draw a veil over that Divine philanthropy from which has emanated a remedy applicable to all and every individual of sinners, though certainly effectual only to all those who believe.
4. The fourth testimony is contained in 2 Cor. v. 19, 20, God was in Christ reconciling the world unto himself, not imputing their trespasses unto them: and hath committed unto us the word of reconciliation. Now then we are ambassadors for Christ, as though God did beseech you by us, we pray you in Christ's stead, be ye reconciled to God. It is to be observed in the first place, That the Apostle here lays down what he calls reconciliation procured from God through the mediation of Christ, as a common benefit for the whole world. And indeed to have reconciled the world generally can mean nothing else than to have ordained and granted to the world that universal remedy or propitiatory sacrifice of the death of Christ, which is applicable to all. Secondly, It is proper to observe, in what sense God is said actually to have reconciled the world to himself, by the merit of the
offering of Christ, namely, because the sacrifice of Christ being made, he will not impute their trespasses unto them; that is, He will not require from any man that he should make satisfaction for his own sins, that being impossible; nor, further, will he punish any one for his sins who shall make use of this propitiatory sacrifice. And lastly, it is to be remarked, that this reconciliation, this not imputing of sins, of which the Apostle speaks, is considered as performed on the part of God and Christ, as soon as Christ is understood to have laid down his life for the sins of the world. But on the part of sinful men there remains the Ministry of the Gospel, by which it is made known to men; there remains that the Gospel should be believed, before men are brought as it were into the actual possession of this grace. And on this account the Apostle subjoined, after he had said that God in Christ reconciled the world to himself, nevertheless it behoved Ministers to discharge their embassy, and exhort all to be reconciled to God. From all which it appears, as we submitted in our proposition, that the death of Christ was ordained by God and preached by the Apostles as a remedy applicable according to the will of God, to all men for reconciliation and salvation; although, in order that men should be actually reconciled, there is need of previous repentance and faith. So Aquinas understood this passage, Be ye recoiiciled to God. This, says he, seems to be contrary to that which he said, God hath reconciled us to himself; for if he himself hath reconciled, what necessity is there that we should reconcile, for we are already reconciled. To this it is to be said, that God hath reconciled us to himself as the efficient cause, namely, on his own part ; but that it may be adrantageous to us, it is needful also that reconciliation should be made on our part. But Musculus has explained this whole passage so clearly, that we should be sorry not to bring forward his words: God, says he, reconciled to himself the whole human race, which was, and is, and will be from the beginning to the end of the world, when he gave his Son to death for all. Then again, after a few words: God reconciled the world to himself in Christ, not imputing to them