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sur knowledge, and into common use, from the remotest parts of the world.

107. Antiquities. The most remarkable remains of the ancient Celtic or Belgic inhabitants are the stupendous monuments of stone, called Cromlecks, or circles of stones. One of these, called Stonehenge, in Wiltshire, consists of two circles and two ovals, composed of stones standing upright, on which are laid other massy stones, some of them six feet broad, three feet thick, and 20 feet long. These stones are mortised together. The exterior circle is 180 feet in diameter. These circles of stones are numerous in the west of England and in Wales, and are supposed to be the seats of judgment, where courts were held by our rude ancestors. Barrows or conical mounts of earth are also found in England, which were repositories of the bones of the dead, similar to those which are found in America.

108. Roman Antiquities. The altars, monumental inscriptions, remains of roads and camps, arms and coins, are among the relics of Roman dominion in England. But the most astonishing of the Roman works is the great wall of Severus, running from Tinmouth to Sol. way Frith, more than 70 miles in length. This was composed of earth, fortified with stone turrcts and a ditch, and intended to restrain the incursions of the Picts and Scots, who often ravaged and plundered the northern counties of England.

109. Saxon Antiquities. The Saxons erected many edifices which are still standing, and particularly churches and castles. Of these, the most remarkable is the cathedral of Winchester, which was the burying place of several Saxon Kings. Their castles consisted of a solitary tower, square or hexagonal. Many Saxon charters are still extant, signed by the King and his Nobles, with a cross, the subscribers not being able to write their names. Under an old castle in Ryegate is an oblong square hall, cut out of a rock, with a bench on the sides.

110. National Debt. The national debt of Great-Bri. tain began in the reign of King William, and being augmented in every war, it amounted, in 1805, to more than five hundred millions sterling, the annual interest of

which is about twenty millions. A sinking fund, formed in 1786, has redeemed about 30 or 40 millions, but the burden of this enormous debt is extremely oppressive, as it obliges the government to tax every thing that man can use or enjoy.

111. Revenue. The revenue of England arises from the land tax, excise on articles consumed, customs on imports and exports, stamp duties, tax on income and on letters, and from numerous less important sources. The whole amount of revenue is about twenty-five millions sterling, twenty millions of which are required to discharge the interest of the national debt. To support the enormous expenses of great fleets and armies, the government every year, in time of war, borrows a large sum, which adds to the national debt. The civil list, or allowance to the King, is a million a year; from which are maintained the royal family, officers of state, judges and embassadors.

112. Customs and manners. The persons of the English are of a good size, and their complexion fair, as is that of most of the northern nations of Europe. They are industrious, enterprising, and brave-less phlegmatic than the Germans, and less volatile and active than the French. Their dress is chiefly of wool, linen, cotton and silk, as in the United States. Their food consists chiefly of wheat bread, beef, mutton, pork, poultry, and fish. Their chief drinks are malt liquors and red wines, with wines of other kinds, spirits and cider in smaller quantities. Their chief amusements are the theater, hunting and dancing.

SCOTLAND. 113. Of the name. The northern part of Britain was unknown to the Romans, until the time of Agricola's government of the island. In the year 80, this General penetrated north, subdued the inhabitants, and with his fleet circumnavigated the island, The north part of the island, the Romans called Caledonia, from a word which is said to have signified a forest or mountainous country. But it was not till long after, that the country received the name of Scotia or Scotland ; and then, it derived it from the Scots, who originally lived in the north of Ireland. The name Scot is probably the same as Scuth or Scythian—the people being emigrants from the Baltic countries.

114. Situation and extent. Scotland extends from north latitude 55 to 58 degrees 35 minutes. Its length is about 260 miles, and its bredth is from 60 to 160 miles; the whole of Scotland is west of the meridian of London. Scotland is estimated to contain 27,793 square miles, nearly 18 millions of akers, and a million five hundred and thirty thousand inhabitants.

115. History of the Population. The first inhabitants of Scotland were probably emigrants from the opposit continent, as the language of the Lowlands has always been a dialect of the Gothic. These primitive inhabita ants were probably the Cimbri, from the present peninsula of Jutland: The Pehts, or Peohts,* a tribe of Norwe. gians, settled in Scotland, before the Christain era, and these, with the primitive inhabitants, formed the population of the Lowlands. About the middle of the third century, the Dalraids, a Celtic tribe from the north of Ireland, passed over and established themselves in Argyleshire, and from them are descended the present Highlanders.

116. Mountains of Scotland. Nearly two thirds of Scotland may be considered as mountainous. The largest of the mountains are in the west and north, in Argyleshire, Perthshire, Inverness, Ross, Caithness and Sutherland; which are called the Highlands. The eastern and southern parts are less mountainous, but diversified with hills and plains. On the south-west is the ridge of Galloway, a continuation of the Cheviot hills. In the center are the lead hills, 3000 feet high, from which streams of water descend in different directions to the ocean. The Grampion hills, to the south of the Dee, form the southern boundary of the Highlands. Ben Nea vis, the highest summit in Great Britain, has an altitude of 4350 feet, Many other summits rise above 3000 feet. These mountains exhibit an august picture of forlorn na

* Called by the Romans, Picti, the original name latinized, which has misled the moderns, to suppose the name was given to them on account of their painting their bodies.

ture ; barren heath and naked rocks; vast precipices, formless lakes and uninhabited deserts, presenting a grand, but gloomy prospect.

117. Rivers. The chief rivers of Scotland are the Forth, the Clyde and the Tay. The Forth has its sources in a mountain called Ben Lomond, or rather in the Con and Ard, two lakes on the east of it, in Monteith. It is swelled by the Teith into a considerable stream, passes Sterling and, to the northward of Edinburg, opens into a wide estuary, called the Frith of Forth, by which it is connected with the ocean.

118. The Clyde. The Clyde springs from the hills in Lanarkshire, and running a northerly course, passes Crawford moor, leaving the Leaden hills on the left; then winds around the lofty hill of Tinto, and in a northwesterly direction, passes Glasgow and forms the harbor of Greenock; then opens into the Frith of Clyde.

119. The Tay. The Tay proceeds from several sources, the chief of which is the lake of the same name, or Lock Tay. It is swelled by the rivers Lyon, Tarf, Garrel and Tumel, the last of which is a rapid and romantic river. It passes easterly and southerly to Perth, below which it unites with the Ern, spreads into an es, tuary, and mingles with the sea near Dundee.

120. Smaller streams. The Tweed, a pastoral stream, to the north of the Cheviot hills, falls into the sea at Berwick. The Annan and the Nith discharge their waters into the Frith of Solway. The Dee runs easterly and meets the ocean at Aberdeen; a little north of which is the Don. The Spey is an impetuous river of the Highlands. The Ness contributes to form the estuary,called Murray Frith.

121, Lakes. The largest lake in Scotland is Lomond, which is studded with islands, and exhibits a most picturesk and beautiful scenery upon its shores. The depth of its water is from 20 to 60 fathoms. At the time of the earthquake, which demolished Lisbon in 1755, the waters of this and other lakes in Scotland, were agitated in a singular manner; flowing and ebbing, in every period of a few minutes, for several hours in succession.

122. Other lakes. On the cast of Lomond is an assemblage of curious lakes, the Ketterin, the Con, and

the Ard, the Achray, and the Lubnaig, situated among hills and rocks of distorted forms; some of them covered with heath, and adorned with the weeping birch In the vicinity is the lake of Menteith, containing two small isles, one presenting the ruins of a monastery ; the other, the ruins of a castle of the old earls of Monteith. Loch Tay is a beautiful expanse of water, and so is Loch Ness, which contains excellent trout, and never freezes, its depth being from 60 to 130 fathoms. Numerous other lakes embellish the scenery of Scotland.

123. Climate and seasons. In so high a latitude as Scotland, the climate must necessarily be marked with a predominance of cold. The summers are so short, that there is scarcely time for oats to come to maturity, and in wet seasons, the crop is often lost. The winters produce great quantities of snow, but the cold is not so great as on the continent in similar latitudes. On the east, the air of Scotland is drier than in England, the western mountains intercepting the vapor from the Atlantic ; but the west of Scotland is deluged with rains, which prove an obstacle to agriculture. · 124 Soil and face of the Country. The soil of Scotland is in general not fertile ; but many plains and vales are exceptions to this general character; and this, like most other countries, is diversified with various soils, fitted for different vegetables. The face of the country presents an agreeable intermixture of hills and vales, barren rocks, morasses, lakes, and fields covered with luxuriant herbage. In some parts, especially in the north and west, forests of wood and timber trees yet remain ; tho most of the country is without wood.

125. Minerals. Gold was formerly found in Scotland, but at present there are mines neither of gold nor silver; tho small quantities of these metals are found in the lead mines. The chief minerals now found are lead, iron and coal, which are produced in large quantities. The counties of Lothian and Fife abound with coal, which is also dug in some other counties, and furnishes fuel for common use, and sometimes for export. Some copper has been found in Scotland; as are black and brown marble, fuller's earth, jasper, alum, crystals and talck.

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