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ceived, been marked with the characters used in prosody. But, for the purposes of elocution, it is important to the control of the voice, in the reading of verse, that the student should accustom himself to the practice of marking the accentuation of verse to the ear, a process in which the actual “rhythm ” of the voice is decided, as in prose, by the position of accent. The mere prosodial “quantities ” must, in elocution, be regarded as but subordinate and tributary means of effect to " rhythmical accent,” and as contributing to secure its perfect ascendency,
Metre, then, in reading, is to be considered as but precision of “ rhythm” by which utterance is brought more perceptibly under the control of “time,” than in prose. Verse, accordingly, is scored for accent, exactly as prose is. Here, also, the student may be reminded that, in practising on metre, whilst, for the sake of distinct impression, he indulges its effect to the full extent, at first, he must accustom himself to reduce it gradually within those limits which shall render it chaste and delicate. The peculiar effects of “s measure ” in music, do not exceed those of metre, in good reading and recitation; and they are indispensable in the reading of all forms of verse, but, particularly, in lyric strains. In these, - as even a slight attention will suffice to prove, — the poet often changes the mood of his metre along with that of his theme. The Ode on the Passions, and all similar pieces, require numerous changes of “rhythm” and prosodial effect, as the descriptive or expressive strain shifts from passion to passion, and from measure to measure. — It is by no means desirable, however, that the metre should be marked in that overdone style of chanting excess, which offends the ear, by obtruding the syllabic structure of the verse, and forcing upon our notice the machinery of prosodial effect.
The subjoined example may serve to suggest, to the teacher and the student, the mode of marking on the black board, or with pencil, similar exercises selected from the pages of this volume, or any other, at choice.
It was deemed preferable to use, for our present purpose, the same examples which have been analyzed for the study of the prosodial structure of verse, so as to show, as impressively as possible, the difference between the literal accent of the mere mechanism of verse as such, and the free, varied, and noble “ rhythm,” which it acquires when, in reading and recitation, the object in view is to render verse tributary to meaning and sentiment, or to vivid emotion. The servile style of reading verse which follows its sound rather than its sense, is no worse fault than a literal practising of prosody, a fair and honest but most gratuitous scanning of the lines, rather than the reading of them. The strict metrical marking, however, and due practice on it, may be very useful to students whose habit, in reading, is to turn verse into prose, through want of ear for metre.
NOTATION OF RHYTHMICAL AND PROSODIAL ACCENT COM
“ Lambic” Metre.
" Blank” Verse.
“ Ad | vanced in / view, 1 * they | stand, 19*a, horrid | front ati Of | dread full length, 1 * and daz zling | arms, 1 9* in I guise | Of warriors old. I with | ordered i spear and I shield.”199191
“ Heroic Couplet.” G“ Like I leaves on / trees the life of man is I found ; 1991 | Now 9 | green in / youth, 17 | now l withering on the
ground ; 1991 Another | race the following / spring 1 sup I plies:
11 They | fall successive, and successive | rise.” |
Octosyllabic "Couplet." G “The way I was long, 901 the wind 19 was |
cold ;नना The minstrel | was in | firm and old : "1891901
" Quatrain" Stanza : Octosyllabic Couplets.” G" The spacious | firmament on high, 1991
With | all the blue e thereal | sky, 1901
Quatrain Stanza : Octosyllabic Lines, rhyming alternately. quo The heavens 19 de | clare thy | glory, | Lord, 1991
In | every | star thy | wisdom | shines ; 1991 But when our | eyes be hold thy | word, 1991
We read thy name in | fairer | lines.” 197199
*“Demi-cæsural"pause. + "Final” pause. "Çæsural" pause. The pauses marked with the asterisk, &c. are founded primarily and necessarily on the sense ; but the prosodial pauses, indispensable to the " rhythm”of every well-constructed verse, happen in the present instance, to coincide with the pauses of the meaning. Every line of verse has a "final pause,” which detaches it from the following line, and a “cæsural ” pause which divides it into two parts, equal or unequal, or two " demi-cæsura)" pauses, which divide it into three parts. The demi-cæsural” pauses are sometimes used in addition to the cæsural,” to subdivide the two parts which it separates.
66 Common Metre” Stanza.
1 " Thy I love the power of thought be stowed ; |
To | Thee my thoughts would | soar:
66 Short Metre” Stanza.
9" To ever fragrant | meads, 1971
Where | rich a | bundance | grows, 1991
And guards my sweet repose."1991991
9" Full | many a I gem, of purest | ray se | rene, 1 The dark un | fathomed | caves of ocean
bear: 1999 Full | many a | flower is born to | blush un | seen, 11
And waste its | sweetness on the desert |
“ Spenserian” Stanza. 5 " Wher | e'er we | tread, 'tis | haunted, I | holy |
ground: 199991 | No | earth of | thine 1991 is lost in | vulgar |
mould! 1991 But one | vast | realm of wonder 19 | spreads a 1
round ; ) 1 1 9 And | all the Muse's | tales seem | truly | told, 1991 Till the sense | aches with | gazing to be | hold | The scenes our | earliest | dreams have | dwelt
upon. 1991 | Each | hill and dale, 1999 each | deepening | glen
and | wold, gol De fies the power which crushed thy | temples
gone : 199199 | Age | shakes A | thena's | tower, but | spares |
gray 1 Marathon.” 190 1991
“Sofily | sweet, in | Lydian | measures, 19 | Soon he soothed his soul to pleasures.- 1971 War he sung is | toil and trouble, | | Honor, but an | empty | bubble.” |
III. — “ Anapestic” Metre.
1. Lines of Three “ Anapæsts.”
“How | fleet is a glance of the mind! 19 sal
Com | pared with the speed of its | flight, al The | tempest it self lags be | hind, 19
And the swift-winged arrows of light." 1999
2. Lines of Four “ Anapæsts." “ The evening 1 was , glorious; 1and | light |
through the trees 1991 Played the sunshine and | raindrops, the birds and
the | breeze ; | SIGGI The | landscape 9 out | stretching in loveliness, I
lay | On the I lap 1 of the year, in the beauty of|
EMPHASIS AND EXPRESSION.
The analysis of elocution has, in the preceding chapters, been extended so far as to comprehend all the chief topics of practical elocution. The subjects of emphasis and expression,” have been reserved for the conclusion of this manual; as they properly comprise a virtual review of the whole subject.
I. - Impassioned Emphasis.
Emphasis, in its usual acceptation, is limited to mere comparative force of utterance on an accented syllable. The term, properly defined, extends to whatever expedient the voice uses to render a sound specially significant or expressive. Thus, in the scornful challenge which Bolingbroke addresses to Mowbray.
“ Pale, trembling COWARD! there I throw my gage : The emphasis lies, doubtless, on the word coward, and is concentrated in the syllable cow-, by peculiar force of utterance. But the mere force or loudness used, is only one of the many elements of expression, which the syllable is made to comprise, in the intensely excited passion implied in the words.
Attentive analysis will show that, in what is termed “ emphasis," in this instance, there are included all of the following elements of vocal effect : Ist, the mere force or energy of the utterance, which produces the loudness of voice that accompanies violent or vehement excitement of feeling ; 2d, the abrupt and explosive articulation with which the accented syllable is shot from the mouth, in the expression of anger and scorn; 3d, the comparatively low pitch on which the syllable cow- is uttered, as contrasted with the high note on the opening word “pale,” and which indicates the deep-seated contempt and indignation of the speaker ; 4th, the comparatively long duration of the accented syllable, and the consequent effect of deliberate and voluntary emotion, as contrasted with the rapid rate of hasty and rash excitement; 5th, the downward " slide,' the inseparable characteristic of all impetuous, violent, and angry emotion; 6th, the “pectoral," " gultural,' and strongly " aspirated quality" of voice, with which the utterance seems to burst from the chest and throat, with a half-suffocated and hissing sound, peculiarly characteristic of fierce and contemptuous emotion.
It may appear, at first view, that this analysis extends beyond emphasis into os expression. But emphasis is, in fact, nothing else than “expression,” concentrated and condensed into an accented syllable. For confirmation of this assertion we may refer to the result, in cases of acknowledged imperfect emphasis, that a failure, as regards the full effect of any one of the above elements, produces the fault. Let the student himself bring the matter to the test of his own observation, by uttering the word “coward,” six times in succession, dropping, each time, one of the elements of expression,” enumerated in the preceding analysis; and he will perceive that he loses, in every instance, the emphasis of impassioned accent. Similar illustrations might be