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wanted to show you a live Mexican, any control. It at once occurred to me, who was good pluck to the very back that the man who fired would attempt to bone. The only specimen of the kind, escape from the other side of the mott, that I conjecture any of you ever saw.” and, thinking more of vengeance than « The scoundrel !” said Hays, “I don't any thing else, as soon as I could rein see that it required any great bravery to up and turn my horse, I galloped around shoot a man from the bush. We'll take it. I saw this fellow already in the sadhim off your hands. I'll have him dis- dle, making across the prairie, and in

** That's just what I wanted, stantly took after him. He had the start Jack, (so Hays was familiarly called); of me, and kept it for nearly two hours, I spared the rascal once, because he through the hottest and hardest chace made me laugh by his bold impudence, that ever I had. I thought at one time just as I was in the act of pulling trigger the wretch would beat me and get away, on him for the second time, and I don't feel but the staunch bottom of my horse disposed to kill him now—though I want proved too much for his. Such doubles you all to do it, for he deserves it a hun- and turns and twists as he made among dred times. Don't you remember him ?" the motts you never saw.” “ Yes,” in“I think I have seen him before,” said terrupted Fitz., “ we have a very perfect Hays, “but wh or when I can't re- idea of them haven't we been worried collect. It doesn't matter though-we'll enough in following your trail ?” “ As his relieve you of him.” “You have not horse began to fail,” continued the Bravo, forgotten Gonzalez, the dextrous thief, “ he doubled like a fox in the effort to lose who stole your sorrel horse last summer, me among the islands; but I had no no. and run him off across the Rio Grande ?” tion of being thrown off, and after a “ Ha! this is the same fellow. Well while began to close rapidly upon him. we'll pay him off all scores this time.” When he became convinced that there “ He understands perfectly what you

was no chance for his escape, very say. By the way, have you seen or greatly to my astonishment, he turned heard any thing of Littell? He went off suddenly in the saddle, levelling a large in very singular style.” Hays explained pistol at me—I bent forward over my to him the circumstances the reader is horse's neck, and the ball whizzed above already in possession of; and while we As I straightened up, I also fired, rode slowly toward a distant line of tim- but missed, and at the same instant my ber, indicating a stream on which we horse came full tilt against his, and we meant to camp for the night, the Bravo went down together. I was on my feet related his story of the day's events to first, and with my second pistol against us.

his prostrate body, was in the act of fir“ After leaving you in the street this ing into him, when with the utmost cool morning, we continued at the best speed and comical expression conceivable, unof our horses on the old Rio Grande der the circumstances, he exclaimed, as trace—for though we saw nothing of the he looked up grinning in my face, • You Boy's trail on it at first, I felt convinced missed and I missed--we are even.' I that we should find it after a while, for burst into a laugh and threw down my I knew he must have taken this route. pistol, while the fellow rose and shook Sure enough, within about five miles of himself, and began to kick and curse his town, we saw where it came in along prostrate horse. • Garracho! you nasty with another horse. I suspected at once brute ; if I hadn't thought you were bet. that this was a Mexican who was guid- ter bottom, I should not have gone to the ing and assisting him. We kept on very trouble to steal you,' and turning to me, rapidly, and Littell had fallen several he observed, but he pushed you some, hundred yards behind me, when, after any how.

I shall have to steal your passing that point of timber some mo- bay next. I was so tickled at this unments, I heard a gun behind me, and precedented impudence that I fairly roarturning my head very quickly, I saw ed, while the knave, finding he had got your horse just shying from the smoke, the right side of me, continued in the and wheeling on the back track-while same strain. I let you pass, but it was the rifle of Littell dropped from his hands. an old grudge 1 had against Littell. He I saw at once, from his manner, that he had me whipped in Matamoras last was hit, and expected to see him fall. spring, and I promised to be with him The horse appeared to be greatly fright- before the year was out, and you see I ened and was clearly running without have been as good as my word. I hope



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he's done for.' Toere was something so awe-feeling that the crisis had come, funny and original in the rascal's saucy yet dreading its action. Not a word was self-possession, that it was some little spoken till Hays said, in a low voice as time before I could restrain my laughter he pulled a pencil and some paper from sufficiently to address him. You can't his pocket--" The six men of the eleven, expect any mercy from us, you scamp, who draw the lowest numbers, will shoot said I. Oh! no, I suppose you are go- bim!” He proceeded to write them down, ing to have me shot. Muy bueno-1 and handed them around to us in his hat. think I've worked for it. I have stolen I drew my number with a degree of nersome half-dozen horses from you Ran- vousness which surprised me ; for, gers.' • Ha! you are Gonzalese? · Yes.' independent of my natural and invincible

Well, I pity you, if Hays or any of the horror of a cold blooded execution such boys get hold of you. I mean to tie as this—I had partaken of the Bravo's you and take you into town.' Buéno,' liking for the singular and piquant traits he said, holding out his hands readily, he had exhibited, and was very lothe to and I tied them, and here he is. You be made an instrument of his death !may shoot the fellow if you can, but I'll My gratification was extreme, when I be sworn that I neither can nor will saw that my number was so high as to have a hand in it. He's such an odd place me out of danger. Those who genius, that I think it would be a sin drew the low numbers, seemed to feel the almost to shoot him—though it ought most perfect indifference about the affair, undoubtedly to be done, and I wish you and ranged themselves in front of Gonall would do it.” Oh!" said Hays, zalese with precisely the same air which dryly,“ never fear, Bravo, we'll relieve would have characterized them, had it you on that score very shortly. But been a wooden target they were going to here's the water-we'll draw lots for the shoot at, instead of a fellow-being. The six who shall shoot him, as soon as we row of dark tubes was levelled at him, get ready for camping.”

and Hays was opening his lips to enunI could not help feeling enlisted in the ciate the fatal word “ fire !”—when the Bravo's sympathy for the man, who man, in a clear, petulant voice saidduring this conversation-every syllable “Garralio! don't aim so low, you clumsy of which he fully understood—had main- bunglars !" The Bravo, springing to his tained the same bearing of reckless and feet, exclaimed—“ Jack! hear that! don't defiant coolness. We dismounted by shoot this fellow! spare him for my the side of a clear rapid stream, under sake-could the devil himself beat that ?" the narrow fringe of timber which bor. Hays waved his hand, and the guns, dered it, and after tying the Mexican to greatly to my gratification, were lowered, a tree, proceeded to strip our horses, and in another moment the Bravo had stake them out to grass, kindle a fire, cut the thongs which bound the limbs of and make all the usual preparations for the Mexican, and he stood before us a camping. This was all done in perfect free man. With the same unmoved selfsilence, for the stern resolve which was collection and frankness which had about to be executed left, under any characterized his whole bearing, he proview of it, no room for frivolity of feel- ceeded to explain to us his connection ing. The Bravo had instantly, on dis- with the negro's escape.

He told us, mounting, and in entire forgetfulness of that, attracted by a human sympathy for his faithful horse, stretched himself upon the Boy, whom he had met accidentally the grass in front of Gonzalese, and con- in the shop of the Blacksmith, with his tinued to regard his face—which main. heavy chains on-he had furnished him tained unblenchingly its expression of with a file to cut them, and advised him perfect, calm indifference—with an in- to the utmost as to the manner of his tensely curious interest. Indeed, it was an escape, and guided and accompanied him awful trial his hardy nerve was subjected in his fight to the thicket-where he had to-looking upon the silent progress of a concealed himself while the Boy went preparation the consummation of which on--and recognizing the ravo, had let he well knew was to close his account him go by—but the features of his old with men and the world. There was, to me, and sworn enemy had proved too much something positively terrible in the mute for his prudence, and he shot at him with activity of our men, and the sharp, fixed the results we have seen. alertness of the regard of the prisoner. Such as it was, this was my first day

When every thing had been arranged, with the “ Rangers,” and we were soon we gathered around the fire in speechless afterward sound asleep on the grass.



WHILE the learned contend, and the doctors epilogise,

The wise of all time laugh their folly to scorn,
And say, as I say, 'tis a fool of the hugest size,

That etrives of his folly a fool to reform :
Children of wisdom, leave folly to fools-
Let them be what they are—tis the safest of rules.
Old Merlin the Wise, in his charnel of light,

(When a youth I beheld him), thus muttered to me“ 'Tis only a fool strives to set a fool right;"

Then, children of wisdom, hear nature's decree-
Be choice of your gifts, leave folly to fools ;
Let them be what they are—'tis the safest of rules.
From the heights of aërial Ind, to the tombs

Where Thoth lies enwrapped in his mystical scrolls,
The word, to my asking, oracular comes;

Children of wisdom, leave folly to fools; Talk not to the blind of the colors of light; Tis a fool that would labor to set a fool right.



DEEP rest upon the ocean reigns,

Air sleeps upon the silent sea,
And, languid, on its glassy plains

The voyager gazes pensively.
Calm, fearful,- Jike the still of death;

Nor form of life, nor murmuring sound
Disturbs the air; nor underneath

Aught wanders in the still profound.



OVER sunny hills to stray,

While the far-off bells are ringing,
From the weary world away,
Some merry song a-singing;

Thinkest this

Life spent amiss,
While the solemn bells are ringing?
Ah! much hast thou to learn

Of life and of its blisses-
of youth's beloved return--
Of joy's ecstatic kisses :

When rock and stream

All golden seem,
And the eye no beauty misses ;
But flowers, like the living smile ;

And songs of birds,

Like spoken words,
The very soul beguile.


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The people of India, whose history is sketched in the following pages, remain to this day a relic of the most ancient Heathenism : their Science and their Worship are the growth of a civilization older than the Pyramids. Their social and religious customs are founded upon laws which are doubtless an offshoot from the oldest of all codes, the Egyptian. Their modes of life are not essentially changed from the features of twenty centuries ago.

Since the social sentiments and legal constitutions of a slavish and feeble race, can have bnt little interest for the children of Europeans, it is only in their intellectual and religious character that the Hindoos are of much interest to the historian. For even the Greeks confessed them to be the wisest of mankind; and if wisdom is only an union of exquisite intelligence with the subtlest cunning, converted to the ends of intellectual and physical sensuality, the modern Hindoos have not lost the right to be called wise. They inhabit a region the most varied of the earth, in climate and in aspect; whose rivers are the meltings of perpetual snow, but flow through plains alternately torrid and inundated; under a sky subject to passionate extremes; where the season of rains is ushered in by terrible thunderstorms, and followed by heats which call out a rich and splendid vegetation, to be soon withered and burned by their intensity.

Every condition of human life has its representative in India, from rich and edu cated citizenship to the barbarism and cannibalism of the barren interior mountains; and there is no kind of animal or plant, which has not a species in its deserts, its forests, or its seas.

The effeminacy of its inhabitants, has made Hindostan in all ages the goal of conquest and the spoil of oppression. The Hindoo race were never their own masters; for even their native princes, were a caste set apart for idleness and violencethe descendants, probably, of their first conquerors.

To sketch the early history of this people from their own chronicle, to give a picture of what is universal and characteristic in them ; in their customs, polity, and religion; and especially in that philosophy which they are supposed to have imparted to the Greeks, and which to this day prevails among them, is the object of the following chapters. A History of India might be extended through several volumes, and lose nothing of its interest by expansion ; the present is an attempt to convey the idea and spirit of such a history.



The author of the Zendavesta, which from the East, and found a plain in Shiis believed to have been the Scripture of nar on the Euphrates, where they built Persia, previous to the conversion of that Babel; and this family, or the Semetic country to the religion of Islam, enume- branch of it, occupied Syria, Arabia, rating the regions of Asia as they were Phænicia, and Egypt. Their languages, occupied and civilized by his race, brings of which Hebrew and Arabic are the the first family of men out of Cashmere, types, have only a remote affinity with or Little Thibet, it is uncertain which; the Persian and Indian group of tongues. and scattering their race by successive Excepting those of Eastern Asia, all colonies, over Bactriana, Asia, and India, the inteilectual races who have built brings them finally into Media and Per- cities, or founded empires, speak lansia. The languages of this family of guages and entertain traditions, which men bear out the tradition, that the na- ally them either with the Indian or with tions who speak them had a common the Semetic descent; but the characterorigin in Northern India, for they use a istic people of both resemble each other multitude of words in common, and too closely to permit a suggestion, resemble each other in their inflections even, that they are not of the same and modes of composition.

species, and descended of the same paThe race of Noah, also, journeyed rents. The first seat of man may,

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therefore, be sought, rather in the Cau. sovereigns of the earlier dynasties are casus of India, than in that western Cau- greatly exaggerated, as if to bring their casus, which borders on the Black Sea; epoch to a coincidence with the first year and the Ararat of Moses is more plausibly of Cali-Yug, or Earthen Age; (for this to be looked for in Himmaleh, than in present, or iron age of the Greek Mythothe Mount Taurus.

logists, is the same with the Earthen According to the account of Zoroaster, Yug, or Age, of the Hindoos, and was in the Zendavesta, India was inhabited preceded, in their Mythology by the and civilized by his race, before their Silver, or Heroic, and the Golden, or Dioccupation of Media and Persia. Such, vine ages.) If from the beginning of the at least, seems to be the meaning of his reign of Yoodhisthiru to that of Vicramaenumeration of countries in the order ditya (B. C. 56), only seventy kings in which they were blessed by the Su- reigned in Delhi, and the average of their preme Good.”

The sacred books of reigns be one generation, or about twenthe Hindoos place the beginning of their ty-two and a half years, their sum will Earthen age, or Caliyug, since which be rather more than fifteen and a half they have suffered under the weakness of centuries, or about 1575 years; which mortal sovereigns, about the year 3000 brings the time of the first sovereign of B. C.: before that epoch, their kings Delhi to agree with the time of the faare related to have been children of the mous expedition of the Egyptian Sesostris, sun and moon. All the history they or Osymandyas, into India, where, we possess, is a list of the dynasties of Delhi, are told, he made conquests. This which professes to begin with the first event happened between 1565 and 1500, year of the Caliyug, (3000 B. C.) and B. C., according to the most probable descends unbroken to the conquest of chronology of the kings of Egypt; t but Delhi by the Moslems. During the first dates of this age can be only approxithirty centuries of this period, the race mately determined. Taking twenty-two of Yoodhisthiru reigned in Delhi, and years to be the average of a king's reign were succeeded by that of Vicramaditya, in India, the first monarch of Delhi began who came out of Malwa about 56 B. C. to reign in the year 1540 B. C., twenty This king, the Augustus of India, reigned years before the death of Sesostris, while during the brightest period of its litera- he was in the height of his power, and ture, and is celebrated as the most en- had made his second expedition into the lightened and liberal of Hindoo sove. East. reigns. At his court lived Calidas, the The conclusions suggested by this co. author of Sacontala, and the most accom- incidence are remarkable enough, when plished poet of his language; but he is we consider the close resemblance in only one of many ; for at this time, and every particular, between the Hindoo for centuries previous, the Hindoos were and Egyptian customs; for, while the distinguished among nations for the laws and religion of the Egyptians may number and variety of their writings. be traced, by the testimony of their The Sanscrit, their ancient tongue, has existing monuments, to the twentyceased to be a spoken language, having seventh century before Christ, and are degenerated into Hindostannee, and other carried by reasonable conjecture to at popular dialects, and is studied by a least the third century before that date, few only of the learned in India as the those of India cannot be traced deeper original of law and religion; the Insti- in antiquity than the epoch of Sesostr:3, tutes of Menu, and the Vedas, or Sacred or about 1500 B. C. That the enactwritings, being composed in the mostments of the laws of Menu, and the Sa. ancient form of it.

cred Sanscrit volumes called Vedas, are From B. C. 3000, according to the only two or three centuries more recent Hindoo chronicle, to the year 56 B. C., than that period, is certain from the date seventy kings succeeded each other on of Fo, or Buddha, who founded a sect the throne of Delhi, and as their order is in opposition to the tenets of the Veunbroken, and regularly divided into dy- das. Buddha, whom the Chinese pa. nasties," the number is probably correct; gans worship under the name of Fo, and but the periods of the reigns of all the who is identified with the Woden, or Odin,

See Ward on the Hindoos, Vol. 1, where is given a translation of the Chronicle of Mrityoonjaya.

† Rossellini, in the Lectures of G. R. Gliddon, on Egypt. Chron.

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