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Had the question,' says the bishop, been proposed , washed their hands, and said, . We call you all to witto the religious part of the community, whether, if no ness that we are innocent of this great ruin ;'-does other means were to be found, the effective cure of the Bishop of London imagine that the prelates who souls should be provided for by the total suppression made such a stand would have gone down to posterity of those ecclesiastical corporations which have no less respected and less revered than those men upon cure of souls, nor bear any part in the parochial / whose tomb it must (after all the enumerations of their labours of the clergy; that question, I verily believe, virtues) be written, that under their auspices and by would have been carried in the affirmative by an im- their counsels the destruction of the English church bemense majority of suffrages.' But suppose no other gan? Pity that the Archbishop of Canterbury had means could be found for the effective cure of souls not retained those feelings, when, at the first meeting than the suppression of bishops, does the Bishop of of bishops, the Bishop of London proposed this holy London imagine that the majority of suffrages would innovation upon cathedrals, and the head of our church have been less immense? How idle to put such cases. declared, with vehemence an indignation, that nothing
A pious man leaves a large sum of money in Catho- in the earth would induce him to consent to it. lic times for some purposes which are superstitious,
Si mens non leva fuisset, and for others, such as preaching and reading prayers,
Trojaque nunc stares, Priamique arx alta maneres. which are applicable to all times; the superstitious usages are abolished, the pious usages remain : now
* But,' says the Lord Bishop of London, ' you admit the bishop must admit, if you take half or any part of the principle of confiscation by proposing the confiscathis money from clergymen to whom it was given, and tion and partition of prebends in the possession of nondivide it for similar purposes among clergy to whom residents. I am thinking of something else, and I see it was not given, you deviate materially from the in all of a sudden a great blaze of light; Î behold a great tentions of the founder. These foundations are made number of gentlemen in short aprons, near purple coais, in loco ; in many of them the locus was, perhaps, the and gold buckles, rushing about with torches in their original cause of the gift. A man who founds an alms. hands, calling each other. my lord,' and setting fire to house at Edmonton does not mean that the poor of all the rooms in the house, and the people below deTottenham should avail themselves of it; and if he lighted with the combustión; finding it impossible to could have anticipated such a consequence, he would turn them from their purpose, and finding that they not have endowed any almshouse at all. Such is the are all what they are by divine permission ; I endearespect for property that the Court of Chancery, when vour to direct their holy innovations into another chanit becomes impracticable to carry the will of the nel; and I say unto them, my lords, had not you donor into execution, always attend to the cy pres, and better set fire to the out of door offices, to the bams, apply the charitable fund to a purpose as germane as and stables, and spare this fine library, and this poble possible to the intention of the founder ; but here, drawing-room? Yonder are several cow-houses of when men of Lincoln have left to Lincoln cathedral, which no use is made; pray direct your fury against and men of Hereford to Hereford, the commissioners them, and leave this beautiful and venerable mansion seize it all, melt it into a common mass, and disperse as you found it. If I address the divinely permitted it over the kingdom. Surely the Bishop of London in this manner, has the Bishop of London any righi to cannot contend that this is noi a greater deviation from call me a brother incendiary? the will of the founder than if the same people, re Our holy innovator, the Bishop of London, has drawn maining in the same place, receiving all the founder a very affecting picture of sheep haring no shepherd, gave them, and doing all things not forbidden by the and of inillions who have no spiritual food ; our wants, law, which the founder ordered, were to do something he says, are most imperious: even if we were to tak more than the founder ordered, were to becoine the large livings, we must still have the money of the ca. guardians of education, the counsel to the bishop,thedrals : no plea will exempt you, nothing can stop and the curators of the diocese in his old age and us, for the forination of benefices, and the endowmeni decay.
of new ones. We want (and he prints it in italies) The public are greater robbers and plunderers than for these purposes all that we can obtain from what. any one in the public ; look at the whole transaction ; ever source derived. I never remember to have been it is a mixture of meanness and violence. The coun. more alarmed in my life than by this passage. I said try choose to have an established religion, and a resi. to myself, the necessities of the church have got such dent parochial clergy, but they do not choose to build complete hold of the imagination of this energetic houses for their parochial clergy, or pay them in ma. prelate, who is so captivated by the holiness of his inny instances more than a butler' or a coachman renovations, that all grades and orders of the church ceives. How is this deficiency to be supplied? The and all present and future interests will be sacrificed heads of the church propose to this public to seize upon to it. I immediately rushed to the acts of Parliament, estates which have never belonged to the public, and which I always have under my pillow, to see at once which were lett for another purpose ; and by the the worst of what had happened. I found present reseizure of these estates to save that which ought to venues of the bishops all safe ; that is some comfort, I come out of the public purse.
said to nyself; Canterbury, 24,0001. or 25,0001. per Suppose Parliament were to seize upon all the alms- annum ; London, 18,0001. or 20,0001. I began to feel houses in England, and apply them to the diminution some comfort : 6 things are not so bad; the bishops do of the poor-rate, what a pumber of ingenious argu. not mean to sacrifice to sheep and shepherds' money ments might be pressed into the service of this robbe. their present revenues; the Bishop of London is less ry: "Can any thing be inore revolting than that the violent and headstrong ihan I thought he would be.' poor of Northumberland should be starving while the I looked a little further, and found that 15,000l. per poor of the suburban hamlets are dividing the bene- anuum is alloted to the future Archbishop of Canterfactions of the pious dead? “We want for these bury, 10,0001. to the Bishop of London, 8,0001. to Durpurposes all we can obtain from whatever sources ham, and 8,0001. each to Winchester and Ely. No. derived." ; I do not deny the right of Parliament thing ot' sheep and shepherd in all this,' I exclaimed, to do this, or anything else; but I deny that it and felt still inore comforted. It was not till after the would be expedient, because I think it better to make bishops were taken care ot, and the revenues of the any sacrifices, and to endure any evil, than to gratify cathedrals came into full view, that I saw the periect this rapacious spirit of plunder and confiscation. Sup- I development of the sheep and shepherd principle, the pose these commissioner prelates firm and unmoved, deep aiul heartfelt compassion for spiritual labourers, when we were all alarmed, had told the public that and that inward groaning for the destitute state of the the parochial clergy were badly provided for, and that church, and that tirm purpose, printed in italics, of it was the duty of that public to provide a proper sup- taking for these purposes all that could be obtained from port for their ministers ;-suppose the commissioners, whatever source derired; and even in this delicious instead of leading them on. to confiscaticu, had warued rummage of cathedral property, where all the fiue their fellow subjects against the base economy and the church feelings of the bishop's heart could be indulged perilous injustice of seizing on that which was not without costing the poor sufferer a penny, stalls for their own ;--suppose they had called for water and archdeacons in Lincoln and St. Paul's are, tu the
amount of 2,0001. per annum, taken from the sheep and former. Now here is a capital of 72,0001. carried into shepherd fund, and the patronage of them divided be the church, which the confiscations of the commission. tween two commissioners, the Bishop of London, and ers would force out of it, by taking away the good the Bishop of Lincoln, instead of being paid to addio things which were the temptation to its introduction. tional laboifrers in the vineyard.
So that, by the old plan of paying by lottery, instead Has there been any difficulty, I would ask, in pro. of giving a proper competence to each, bot only do curing archdeacons upon the very moderate pay they you obtain a parochial clergy upon much cheaper pow receive? Can any clergyman be more thorough. terms; but, from the gambling propensities of human ly respectable than the present archdeacons in the see nature, and the irresistible tendency to hope that they of London ? but men bearing such an office in the shall gain the great prizes, you tempt men into your church, it may be said, should be highly paid, and service who keep up their credit and yours, noi by archbishops, who could very well keep up their digni. your allowance, but by their own capital; and to de. ty upon 70001. per annum, are to be allowed 15,0001. štroy this wise and well-working arrangement, a great I make no objection to all this; but then what be. number of bishops, marquises, and John Russells, are comes of all these heart-rending phrases of sheep and huddled into a chamber, and, after proposing a scheme shepherd, and drooping vineyards, and flocks without which will turn the English church into a collection of spiritual consolation? The bishop's argument is, that consecrated beggars, we are intormed by the Bishop the superfluous must give way to the necessary; but of London that it is an holy innovation. in fighting, the bishop should take great care that his I have no manner of doubt, that the immediate efcannons are not seized, and turned against himself. fect of passing the dean and chapter bill will be, that He has awarded to the bishops of England a superflu. a great number of fathers and uncles, judging, and ity as great as that which he intends to take from the properly judging, that the church is a very altered and cathedrals; and then, when he legislates for an order deteriorated profession, will turn the industry and ca. to which he does not belong, begins to remember the pital of their élèves into another channel. My friend, distresses of the lower clergy, paints them with all Robert Eden, says this is of the earth earthy :' be it the colours of impassioped eloquence, and informs the so; I cannot help it, I paint mankind as I find them, cathedral institutions that he must have every farthing and am not answerable for their defects. When an he can lay his hand upon. Is not this as if one affected argument, taken from real life, and the actual condi. powerfully by a charity sermon were to put his hands tion of the world, is brought among the shadowy disin another man's pocket, and cast, from what he had cussions of ecclesiastics, it always occasions ierror extracted, a liberal contribution into the plate ? and dismay; it is like Æneas stepping into Charon's
I beg not to be mistaken ; I am very far from con. boat, which carried only ghosts and spirits. sidering the Bishop of London as a sordid and inte. rested person ; but this is a complete instance of how
Gemuit sub pondere cymba
Sutilis. the best of men deceive themselves, where their inte. rests are concerned. I have no doubt the bishop firm The whole plan of the Bishop of London is a ptochly imagined he was doing his duty; but there should ogony-a generation of beggars. He purposes, out of have been men of all grades in the commission, some the spoils of the cathedral, to create a thousand livings, one to say a word for cathedrals and against bishops. and to give to the thousand clergymen 1301. per an.
The bishop says, "his antagonists have allowed num each: a Christian bishop proposing, in cold blood, three canons to be sufficient for St. Paul's, and, there to create a thousand livings of 1301. per annum each; fore, four must be sufficient for other cathedrals.' —to call into existence a thousand of the most unhapSufficient to read the prayers and preach the sermons, py men on the face of the earth,--the sons of the certainly, and so would one be; but not sufficient to poor, without hope, without the assistance of private excite, by the hope of increased rank and wealth, ele. fortune, chained to the soil, ashamed to live with their ven thousand parochial clergy.
inferiors, unfit for the society of the better classes, The most important and cogent arguments against and dragging about the English curse of poverty, the dean and chapter confiscations are past over iu si- without the smallest hope that they can ever shake it lence in the bishop's charge. This, in reasoning, is off. At present, such lívings are filled by young men always the wisest and most convenient plan, and which who have better hopes who have reason to expect all young bishops should imitate after the manner of good property-who look forward to a college or a this wary polemic. I object to the confiscation be family living—who are the sons of men of some subcause it ưill throw a great deal more of capital out of the stance, and hope so to pass on to something better-parochial church than it will bring into it. I am very --who exist under the delusion of being hereafter sorry to come forward with so homely an argument, deans and prebenda ries-who are paid once by mon which shocks so many clergymen, and particularly qy, and three times by hope. Will the Bishop of those with the largest incomes, and the best bishop. London promise to the progeny of any of these thou. rics; but the truth is, the greater number of clergy. sand victims of the holy innovation that, if they behave men go into the church in order that they may derive well, one of them shall have his butler's place; anoa comfortable income from the church. Such men in ther take care of the cedars and hyssops of his garden? tend to do their duty, and they do it; but the duty is, Will he take their daughters for his nursery-maids ? however, not the motive, but the adjunct. If I was and may some of the sons of these · labourers of the writing in gala and parade, I would not hold this lan- Fineyard' hope one day to ride the leaders from St. guage; but we are in earnest, and on business; and as James's to Fulham ? Here is hope-here is room for very rash and hasty changes are founded upon contra- ambition—a field for genius, and a ray of ameliora. ry suppositions of the pure disinterestedness and per- tion! If these beautiful feelings of compassion are fect inattention to temporals in the clergy, we must throbbing under the cassock of the bishop, he ought, get down at once to the solid rock without lieeding how in cominon justice to himself, to make them known. we disturb the turf and flowers above. The parochial If it were a scheme for giving ease and independence clergy maintain their present decent appearance quite to any large bodies of clergymen, it might be listened as much by their own capital as by the income they 10; but the revenues of the English church are such as derive from the church. I will now state the income to render this wholly and entirely out of the question. and capital of seven clergymen, laken promiscuously If you place a man in a village in the country, require in this neighbourhood :-No. 1. Living 2001., capital that he should be of good manners and well educated; 12,0001.; No. 2. Living 800., capital 15,000.; No. 3. that his habits and appearance should be above those Living 5001., capital 12,000.; No. 4. Living 1501., cap- of the farmers to whom he preaches, if he has nothing ital 10,0001.; No. 5. Living 8001., capital 12,0001.; No. else to expect (as would be the case in a church of 6. Living 150., capital 10001. ; No. 1. Living 6001., ca. equal division); and if, upon his village income, he is pital 16,0001. I have diligently inquired into the cir- to support a wife and educate a family, without any cumstances of seven Unitarian and Wesleyan ministers. power of making himself known in a remote and soli. and I question much it the whole seven could make up iary situation, such a person ought to receive 5001. per 60001. between them; and the zeal and enthusiasm of annum, and be furnished with a house. There are this last division is certainly not inferior to that of the labout 10,700 parashes in England and Wales, wiose
average income is 2851. per annum. Now, to provide , will it not force more capital out of the parochial part these incumbents with decent houses, to keep them in of the church than it brings into it? If the bill is bad, repair, and to raise the income of the incumbent to it is surely not to pass out of compliment to the feels 5001. per annum, would require (if all the incomes of ings of the Archbishop of Canterbury. If the prothe bishops, deans, and chapters of separate dignita. ject is hasty, it is not to be adopted to gratify the Biries, of sinecure rectories, were confiscated, and if the shop of London. The mischiet to the church is sure. excess of all the livings in England above 500l. per an. ly a greater evil than the stultitication of the commisnum were added to them,) a sumn of iwo millions and sioners, &c. If the physician has prescribed hastily, a half in addition to the present income of the whole is the medicine to be taken to the death or disease of church; and no power on earth could persuade the the patient? If the judge has condemned improperly, present Parliament of Great Britain to grant a single is the criminal to be hung, that the wisdom of the shilling for that purpose. Now, is it possible to pay inagistrate may not be impugned ?* such a church upon any other principle than that oi But why are the commissioners to be stultified by unequal division? The proposed pillage of the cathe. the rejection of the measure ? The measure may dral and college churches (omitting all consideration have been very good when it was recommended, and of the separate estate of dignitaries) would amount, di- very objectionable now. I thought, and many men vided among all the benefices in England, lo about 51. thought, that the church was going to pieces--that 12s.6d. per man: and this, which would not stop an the affections of the common people were lost 10 the hiatus in a cassock, and would drive out of the paro establishment; and that large sacrifices must be in. chial church ten times as much as it brought into it, stantly made, to avert the effects of this temporary is the panacea for pauperism recommended by her ma- madness; but those days are gone by—and with them jesty's commissioners.
ought to be put aside measures, which might have been But if this plan were to drive men of capital out of wise in those days, but are wise no longer. the church, and to pauperize the English clergy, where After all, the Archbishop of Canterbury and the would the harm be? Could not all the duties of reli- Bishop of London are good and placable men; and will gion be performed as well by poor clergymen as by ere long forget and forgive the successful efforts of men of good substance? My great and serious appre. their enemies in defeating this mis-ccclesiastic law. hension is, that such would not be the case. There Suppose the commission were now beginning to sit would be the greatest risk that your clergy would be for the first time, will any man living say that they fanatical, and ignorant; that their habits would be would make such reports as they have made and that low and mean, and that they would be despised. they would seriously propose such a tremendous revo.
Then a picture is drawn of a clergyman with 1301. / lution in church property? And if they would not, per annum, who combines all moral, physical, and in the inference is irresistible, that to consult the feelings tellectual advantages, a learned man, dedicating him of two or three churchmen, we are complimenting sell intensely to the care of his parish—of charming away the safety of the church. Milton asked where manners and dignified deportment-six feet two inches the nymphs were when Lycidas perished? I ask high, beautifully proportioned, with a magnificent where the bishops are when the remorseless deep is countenance, expressive of all the cardinal virlues and closing over the head of their beloved establish. the Ten Commandments,-and it is asked, with an air ment ? † of triumph, if such a inan as this will fall into contempt You must have read an attack upon me by the Bishop on account of his poverty? But substitute for him an of Gloucester, in the course of which he says that I average, ordinary, uninteresting minister ; obese, dum. have not been appointed to my situation as canon of py, neither ill-natured nor good-natured ; neither learn- St. Paul's for my piety and learning, but because I am ed nor ignorant, striding over the stiles to church, a scotser and a jester. Is not this rather strong for a with a second-rate wife-dusty and deliquescent-and bishop, and does it not appear to you, Mr. Archdea. four parochial children, full of catechism and bread and con, as rather too close an iinitation of that language 'butter; or let him be seen in one of those Shem-Ham- which is used in the apostolic occupation of trafficking and-Japhet buggies—made on Mount Ararat soon after in fish? Whether I have been appointed for my pie. the subsidence of the waters, driving in the High Street ty or not, must depend upon what this poor man means of Edmonton ;*--among all his pecuniary, saponaceous, by picty. He means by that word, of course, a de. oleaginous parishioners. Can any man of common fence of all the tyrannical and oppressive abuses of sense say that all these outward circumstances of the the church which have been swept away within the ministers of religion have no bearing on religion itself? | last fifteen or twenty years of my life; the corpora.
I ask the Bishop of London, a man of honour and tion and test acts; the penal laws against the Catho. conscience as he is, if he thinks five years will elapse lics; the compulsory marriages of dissenters, and all before a second atiаck is made upon deans and chap- those disabling and disqualifying laws which were the ters? Does he think, after reformers have tasted the disgrace of our church, and which he has always flesh of the church, that they will put up with any oth looked up to as the consummation of human wisdom. er diet? Does he forget that deans and chapters are If piety consisted in the defence of these-if it was but mock turtle—that more delicious delicacies remain impious to struggle for their abrogation, I hare, in. bebind? Five years hence he will attempt to make a deed, led an ungodly life. stand, and he will be laughed at and eaten up. In this There is nothing pompous gentlemen are so much very charge the bishop accuses the lay commissioners afraid of as a little humour. It is like the objection of another intended attack upon the property of the of certain cephalic animalculæ to the use of small. church, contrary to the clearest and most explicit stip- tooth combs, --- Finger and thumb, precipitate pov. ulations (as he says) with the heads of the establish- der, or any thing else you please ; but for Heaven's ment.
sake no small tooth combs!' After all, I believe, Much is said of the conduct of the commissioners, Bishop Monk has been the cause of much more lauvb. but that is of the least possible consequence. They ter than ever I have been; I cannot account for it, but may have acted for the best, according to the then ex. I never see him enter a room without exciting a smile isting circumstances; they may seriously have inten. on every countenance within it. ded to do their duty to the comtry; and I am tar from Dr. Monk is furious at iny attacking the heads of saying or thinking they did not; but without the least the church ; but how can I help it? If the heads of reference to the commissioners, the question is, Is it the church are at the head of the mob; if I find the wise to pass this bill, and to justify such an open and best of men doing that which has in all times drawn tremendous sacrifice of church property? Does public upon the worst enemies of the human race the bitieropinion now call for any such measure? is it a wise distribution of the funds of an ill-paid church? and
* after the trouble the commissioners have taken (says
Sir Robert), after the obloquy they have incurred,' &c. &c. A parish which the Bishop of London has the greatest What is the use of publi-bing separate charges, as the desire to divide into little bits; but which appears quite as Bishops of Winchester, Oxford, and Rochester have done? fit to preserve its integrity as St. James's, St. George's, or Why do not the dissentient bishops form into a firm phaKensington, all in the patronage of the bishop.
lanx to save the church and fling out the bill ?
LETTER ON THE CHARACTER OF SIR JAMES MACKINTOSH.
est curses of history, am I to stop because the mo- | and the improvement of his understanding, I must tives of these men are pure, and their lives blameless? tervently and cordially join him. I wish I could find a bloí in their lives, or a vice in I was much amused with what old Hermann* says their motives. The whole power of the motion is in of the Bishop ot London's Aschylus. “We tind, he the character of the movers : fecble friends, false says, ' a great arbitrariness of proceeding, and much friends, and foolish friends, all cease to look upon the boldness of innovation, guided by no sure principle;' measure, and say, Would such a measure have been re here it is: qualis ab incepto. He begius wili. Æschy. cominended by such men as the prelates of Canterbury lus, and ends with the Church of Englaud; begins with and London, if it were not for the public advantage? profane, and ends with holy innovations--scratching and in this way, the great good of a religious estab- out old readings which every commentator had sanclishment, now rendered moderate and compatible tioned,-abolishing ecclesiastical dignities which with all men's liberties and rights, is sacrificed to every reformer had spared ; thrusting an anapest into names; and the church destroyed from good breeding a verse which will not bear it,--and intruding a canon and etiquette ! the real truth is, that Canterbury and into a cathedral which does not want it; and this is London have been frightened-they have overlooked the prelate by whom the proposed reform of the church the effect of time and delay--they have been betrayed has been principally planned, and to whose practical into a fearful and ruinous inistake. Painful as it is to wisdom the legislature is called upon to deter. The teach men who ought to teach us, the legislature Bishop of London is a man of very great ability, huought, while there is yet time, to awake and read them mane, placable, generous, muniticent, very agrecable, this lesson.
but not to be trusted with great interests were calm. It is dangerous for a prelate to write: and whoeverness and judgment are required ; unfortunately, my does it ought to be a very wise one. He has specula. old and amiable school-tellow, the Archbishop of Can. ted why I was made a canon of St. Paul's. Suppose terbury, has melted away before him, and sacrificed I were to follow his example, and, going through the that wisdom on which we all founded our security. bench of bishops, were to ask for what reason each Much writing and much talking are very tiresome ; man had been made a bishop; suppose I were to go and, above all, they are so to men who, living in the into the county of Gloucester, &c. &c. &c.!!!!! world, arrive at those rapid and just conclusions which
I was afraid the bishop would attribute my promo- are only to be made by living in the world. This bill tion to the Edinburgh Review; but upon the subject passed, every man of sense, acquainted with human of promotion by reviews he preserves an impenetrable atlairs, must see, that as ar as the church is concemed, silence. If my excellent patron, Earl Grey, had any the thing is at an end. From Lord John Russell, the reasons of this kind, he may at least be sure that the present improver of the church, we shall descend to reviews commonly attributed to me were really writ. llume, froin Hume to Roebuck, and after Roebuck, ten by me. I should have considered myself as the we shall receive our last improvements from Dr. Wade: lowest of created beings to have disguised myself in plunder will follow plunder, degradation after degra. another man's wit, and to have received a reward to dation. The church is gone, and what remains is not which I was not entitled.*
ife, but sickness, spasm, and struggle. I presume that what has drawn upon me the indigna. Whatever happens, I am not to blame; I have fought tion of this prelate, is the observations I have from my fight.-Farewell. time to time inade on the conduct of the commission.
SYDNEY SMITH. ers—of which he positively asserts himself to have been a member; but whether he was, or was not a member, I utterly acquit him of all possible blame, and of every species of imputation which may attach LETTER ON THE CHARACTER OF SIR JAMES to the conduct of the commissioners. In using that
MACKINTOSH. word, I have always meant the Archbishop of Canterbury, the Bishop of London, and Lord John Russell ; MY DEAR SIR, and have, honestly speaking, given no more heed to You ask for some of your father's letters: I am the Bishop of Gloucester than if he had been sitting in sorry to say I have none to send you. Upon principle, a commission of Bonzes, in the court of Pekin. I keep no letters except those on business. I have not
To read, however, his lordship a lesson of good a single letter from him, nor from any human being, in manners, I had prepared for him a chastisement which my possession. would have been echoed from the Seagrave, who ban. The impression which the great talents and amiable queteth in the castle, to the idiot who spitieth over qualities of your father made upon me, will remain as the bridge at Gloucester; but the following appeal long as I remain. When I turn from living spectacles struck my eye, and stopped my pen : • Since that of stupidity, ignorance, and malice, and wish to think time, my inadequate qualifications have sustained an better of the world-I remember my great and beneappalling diminution, by the affection of my eyes, volent friend Mackintosh. which has impaired my vision, and the progress of
The first points of character which everybody nowhich threatens to consign me to darkness; I beg the ticed in him were the total absence of envy, haired, benefit of your prayers to the Father of all mercies, malice, and uncharitableness. He could not hate-hé that he will restore me to better use of the visual did not know how to set about it. The gall-bladder organs, to be employed on his service; or that he will was omitted in his composition, and if he could have inwardly illumine the intellectual vision with a parti- been persuaded into any scheme of revenging himself cle of that divine ray which his Holy Spirit can alone upon an enemy, I am sure (unless he had been nar. impart.
rowly watched) it would have ended in proclaiming It might have been better taste, perhaps, if a mi- the good qualities, and promotivg the interests of his tred invalid, in describing his bodily infirmities before adversary. Truth had so much more power over him a church full of clergymen, whose prayers he asked, than anger, that (whatever might be the provocation) had been a little more sparing in the abuse of his ene. he could not inisrepresent, nor exaggerate. In ques. mies; but a good deal must be forgiven to the sick. Itions of passion and party, he stated facts as they wish that every Christian was as well aware as this were, and reasoned fairly upon them, placing his happoor bishop of what he needed from divine assistance; piness and pride in equitable discrimination. Very and in the supplication for the restoration of his sighi, fond of talking, he heard patiently, and, not averse to
intellectual display, did not forget that others might * I understand that the bishop bursts into tears every
have the same disposition as himself. now and then, and says that I have set him the name of
Till subdued by age and illness, his conversation Simon, and that all the bishops now call him Simon. Si- was more brilliant and instructive than that of any mon of Gloucester, however, after all, is a real writer, and human being I ever had the good fortune to be ac. how could I know that Dr. Monk's name was the endearing, though somewhat unmajestic name, of Dick; and if I
Ueber die behandlung der Griechischen Dichter bei had thought about his name at all, I should have called him den Englandern Von Gotifried Hermann. Wiemar JahrRichard of Gloucester.
bucher, vol. liv. 1831.
quainted with. His memory (vast and prodigous as but in this view he was unjust to himself. Still, how. it was) he so managed as to make it a source of plea- ever, his style of speaking in Parliament was certain. sure and instruction, rather than that dreadful engine ly more acedemic ihan forensic: it was not sufficient. of colloquial oppression into which it is sometimes lý short and quick for a busy and impatient assembly. erected. He remembered things, words, thoughts, He often spoke over the heads of his hearers-was 100 dates, and every thing that was wanted. His lan- much in advance of feeling for their sympathies, and guage was beautiful, and might have gone from the of reasoning for their comprehension. "He began too fireside to the press; but though his ideas were always much at the beginning, and went too much to the right clothed in beautiful language, the clothes were some and left of the question, making rather a lecture or a times too big for the body, and common thoughts dissertation than a speech. His voice was bad and were dressed in better and larger apparel than they nasal ; and though nobody was in reality more sindeserved. He certainly had this fault, but it was not cere, he seemed not only not to feel, but hardly to one of frequent commission.
think what he was saying. He had a method of putting things so mildly and in. Your father had very little science, and no great terrogatively, that he always procured the readiest knowledge of physics. His notions of his early pur. reception for his opinions. Addicted to reasoning in suit-the study of medicine--were imperfect and antithe company of able men, he had two valuable habits, quated, and he was but an indifferent classical scholar, which are rarely met with in great reasoners-he neva for the Greek language has never crossed the Tweed er broke in upon his opponent, and always avoided in any great force. In history, the whole stream of strong and vehement assertions. His reasoning com- time was open before him : he had looked into every monly carried conviction, for he was cautious in his moral and metaphysical question from Plato to Paley, positions, accurate in his deductions, aimed only at and had waded ihrough morasses of international law, truth. The ingenious side was commonly taken by where the step of no living man could follow him. Posome one else ; the interests of truth were protected litical economy is of modern invention ; I am old by Mackintosh.
enough to recollect when every judge on the bench His good-nature and candour betrayed him into a (Lord Eldon and Serjeant Runnington excepted,) in morbid habit of eulogizing every body-a habit which their charges to the grand juries, attributed the then destroyed the value of commendations, that might high prices of corn to the scandalous combination of have been to the young (if more sparingly distribút- farmers. Sir James knew what is commonly agreed
a reward of virtue and a motive to exertion. Oc- upon by political economists, without taking much casionally he took fits of an opposite nature; and I pleasure in the science, and with a disposition to have seen him abating and dissolving pompous gentle blame the very speculative and metaphysical disqui. men with the most successtil ridicule. He certainly sitions into which it has wandered, but with a full had a good deal of humour; and I remember, conviction also (which many able men of his standing amongst many other examples of it, that he kept us are without) of the immense importance of the science for two or three hours in a roar of laughter, at a din. to the welfare of society. ner-party at his own house, playing upon the simplic. I think (though, perhaps, some of his friends may ity of a Scotch cousin, who had mistaken me for my not agree with me in this opinion) that he was su gallant synonym, the hero of Acre. I never saw a acute judge of character, and of the good as well as more perfect comedy, nor heard ridicule so long and evil in character. He was, in truth, with the appear. so well sustained. Sir James had not only humour, ance of distraction and of one occupied with other but he had wit also ; at least, new and sudden rela. things, a very minute observer of human nature; and tions of ideas flashed across his mind in reasoning, and I have seen him analyze, to the very springs of the produced the same effect as wit, and would have been heart, men who had not the most distant suspicion of called wit, it a sense of their utility and importance the sharpness of his vision, nor a belief thai he could had not often overpowered the admiration of novelty, read any thing but books. and entitled them to the higher name of wisdom. Sufficient justice has not been done to his political Then the great thoughts and fine sayings of the great integrity. He was not rich, was from the northen men of all ages were intimately present to his recol. part of the island, possessed great facility of temper, lection, and came out dazzling and delighting in his and had therefore every excuse for political lubricity, conversation. Justness of thinking was a strong fea- which that vice (more common in those days than I ture in his understanding; he had a head in which hope it will ever be again) could possibly require. Innonsense and error could hardly vegetale: it was a vited by every party, upon his arrival from India, he soil utterly unfit for them. Ithis display in conversa- remained steadfast to his old friends the wbigs, whose tion had been only in maintaining splendid paradoxes, admission to office, or enjoyment of political power, he would soon have wearied those he lived with ; but would at that period have been considered as the most no man could live long and intimately with your fa- visionary of all human speculations ; yet, during his ther without finding ihat he was gaining upon doubt, lifetime, every body seemed more ready to have for. correcting error, enlarging the boundaries, and given the tergiversation of which he was not guilty, strengthening the foundations of truth. It was worth than to admire the actual firmness he had displayed. while to listen to a master, whom not himself but na. With all this he never made the slightest etiorts to ture had appointed to the office, and who taught what advance his interests with his political friends, never it was not easy to forget, by methods which it was inentioned his sacrifices nor his services, expressed no not easy to resist.
reseniment at neglect, and was therefore pushed into Curran, the master of the rolls, said to Mr. Grattan, such situations as fall to the lot of the feeble and deliYou would be the greatest man of your age, Grattan, cate in a crowd. if you would buy a few yards of red tape, and tie up A high merit in Sir James Mackintosh was his real your bills and papers.' 'This was the fault or the mis- and unatiected philanthropy. He did not make the fortune of your excellent father; he never knew the improvement of the great mass of mankind an engine use of red tape, and was utterly unfit for the common of popularity, and a stepping-stone to power, bui he business of life. That a guinea represented a quanti. had a genuine love of human happiness. Whatever ty of shillings, and that it would barter for a quantity might assuage the angry passious, and arrange the of cloth, he was well aware ; but the accurate number conflicting interests of nations ; whatever could proof the baser coin, or the just measurement of the man mote peace, increase knowledge, extend commerce, ufactured article, to which he was entitled for his diminish crime, and encourage industry; whaiever gold, he could never learn, and it was impossible to could exalt human character, and could enlarge buman teach him. Hence his life was often an example of understanding,-struck at once at the heart of your ia. the ancient and melancholy struggles of genius with ther, and roused all his faculties. I have seen him in the difficulties of existence.
a moment when this spirit come upon him-lik a I have often heard Sir James Mackintosh say of great ship of war-cut his cable, and spread bis enorhimself, that he was born to be the professor of an mous canvass, and launch into a wide sea of reasoning university. Happy, and for ages celebrated, would cloquence. have been the university, which had so possessed him, But though easily warmed by great schemes of be