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mans.

necte.'

of the man I saw in my dream !” Of course But if Candlemas Day be clouds and rain, he became her husband.

Winter is gone and will not come a rain." The tying of amatory knots, to unite the Candlemas Day is so called, from having beloved person's affections with their own, been formerly celebrated with many candles, was a common expedient amongst the Ro- which, being sprinkled with holy water, and

blessed, were supposed to possess the power “ Necte tribus nodis ternos, Amarylli colores :

of driving away evil spirits. Necte, Amarylli, modo; et Veneris, dic. vincula

Virg. Eclog. viii, 77.

" Whose candelle burneth cleere and bright, a

wonderous torce and might " Knit with three knots the fillets, knit them Doth in these candelis lie, which, if at any time straight,

they light, And say, these knots to love I consecrate."

They sure believe that neither storme nor tempest Dryden. dare abide,

Nor thunder in the skie be beard, nor any divel There is an ancient admonition, to note spide, down whether the sun shine on St. Vincent's

Nor fearfull sprites that walk by night, nor hurt by

trost aud baile." Day (January 22d). “ Vincenti festo si sol radiet memor esto."

These consecrated candles were even viewed “ Remember on St. Vincent's day,

as useful to the dying. To the question, If that the sun bis beams display."

“ W'herefore serveth holy candles ?" we find And Dr. Forster presumes that it may have blesse men when they lye a dying.”+

this reply: “ To light up in thunder, and to arisen from an idea that the sun would not

Candlemas was the season at which the shine inauspiciously “ on that day on which Februa, a feast of purification and atonethe martyrdom of the saint was so inhumanly ment, was formerly held at Rome. That finished by burning,” (p. 26). It is proba- which was purified by the sacrifice was bly, however, connected with the following called februatum, and the month in which old proverb of the vintager.

the purification took place, Februarius. The “A la fête de Saint Vincent

evident relation between the two festivals of Le vin monte dans le sammeut;

purification, is one amongst the most strikEt en va bien autrement

ing instances of the connexion between the Si il gèle, il en descend."

original Ethnical, and subsequent Christian, The conversion of St. Paul (January rites and festivals, as to their periods of oc25th), has also, for whatever reason, been currence and identity of purpose. reckoned particularly ominous, with regard

In years when the moveable feasts fall to the future weather of the year; a super- early, Shrovetide § and Ash Wednesday,|| stition which prevails in many countries. and their consequent feasts, occur about this The following rhymes seem, in the middle period. ages, to have been familiar to all.

Shrove Tuesday is, in many parts, called

Pancake Tuesday. After the people had “Clara dies Pauli bona tempora denotet anni, made the confession required by the disci. Si fuerint venti, designant prælia Genti,

pline of the ancient church, they were perSi fuerint Nebulae, pereunt, animalia quæque Si Nix, si Pluvia, desiguent tempora cara."

mitted to indulge in festive amusements,

though still not allowed to partake of any “ If St. Paul's day be fair and cleare It doth betide a happy yeare:

repasts beyond the usual substitutes for flesh : But if by chance it then should nine,

hence the custom of eating pancakes and It will make dear all kinds of graine.

fritters at Shrovetide. By the vulgar, too, And if the clouds make dark the skie,

the Monday preceding is, especially in the Then Neate and fowls this year shall die : If blustering winds do blow aloft,

north of England, called Collop Monday, Then wars shall trouble the realm full oft." from the primitive custom of regaling with

eggs, on collops, or slices of bread, which From the condition of the weather on

were subsequently changed to collops of meat. Candlemas Day, also (February 20), the On Pancake Tuesday it seems to have been superstitious agriculturist has long been accustomed to estimate its character for the year. “ There is a general tradition," says

* Bamaby Googe's Translat, of Naogeorg. f. 47.

+ Brand's Popular Antiquities, 1. 41. Sir Thomas Browne, " in most parts of Eu- " Februa Romani discere pramina patres, rope, that inferreth the coldnesse of succeed. Nunc quoque duut verbo plurima signa fidem."

Orid Fastor. I. ii v. 19. ing weather from the shining of the sun on Candlemas Day, according to the provincial applying to the priests to shrive them, or bear their

So called from the Catholic custom of the people distich."

confessions, before entering on the fast the following

day. “Si sol splendescat Maria purificante

So designated from the ancient custom of fasting Major erit glacies post festum quam fuit ante." in sack-cloth and ashes. From this period, i.e. from And again,

Ash Wednesday to Easter, is the quadragesimal fast

of Lent, so named from the season of the year at * If Candlemas Day le fair and bright,

which it falls. In the laws of Alfred it is called Winter will have another thighit!

lengten faesten, or the fast iu spring.

Customary for boys, and others, to toss thelr is referred to in the Harleian MS. by John own pancakes.

Lydgate, the monk of Bury, in a poem writo

ten by him in praise of Queen Catherine, wife “It was the day whereon both rich and poore,

of Henry V.
Are chiefly feasted with the self same dish,
Wben every paunch, vill it can hold no more,
Is fritter-fill d, as well as heart can wish:

“Seynte Valentine, of custom yeere by yeere

Men have an usaunce in this regioun
And every man and maide doe take their turne,
And tosse their pancakes up for feare they burne,

To luke and serche Cupides Kalend ve,
And all the kitchen doth with laughter sound

And chose their choyse, by grete affeccioun, To see the pancakes fall upon the ground"

Such as ben prike with Cupides mocioun

Takyng theyre choyse as theyr sort doth falle,

But I love oon whiche excellith alle." In Scotland, Shrovetide is called Fastron. evin, Fastryngis-Ewyn, Fasternseen, and St. David's Day (March 1st), is a festival Fastenseen. The Scotch designation is older dear to every Welchman, being kept by them than the English; for Shrovetide and Shrove in honour of St. David, Bishop of Mincy, in Tuesday are not to be found in the Anglo. Wales, in conmemoration of a signal victory Saxon, nor does it appear that there is any obtained by them under the conduct of St. particular name for that day in that lan. David, over the Saxons. The origin of the guage. The Anglo-Saxon word faesten, sig- custom of wearing the leek in their hats, is nifies a fast in general : but allied to the explained in the following lines, affirmed by Scotch term denoting Shrove Tuesday, the Dr. Forster (p. 85), to have been found in an Germans have Fastnacht, or Fastelabend, ancient MS. in the British Museum. literally signifying Fastnight, or Fasteven. The terminations eve, or een, as in Christmas "Iv Cambria, 'tis said, tradition's lale Eve, New Year's Eve, Fasternseen, or Hal.

Recounting, tells bow famed Mcpevia's priest,

Marshalled his Britons and the Saxon ist loween, were first employed, because origin. Discomfited, how the tren leek the bands ally all feasts commenced and ended with the Distinguished, since by Britons annual worn,

Comniemorates their tutelary Saint." evening. The day was primitively computed in this manner. “ The evening and the morning was the first day,” and the Jews monies belonging to the moveable feasts,

We may here refer to some of the cercstill adhere to this mode of computation. which occur about this period of the year ; We have a remnant of the same ancient custom in the words se'nnight, and fortnight, is called in the north of England and Scot

and first to those of Carlin Sunday (for so it instead of seven, or fourteen days.-( Jamie

land) formerly denominated Care Sunday, son. )

Formerly, in Newcastle, on those days of which is Passion Sunday, it is the Sunday authorised indulgence, the great bell of St. preceding Palm Sunday, or the second Sun.

day from Easter. On this day a custom oba Nicholas was tolled at twelve o'clock at noon ; when the shops and offices were im. tains, and has long obtained, especially in mediately closed, and a little carnival (carni the north of England and Scotland, of cating

Carlings, which are gray peas, steeped all vale, farewell to flesh), ensued for the re. mainder of the day,--and it is still kept as a

night in water, and fried the next day with

butter. sort of balf holiday. It was (Brockett, p. 159), of old, a great period for cock-fighting, “There'll be all the lads and the lasses, and cock-throwing, and indeed of every loose

Set down in the midst of the ha, and profligate recreation, excesses arising

With sybows and ryfarts, and corlings,

That are both soddeu and ra." Ritson. from the indulgences formerly granted by the church in consequence of the long season of In former times, the custom seems to have fasting and humiliation, which commenced been general in England, as Palsgrave has on the following day.

the following phrase "I parche pesyn as It is a vulgar belief, that the first two single folkes vse in Lent." I persons who meet in the morning of St. Va. lentine's day (February 14), may have a

* Brand has offered the following, as the trst chance of becoming married to each other. probable explanation of the origin of the use of peas St. Valentine's day has long been imagined at this season. It is not satisfactory. the day whereon birds pair, and hence it has

"In the old Roman Calendar, I find it obsened on been considered peculiarly ominous to lovers ; bardly entertain a doubt, that our custom is derived

this day, that a dole is made of soft beans. I can so that billets doux, sent on this day, have from lience. It was usual ainongst the Romanats received the cognomen of the saint.t

to give away beans in the doles at funerals: it is

also a site in the funeral ceremonies of brala The custom of choosing Valentines is an

Rome. Why we bave substituted peas 1 kpcs > old one; it was practised the houses of unless it was because they are a pulse some**** the gentry of England as early as 1476, and fitter to be eaten at this season of the year 1-4

he afterwards expresses himselt still more forez Pasquil's Palinodia, 4to. Lond. 1634.

Having observed that, according to Erasmus FE+ Dr. Jamieson (art. Valentine) has asserted that etiicacy for invoking the manes, he adds—"Rre

taich beld pulse (legumina) to be of the huge the term Valentine is in England restricted to perscris--but he is in entor. The billels dour are univer. is yet certain that Carlings deduce theis ings

lous ard absuid as these superstitions may app so denominated,

theme."- Popular Antiq. 1.98, 99,

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Palm Sun:lay follows Carlin Sunday, and hereafter), is of the common opinion, that as is that immediately preceding Easter. It the word east signifies the place of rising, was so denominated by the church of Rome, being so called “ from its being that quarter because of palm branches being borne, in where, owing to the earth's rotatory motion, commemoration of those that were strewed in the sun and stars appear to rise, so Easter the way when our Saviour entered Jerusalem. signifies the time of rising, or the festival of In many parts of England, the day is still the rising of Jesus Christ :” but this is more celebrated by bearing boughs in procession; than doubtful; according to the venerable but in northern latitudes, the box, the olive, Bede, the term was of Heathen origio. and the blooming willow, are used as substi. “Easter monath,” says he, “which is now tutes for the palm ; and this circumstance is rendered the Paschal month, formerly redoubtless the occasion of the last-mentioned ceived its name from a goddess, worshipped tree being, in Cumberland, called by the by the Saxons and other ancient nations of vulgar, the palm.

the north, called Eostre, in whose honour Mandy Thursday, or Maundy Thursday, they observed a festival in this month.” is the Thursday immediately before Good " From the name of this goddess," he adds, Friday. It is the Dies Mandati, the day on " they now design the Paschal season, giving which our Saviour gave his great mandate a name to the joys of a new solemnity, from that we should love one another, and on a term familiarized by the use of former which he washed the feet of his disciples. ages.” The Anglo-Saxon term, is hence reThe practice of washing the feet was long tained in our translation of the Bible, alkept up in the monasteries, and after the though Wiclif uses Pask. The ancient ceremony, liberal donations were made to the Germans called it Oostrun, and their posterity poor, of clothing and pieces of silver ; re. have changed the term to Ostern, Osterdag ; freshment was also given to them, to mitigate also written Ooster, Oosteren, and Oosterday. the severity of the long fast. A relic of this Thence the Paschal lamb is in their version custom is still preserved in the donations dis- often rendered Osterlamb. The entrance of peused at St. James's on this day.

the sun into Aries, has always been a time of Good Friday is an appellation peculiar to festivity amongst the Persians, Egyptians, and the English Church. Holy Friday, or Frio others. The ancient Egyptians, observing day in Iloly Week, being more ancient and the sun removing from their climates, began general. Buns, with crosses stamped upon to fear that a day would arrive when it would them, hence called Cross-Buns, are usually quit them entirely,* and consequently they eaten in London and other places on this day, every year celebrated with rejoicing, the at breakfast.

period when they observed its reascenBryant carries this word, Bun, back to sion. Heathenism. “ The offerings,” he says,

In Scotlard, and in the north of England, " which people in ancient times used to pre- a custom prövails, of boiling eggs hard, and sent to the gods, were generally purchased at dying or staining them of various colours, the entrance of the temple; especially every and giving them to children to amuse them species of consecrated bread. One species of selves with, especially on Easter Sunday. sacred bread which used to be offered to the In these places children ask for their pays gods, was of great antiquity, and called Boun. eggs, as they are termed, at this season, az Hesychius speaks of the Boun, and describes for a fairing. The words, pays, pas, pace, it, " a kind of cake with a representation of pase,t pasce, pask, pesch, words used in two horns." Julius Pollux mentions it after North Britian to signify Easter, are clearly the same manner, “ a sort of cake with derived from the Hebrew, through the Greek horns.” It must be observed, however, as πασχα. . The Danish panske-egg, and the Dr. Jamieson has remarked, that the term Suis-Gothic paskegg, both likewise signify occurs in Hesychius in the form of Bous, bous; coloured eggs. Brand considers this custom and that, for the support of this etymon,

as a relic of ancient Catholicism, the eggs Bryant finds it necessary to observe, that being emblematic of the resurrection : but it “the Greeks, who changed the nu final into a is not improbable that it had its commencesigma, expressed it in the nominative Bous, ment in the times of heathenism; the egg but in the accusative more truly Bour, boun." being a sacred symbol in the pagan worship. -(Supplement, p. 159.)

They are still used at the feast of Beltein, which is unquestionably of heathen origin, and are presented about the period of Easter,

in many countries. CHAPTER III.

ܪ

EASTER.

“ Nam radis ante illos nullo discrimine vita,

In speciem conversa, operum ratione c.relat, CONSIDERABLE discussion has occurred from

Et stupefacta novo pendebat lumin" di : time to tiine, regarding the origin of the term

Tom velut amnissis mærens, tun, lata renatis Easter. Dr. Forster (in another of his + The sextene day aftyr Pase

Sideribus."

Manilii Astronom. 1. 61. works, however, which will fall under notice The States of Scotland yid ryd wase." Wyntown.

Customary for boys, and others, to toss thelr is referred to in the Harlaian MS. by John own pancakes.

Lydgate, the monk of Bury, in a poem writo

ten by him in praise of Queen Catherine, wife "It was the day whereon both richard poore,

of Henry V.
Are chiefly feasted with the self saine dish,
When every paunch, till it can hold no more,
Is fritter-fill'd, as well as heart can wish:

“Seynte Valentine, of custom yeere by yeere And every man and maide doe take their turne,

Men have an usaunce in this regioun And tosse their pancakes up for feare they burne,

To luke and serche Cupides Kalend-se, And all the kitchen doth with laughter sound

And chose their choyse, by grete affeccioun, To see the pancakes fall upon the ground "*

Such as beu prike with Cupides mocioun

Takyng theyre choyse as theyr sort duth falle,

But I love oon whiche excellith alle." In Scotland, Shrovetide is called Fastronevin, Fastryngis-Ewyn, Fasternseen, and St. David's Day (March 1st), is a festival Fastenseen. The Scotch designation is older dear to every Welchman, being kept by them than the English; for Shrovetide and Shrove in honour of St. David, Bishop of Miney, in Tuesday are not to be found in the Anglo. Wales, in commemoration of a signal victory Saxon, nor does it appear that there is any obtained by them under the conduct of St. particular name for that day in that lan. David, over the Saxons. The origin of the guage. The Anglo-Saxon word faesten, sig- custom of wearing the leck in their hats, is nifies a fast in general : but allied to the explained in the following lines, affirmed by Scotch term denoting Shrove Tuesday, the Dr. Forster (p. 85), to have been found in an Germans have Fastnacht, or Fastelabend, ancient MS. in the British Museum. literally signifying Fastnight, or Fasteven. The terminations eve, or een, as in Christmas "In Cambria, 'tis said, tradition's tale Eve, New Year's Eve, Fasternseen, or Hal.

Recounting, tells how famed Mevevia's priest,

Marshalled his Britons and the Saxon Mist loween, were first employed, because origin.

Discumfited, low theyreen leek the bands ally all feasts commenced and ended with the Distinguished, since by Britons annual worn, evening. The day was primitively computed

Comniemorates their tutelary Saint." in this manner. “ The evening and the morning was the first day," and the Jews monies belonging to the moveable feasts,

We may here refer to some of the cerestill adhere to this mode of computation. which occur about this period of the year ; We have a remnant of the same ancient cus- and first to those of Carlin Sunday (for so it tom in the words se'nnight, and fortnight, is called in the north of England and Scotinstead of seven, or fourteen days.-( Jamie

land) formerly denominated Care Sunday, son.)

Formerly, in Newcastle, on those days of which is Passion Sundayit is the Sunday authorised indulgence, the great bell of St. preceding Palm Sunday, or the second Sun. Nicholas was tolled at twelve o'clock at day from Easter. On this day a custom oba noon; when the shops and offices were im. tains, and has long obtained, especially in mediately closed, and a little carnival (carni the north of England and Scotland, of eating

Carlings, which are gray peas, steeped all vale, farewell to flesh), ensued for the remainder of the day, -and it is still kept as a

night in water, and fried the next day with

butter. sort of balf holiday. It was (Brockett, p. 159), of old, a great period for cock-fighting, "There 'll be all the lads and the lasses, and cock-throwing, and indeed of every loose Set down in the midst of the ha, and profligate recreation, excesses arising

With sybows and ryfarts, and carlings,

That are both soddeu and ra." Ritson. from the indulgences formerly granted by the church in consequence of the long season of In former times, the custom seems to have fasting and humiliation, which commenced been general in England, as Palsgrave has on the following day.

the following phrase "I parche pesyn as It is a vulgar belief, that the first two single folkes vse in Lent." I persons who meet in the morning of St. Va. lentine's day (February 14), may have a # Brand has offered the following, as the most chance of becoming married to each other. probable explanation of the origin of the use of peas St. Valentine's day has long been imagined at this season. It is not satisfactory. the day whereon birds pair, and hence it has

"In the old Romani Calendar, I find it observed on

this day, that a dole is made of soft beans. I can been considered peculiarly ominous to lovers ; hardly entertain a doubt, that our custom is derived so that billets doux, sent on this day, have from hence. It was usual amongst the Romanists received the cognomen of the saint.t

to give away beans in the doles at funerals: it was

also a rite in the funeral ceremonies of heathen The custom of choosing Valentines is an Rome. Why we have substituted peas I know nut, old one; it was practised in the houses of unless it was because they are a pulse somewhat the gentry of England as early as 1476, and fitter to be eaten at this season of the year." And

lie afterwards expresses himselt still more forcibly.

Having observed that, according to Erasınus, Plu• Pasquil's Palinodia, 4to. Lond. 1634.

taich held puise (legumina) to be of the highest + Dr. Jamieson (art. Valentine) has asserted that etlicacy for invoking the manes, he adds“Ridicu. the term Valentine is in England restricted to per- lous and absuid as these superstitions may appear, it sons-but he is in entor. The billets dour are univer. is yet certain that Carlings deduce their origin from silly so denominated,

thenie."- Popular Antiq. 1. 98, 99. ,

Palm Sunday follows Carlin Sunday, and hercafter), is of the common opinion, that as is that immediately preceiling Easter. It the word east signifies the place of rising, was so denominated by the church of Rome, being so called “ from its being that quarter because of palm branches being borne, in where, owing to the earth's rotatory motion, commemoration of those that were strewed in the sun and stars appear to rise, so Easter the way when our Saviour entered Jerusalem. signifies the time of rising, or the festival of In many parts of England, the day is still the rising of Jesus Christ :” but this is more celebrated by bearing boughs in procession ; than doubtful; according to the venerable but in northern latitudes, the box, the olive, Bede, the term was of Heathen origin. and the blooming willow, are used as substi. “Easter monath," says he, " which is now tutes for the palın; and this circumstance is rendered the Paschal month, formerly redoubtless the occasion of the last-mentioned ceived its name from a goddess, worshipped tree being, in Cumberland, called by the by the Saxons and other ancient nations of vulgar, the palm.

the north, called Eostre, in whose honour Mandy Thursday, or Maundy Thursday, they observed a festival in this month." is the Thursday immediately before Good " From the name of this goddess," he adds, Friday. It is the Dies Mandati, the day on " they now design the Paschal season, giving which our Saviour gave his great mandate a name to the joys of a new solemnity, from that we should love one another, and on a term familiarized by the use of former which he washed the feet of his disciples. ages.” The Anglo-Saxon term, is hence reThe practice of washing the feet was long tained in our translation of the Bible, al. kept up in the onasteries, and after the though Wiclif uses Pask. The ancient ceremony, liberal donations were made to the Germans called it Oostrun, and their posterity poor, of clothing and pieces of silver ; re. have changed the term to Ostern, Osterilag ; freshment was also given to them, to mitigate also written Ooster, Oosteren, and Oosterday. the severity of the long fast. A relic of this Thence the Paschal lamb is in their version custom is still preserved in the donations dis. often rendcred Osterlamb. The entrance of pensed at St. James's on this day.

the sun into Aries, has always been a time of Good Friday is an appellation peculiar to festivity amongst the Persians, Egyptians, and the English Church. Holy Friday, or Fri- others. The ancient Egyptians, observing day in Holy Week, being more ancient and the sun removing from their climates, began general. Buns, with crosses stamped upon to fear that a day would arrive when it would them, hence called Cross-Buns, are usually quit them entirely, * and consequently they eaten in London and other places on this day, every year celebrated with rejoicing, the at breakfast.

period when they observed its reascelBryant carries this word, Bun, back to

sion. Heathenism. “ The offerings," he says,

In Scotlard, and in the north of England, “ which people in ancient times used to pre- a custom prevails, of boiling eggs hard, and sent to the gods, were generally purchased at dying, or staining them of various colours, the entrance of the temple; especially every and giving them to children to amuse themspecies of consecrated bread. One species of selves with, especially on Easter Sunday. sacred bread which used to be offered to the In these places children ask for their pays gods, was of great antiquity, and called Boun. eggs, as they are termed, at this season, as Hesychius speaks of the Boun, and describes for a fairing. The words, pays, pas, puce, it, " a kind of cake with a representation of pase, t pasce, posk, pesch, words used in two horns." Julius Pollux mentions it after North Britian to signify Easter, are clearly the same manner,

"a sort of cake with derived from the Hebrew, through the Greek horns.” It must be observed, however, as A QOX9. The Danish paaske-c99, and the Dr. Jamieson has remarked, that the term Suis-Gothic paskegg, both likewise signify occurs in Hesychius in the form of Bous, bous; coloured eggs. Brand considers this custom and that, for the support of this etymon, as a relic of ancient Catholicism, the eggs Bryant finds it necessary to observe, that being emblematic of the resurrection : but it “ the Greeks, who changed the nu final into a is not improbable that it had its commencesigma, expressed it in the nominative Bous, ment in the times of heathenism ; the egg but in the accusative more truly Bour, boun," being a sacred symbol in the pagan worship. - Supplement, p. 159.)

They are still used at the feast of Beltein, which is unquestionably of heathen origin,

and are presented about the period of Easter, CHAPTER III.

in many countries.

EASTER.

.“ Nam rudis ante illos nullo discriinine vita,

In speciem conversa, operum ratione c.relat, CONSIDERABLE discussion has occurred from

Et siupefacta novo pendebat lunun madi: time to time, regarding the origin of the term Tom velut amissis inarens, tum lata renatis Easter. Dr. Forster (in another of his + "The sextene day eftyr Puse

Sideribus."

Manilii Astronom. 1. 61. works, however, which will fall under notice The States of Scotland god ryd waxe." Wyntown,

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