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2. Respiration.—At first there is increase in frequency, due to the irritation of the respiratory centre in the medulla oblongata. Then follows retardation, with a considerable deepening of inspirations, and finally, about a quarter to half a minute after the heart's arrest, a complete stoppage of respiratory movements occurs. This is a result of paralysis of the respiratory centre. The latter becomes paralysed under the influence of venosity of the blood, developing from the heart's failure.

3. Temperature.—At first this rises (0.5° to 1° Cent.) then falls very considerably in the axilla and rectum alike. This reduction depends on the fact that Conval. paralyses the vasomotor centres; hence dilatation of all the vessels, and an increased loss of heat from the surface of the body.

4. Blood-tension.—In the beginning the arterial pressure is increased. This is due to stimulation of the vaso-motor centres and contraction of the peripheric vessels. When the doses given are large, the blood-pressure falls in consequence of paralysis of the vaso-motor centres.

5. Gastro-intestinal tract.—Large doses cause salivation, vomiting, and increase of peristaltic action.

6. Kidneys.—The daily amount of urine considerably increased.

7. Brain.—In all cases there is observed some amount of somnolence depending on ansemia of the nervous centres, which results from paralysis of the vaso-motor nerves of the abdominal cavity.

8. Reflexes.—In the first stage these are lowered, in consesequence of the stimulation of Letchenoff's centres; in the second stage the latter are paralysed, and the reflex action, accordingly, is increased.

9. Muscular system.—Brought into direct contact with the substance of striated muscles, the extract causes complete loss of contractility {Lond. Med Rec., April 15th, 1883).

Physiological Action of Cinchonidin and Picrotoxin.—Chirone (quoted in Lond. Med. Rec, May, 1883, from Giorn. Internez. delle Sc. Med.) thus compares the action of these two substances: —1. Cinchonidin produces a less complete convulsion, since the motor muscles of the eyes, tongue, and bladder are rarely affected, whilst these are always involved with Picrotoxin. 2. The convulsions caused by Cinchonidin is at first clonic, afterwards tonic; whilst with Picrotoxin it is at first tonic, afterwards tonic or clonic. 3. By Cinchonidin those muscles which are most used in normal life are most affected; while by Picrotoxin the muscles of back and neck suffer most. 4. Cinchonidin does not cause convulsions in rabbits even in a poisonous dose, while these animals are very susceptible to the action of Picrotoxin. 5. Cinchonidin has no convulsive action on hibernating animals (frogs, lizards, toads), whilst Picrotoxin causes violent convulsions.

Picrotoxin, he says, acts on the medulla oblongata, since it determines epileptic attacks in frogs and pigeons whose brains have been removed, and then the attacks are even more intense. 1. Picrotoxin may determine true epileptic attacks. These attacks may be very complete, preceded by the cry. They commence ordinarily with tremors of the head or contractions of the muscles of the face, and are progressively diffused through the whole organism. There is loss of consciousness, the animal falls; there are abundant salivation, tonic and clonic convulsions, loss of urine, convulsive rolling of the eyeballs, convulsion of the tongue, which is often bitten, arrest of the respiration and heart. 2. Convulsions from Picrotoxin are independent of the psycho-motor centres, since they are more intense when these are removed. 3. Picrotoxin displays its action first on the bulb and on the parts connecting the cerebral and spinal centres, then on the spinal centres; by this last action resembling Quinine and differing from Cinchonidin. 4. Picrotoxin brings into relief a functional antagonism between the psycho-motor centres and the motor centres of the medulla oblongata and spinal cord. 5. Picrotoxin can also give rise to convulsions after the medulla oblongata is removed. In this case the convulsion is later and is tonic. 6. The convulsions of the limbs due to Picrotoxin depend on the action which is displayed on the medulla oblongata and is propagated by the spinal cord, and, secondly, by the direct action of the spinal centres. 7. In frogs the spinal functions are more developed than the cerebral, and vice versa, in dogs and other higher mammals, the cortical motor centres of the brain are more developed than the spinal centres. 8. The convulsions due to Cinchonidin are of cerebral origin, and are not observed when the psycho-motor centres are removed. The convulsions due to Picrotoxin are of spinal bulbar origin, and are more i ntense after the removal of the higher centres.

Poisoning by Gelsemium sempervirens.—A little girl, set. 14, took by mistake a teaspoonful of the fluid extract. She had immediately giddiness, headache, great prostration, muscular relaxation, convulsions, staggering gait, want of co-ordination throughout the entire system, widely dilated pupils, double vision, paralysis of upper lids and lower jaw, overflow of saliva from the corners of the mouth, congestion of the face, difficulty of speech, marked dysphagia, the heart's sounds were heard as if far distant. A semi-comatose state supervened. The face from congested became pale and death-like, the surface of the body cold, clammy, finally covered with cold sweat. There was a marked fall in the temperature of the body. The pulse, at first quick and bounding, became feeble and thready. Respiration, at first normal, became gasping. The patient lost consciousness altogether. The patient eventually recovered after coffee, whisky, mustard, and artificial respiration (Friedrich, Med. Press and Circ., April 18th, 1883).

Alms preeatorius or Jequirity.—This substance, from its ophthalmia-producing power, has been proposed and even used as a substitute for blennorrhreic inoculation in the treatment of granular conjunctiva. It is mentioned by De Wecker in the Annates d'' Occulistique for July—August, 1882. It was originally used under the name of Jequirity by the natives of some parts of Brazil for this purpose. Thirty-two grains of the powdered seeds are allowed to soak for twenty-four hours in 1000 grammes of water. The patient bathes his eyes with the filtered product thrice daily for three days, at the end of which time he has become the subject of a severe conjunctivitis, which may be either purulent or more allied to the diphtheritic form. By the fifteenth day the inflammation ceases and the granulations are found to be much diminished in size, or even destroyed.

In the same periodical for November—December, 1882, De Wecker says:—" Without doubt, Jequirity produces a purulent or even diphtheritic conjunctivitis, whose intensity can be readily regulated by the strength of the solution employed and the number of times it is employed. The strength may be like the above, or ten grammes in 500 grammes of cold water. The cornea runs no risk. The ophthalmia thus artificially produced cures granular lids rapidly. Dr. Moura, Brazil, made experiments with Jequiritg on rabbits, and found that it could cause inflammation of a dangerous character. An infusion of the seeds in the proportion of one to twenty produced severe diphtheritic conjunctivitis, with destruction of cornea and suppurative panophthalmitis. It seems to resemble the blennorrhagic inoculation, which can be performed without danger and with advantage in eyes affected with granular conjunctivae, but is apt to be destructive to healthy eyes.

Paralytic Effects of Ergot.—Grasset {Prog. Mid., 83, No. 11) says Charcot prescribed Ergot for a man, aged thirty-eight, affected with locomotor ataxy. On the second day after taking a daily dose of fifteen grains he became paralysed in all four extremities. On omitting the medicine he recovered slowly. Tuczek, in an epidemic of ergotism observed that all the cases presented symptoms of a lesion of the posterior columns of the spinal cord, and in some cases the complete picture of locomotor ataxy was developed. Iu four cases the cords, examined after death, were found to present a symmetrical lesion—the columns of Burdach. So that Charcot's prescription was homoeopathic, only his doses were unnecessarily strong.

Copper and Infectious Diseases.—Burq (Progre's med., No. 17, 1883) says he long ago demonstrated statistically the immunity of workers in copper during cholera attacks. He now contends that these artificers are protected by the metal they work in from other infectious diseases, such as typhoid. In a society composed of three or four hundred copper-workers, which has existed for sixty years, only one member has died of an infectious disease, and that was smallpox. He suggests that these facts indicate an antagonism between salts of copper and the specific micro-organisms of infectious diseases, and he would give copper salts in large doses. Lame and impotent conclusion! The copper-workers were not protected by large doses of copper salts —nor yet by copper salts at all—but probably by the mere contact of metallic copper with their skin. During the prevalence of the last epidemic of cholera a strong belief prevailed in the prophylactic value of plates of copper or brass worn next the skin, and it is probable that the belief was not without foundation. Indeed, so long ago as 1831, Hahnemann remarked that it had been proved in Hungary that those who wore a plate of copper next their skin escaped infection, and he recommended a small dose to be taken once a week for prophylactic purposes {Lesser Writings, p. 847, note). But whether copper will preserve equally from other infectious diseases remains to be seen, at all events, there is no evidence to prove that large doses of copper salts are useful for this or any other purpose.

Fuchsine in Nephritis.—Paczkowski (Przeglad LaJcarski, No. 8, 1882) says Fuchsanilinum Muriaticum in daily doses of 0 05 to 0-25 gramme for two to five days successively, cures inflammatory process in the kidneys of scarlatinal patients. He also succeeded in curing two cases of chronic Bright's disease by the same drug in doses of 0'2 to 0 25 gramme continued for a few weeks. This is by no means the first time. In this journal (vol. xl, p. 290) we quoted from the Bull, de la Soc. Horn, de France, an observation of Partenay's respecting the power of Fuchsine in the albuminuria of scarlatina, to which he was led by the ascertained power of that substance to cause albumen in the urine. In 1879 Bouchart, in Nos. 8 and 9 of the Gaz. des Hopitaux, detailed ten cases of albuminuria cured by Fuchsine, seven of which came under his own care. The treatment lasted from one to six months, and the dose varied from to 3f grains. The diet at the same time consisted chiefly of milk and white meal. Bergeron and Cloquet in 1876, also speak favourably of Fuchsine in albuminuria. Sawyer (Pract., xxvii, p. 40) found the albumen disappear from the urine while giving Fuchsine. Devet (Loud. Med. Ree, March 15th, 1881, p. 100) published sixteen cases benefited by Fuchsine. On the other hand, Bertel (" On the Treatment of Albuminuria by Fuchsine," These de Therap., Paris, 1880) gave it in four cases, but the albumen did not commence to disappear until the patient was put on milk diet and the Fuchsine left off. Renzi (Virchow's Archiv, 1880) thinks favourably of Fuchsine in chronic nephritis. Budde (JJgeskrift for Lager, Ser. 4, Bd. ii) saw no effects from its use. Bamberger (Wien. Med. Bl'dt., Ap. 7,1881) saw a decrease in the excretion of albumen in two cases. Dochman (Vratch, 1881, No. 11, p. 169) concludes that Fuchsine is one of the useful symptomatic remedies in Bright's disease. Mohnfeld (St. P. med. Woch., 1881, No. 24) saw no good effects from this drug in two cases of parenchymatous nephritis.

Action of Sodium Salicylate on the Heart.—Maragliano

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