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readings, however, savitur-ati-kantâḥ, “exceedingly beloved by the sun.” Cf. Śak., 41 :

Sparsânukūlå iva sûryakântâs

tadanyatejo 'bhibhavâdvamanti.” “That (energy), like sun crystals (which are) cool to the touch, they put forth from being acted upon) by the opposing influence of other forces.”—M. Williams, sak., p. 74.

39. With this sloka begins the section relating to riches. Abhijana means, in this passage, “caste," or, according to Telang, “nobility of birth,” as in Sakuntala : “Abhijanavato bhartuḥ slaghye sthitâ grihinipade," "Stationed in the honourable post of wife to a nobly-born husband.”—Śak., Mon. Williams, p. 175, note.

For the idea contained in this śloka, cf. Prov. X. 15. The silam śailatatat, "one's virtue may fall from a mountain slope,” is contained a play upon the words sild, a “stone,” śaila, “stony," and silam, “disposition."

42. Sanga, translated "society," with the idea of "attachment to objects of sense,” the detachment from all worldly desires being the devotee's chief aim.

44. Mada-kshino-någah, “the elephant is weakened by the flow of mada." All the things mentioned do not lose their beauty or glory through the diminution of their powers or their resources; a noble man who has given away his riches is not less noble because he is poor in consequence of his liberality.

45. Sprihayati, “longs for," followed by dative prasșite, which the commentator explains by tusha, which means “grain,” but the ordinary meaning of prasțite is a “handful.” The meaning of this śloka, as explained by Telang, is as follows :-“ Since in different states of life the same things are regarded as great or small, therefore it must be concluded that it is the state of life which causes the things to appear so." The word kalayate (kal) means in this place " to consider or reckon.”

46. The comparison between the earth and a cow is a common one among the Hindûs; in fact, the word go means both the earth and a cow (cf. rñ. Among other passages the following may be referred to :-—"... Yathaiva mama Kâma

dhuk," “Just as Kâmadhuk is mine.”Nala, ii. 18, where Kamadhuk, the cow of plenty, is a figurative way of speaking of the earth which supplies all desires. And “Dudoha gâm sa yajnâya sasyâya maghavâ divam," "He milked (exhausted) the earth for the sake of sacrifices, Indra the heaven to give the people food.”Raghuv., i. 26. Tena is used as correlative to yadi by an unusual construction (Telang).

47. This sloka occurs in Hitopadeśa, Mitrabheda, 182. Bohlen in his note on this passage refers to the character of Vasantasena in the Mrichchhakațikä as a well-known typical character among the Hindus, equally famous with Phryne, Lais, &c., of the Western world.

49. Man's life is predestined by fate, and the amount of enjoyment that he has is in proportion to his own capacity for enjoyment. Mount Meru is the Hindû equivalent for Olympus. It is generally used as a synonym for a wealthy place. “Vittavatsu kripaņâm vșittim vșithâ mâ ksithâḥ,” “Do not vainly act an envious part towards the rich.” Cf. “Kuru priyasakhivrittim sapatnijane,”

,“Act the part of a dear friend towards thy fellow - wives."-Sak., M. Williams, p. 173 and note.

50-51. A dialogue supposed to take place between the châtaka, a bird fabled to live solely on the drops of rain, and the rain-cloud. The moral of the fable is contained in the last line of sioka 51. It is no use to ask favours of mean persons.

52. The section with which this sloka begins sets forth the characteristic marks of the wicked man.

53. Cf. Hitopadeśa, Mitralabha, 90, for this sloka.

54. “Branded,” añkitah. The virtues of the good are branded as vices by evil-disposed persons. Cf. the Greek proverb, “ Φασίν κακίστους οι πονηροί τους καλούς.

55. Cf. śloka 18. The general drift of these two ślokas appears to be the same. For the sentiment in line 4“ Apayaso yad asti kim mțityuna ?” “ If there be disgrace, what need of death ?” i.e., one should prefer death to disgrace, cf. Hor., Car. iii. 5 (the speech of Regulus).

56. “These are the seven thorns in my mind.” Salya meaning a “dart," "arrow," "thorn," and secondarily "em

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barrassment” or “distress," is not uncommonly used to express this idea. Cf. English proverb, “A thorn in one's side; " also 2 Cor. xii. 7. Mukham-anaksharam svâkriteh, lit. "the inarticulate mouth of (one having) a handsome form.”

58. This sloka occurs in Hitopadeśa, Mitrabheda, 25. 60. With this sloka may be compared Prov. iv. 18.

62. With this śloka the section begins in which the characteristics of virtue are described.

63. This sloka is given in Hitopadeśa, Mitralabha, 32. Vakpațuld = "skill or ability in speech," “eloquence.” "The desire of glory.” The readings differ between abhirate and abhiruchi. Bohlen makes a distinction between these two words, but they both contain the same idea of pleasure in a thing-desire after it. The Scripture, Śruti, " that which has been heard or revealed," as the Veda; the Smțiti, “ that which has been handed down by tradition;" such as the laws of Manu.

64. “Cheerful hospitality to strangers" (sambhramavidhih), lit. “preparations conducted in a hurried manner, with the view of honouring a guest." Upakritih, "assistance," "favour," meaning here the favours which others have granted, in opposition to kritva priyam, “the kindness one has done oneself.” Asidhârâ vratam, “the vow to stand on the edge of a sword,” used as a proverb to express a task which is impossible.

65. Prakriti-mahat, “great in nature” (tat purusha comp). Cf. Śrutimahat (Šak., 199), “great in the knowledge of the Veda.”

66. For the sentiment contained in this sloka cf. Prov. x. 25, “The righteous is an everlasting foundation;" also Car. iii.

“ Justum ac tenacem propositi virum
Non civium ardor prava jubentium,
Non voltus instantis tyranni

Mente quatit solida, neque Auster.
Dux inquieti turbidus Hadriæ,
Nec fulminantis magna manus Jovis,
Si fractus illabatur orbis,

Impavidum ferient ruinæ.”


Mahá-saila-sila-sanghata-kakarsam = hard as the collected stones of a large mountain.

67. Svâte = Arcturus, also any conspicuous constellation. The disposition of men is ranged in three degrees of an ascending scale, developing or the reverse according to their surroundings and the atmosphere in which they live : first, the disposition which produces no results is like the drop of water on hot iron, which leaps off the instant it touches the metal ; next, the moderately good disposition is compared to the drop of water on the lotus-leaf, a beautiful object to look at; and lastly, the very good disposition to the pearl which is not only beautiful, but valuable. The ideas in this sloka rather suggest the parable of the talents (St. Matt. xxv. 15).

68. Cf. Prov. x. I.

69. Khyapayantah, translated “ display,” means “ to declare,” “make known.” The second half of the line appears to mean “those who make the fact of their own virtues evident by the manner in which they estimate the virtue of others."

70. This sloka commences the section treating of liberality and benevolence.

This sloka occurs in Sakuntala, M. Williams, p. 195, where, instead of udgamaih, the word agamaiḥ is used : there is perhaps no difference in their meanings.

71. Cf. śloka 55. The ideas contained in these ślokas may suggest 1 Pet. iii. 3, 4, also Prov. i. 9.

73. The idea and simile expressed in the first line of this śloka is to be found in Sak, M. Williams, p. 213: "Kumudânyeva Śaśânkaḥ savitâ bodhayate pankajanyeva," moon awakes (expands) the night-lotuses only; the sun, the day-lotuses only.” The “kumuda” of this passage

in Śakuntalâ corresponds with the kaisava (a lotus blossoming by moonlight) of Bhartřihari ; pankaja with padma, the word used by Bhartsihari. The lotus called pankaja or padma is red, while the kumuda or kaisava is white. Bohlen on this


refers to Hit., Mitralabha, 63: “Na hi samharate jyotsnâm chandraśchândâlaveśmani,"

," "The moon does not withhold light even from the house of a Chandâla ;” cf. also St. Matt. v. 45.

75. The bond of friendship is represented in this sloka under the figure of milk and water. The water, by itself

66 The


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tasteless, receives sweetness of flavour from the milk, and therefore, as if in return for this benefit which it has received, is the first to boil over and rush into the hostile flames. The milk then follows the water, and, combined together, they extinguish the fire, their enemy. So friends acting together may overcome an enemy, even at the loss of their own lives. In Hit., Mitralabha, 89, occurs the line : "Sutaptamapi pâniyam śamayatyeva pâvakam," “Water though well warmed extinguishes the fire,” i.e., the water, though it has received heat from the fire, returns the kindness by extinguishing the flame, that is, by evil conduct.

76. The sleep of Keśava or Vishņu is referred to in Mahâtmya Devi, Bk. i. śloka 49: “Once the adorable lord Vishņu, at the end of a kalpa, had spread out Sesha for his couch on the world, which was covered with water, and was wrapped in the sleep of meditation.” For the ocean as the refuge for the mountains, v. Niti Sataka, sloka 29. The firmness of the ocean in retaining the submarine fire is mentioned in Chaurapanch., 50: “Ambhonidhirvahate duḥsahabâdavâgnim,” “The ocean keeps the submarine fire difficult to bear.” Cf. Sak., 56

... harakopavahnis tvayi jvalatyaurva ivâmburašau.”

“ The fire of the wrath of Siva burns in thee like the sub-
marine fire in the ocean.'
Also Raghuv., ix. 82-

" Antarnivishtapadam âtmavinášahetum

śâpam adadhajjvalanam aurvam ivâmburaših.”

“He bore the curse, having a place in his mind, the cause of his death, even as the ocean (bears) the submarine fire flaming (in its interior).”

The legend relating to the submarine fire, as given in the Harivansa, is as follows:-A sage called Aurva produced by means of magic power a devouring fire from his thigh. In consequence the earth was in flames, when Brahma, to save creation, allotted the ocean to the son of Aurva (the fire) as a suitable dwelling. The ocean was also the abode of Brahmâ, and from it, he and the submarine fire come forth at the end

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