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sequently Lyndsay, to denominate its author “the moral Gower;" he is, however, considerably inferior
[Episode of Rariphele.] to the author of the Canterbury Tales, in almost all the qualifications of a true poet.
(Rosiphele, princess of Armenia, a lady of surpassing beauty, but insensible to the power of love, is represented by the poet as reduced to an obedience to Cupid, by a vision which befell her on a May-day ramble. The opening of this episode is as fole lows :-)
When come was the month of May,
And as she cast her eye about,
She saw clad in one suit, a rout
Of ladies, where they comen ride
Along under the woode side; from Gower, which convey a lively expression of
On fair ambuland horse they set, natural feeling, and give a favourable impression of the author. Speaking of the gratification which his
That were all white, fair, and great ;
And everich one ride on side. passion receives from the sense of hearing, he says, that to hear his lady speak is more delicious than
The saddles were of such a pride,
So rich saw she never none; to feast on all the dainties that could be compounded
With pearls and gold so well begono, by a cook of Lombardy. These are not so resto
In kirtles and in copes rich rative
They were clothed all alich,
Departed even of white and blue,
With all lusts that she knew,
They were embroidered over all :
Their bodies weren long and small,
The beauty of their fair face
There may none earthly thing deface:
Crowns on their heads they bare,
As each of them a queen were ;
at all the gold of Croesus' hall
The least coronal of all
Might not have bought, after the worth :
Thus comen they ridand forth.
(In the rear of this splendid troop of ladies, the princess beThat loved long ere I was bore:
held one, mounted on a miserable steed, wretchedly adorned For when I of their loves read,
in everything excepting the bridle. On questioning this Mine ear with the tale I feed;
straggler why she was so unlike her companions, the visionary And with the lust of their histoire
lady replied that the latter were receiving the bright reward of Sometime I draw into memoire,
having loved faithfully, and that she herself was suffering How sorrow may not ever last,
punishment for cruelty to her admirers. The reason that the And so hope cometh in at last.
bridle alone resembled those of her companions was, that for
the last fortnight she had been sincerely in love, and a change That when her list on nights wake,
for the better was in consequence beginning to show itself in In chamber, as to carol and dance,
her accoutrements. The parting words of the dame are-) Methink I may me more avance,
Now have ye heard mine answer ;
To God, madam, I you betake,
And warneth all for my sake,
Of love that they be not idle.
And bid them think of my bridle.
[It is scarcely necessary to remark, that the hard heart of the Is then nought so light as I.
princess of Armenia is duly impressed by this lesson.] 1 When she chooses. Physician. A dainty dish. 4 When she chooses to have a merry-making at night.
1 Few of her women knew of it. A grove.
Tho was that other glad enough :
The language at this time used in the lowland districts of Scotland was based, like that of England, in the Teutonic, and it had, like the contemporary English, a Norman admixture. To account for these circumstances, some have supposed that the language of England, in its various shades of improvement, reached the north through the settlers who are known to have flocked thither from England during the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. Others suggest that the great body of the Scottish people, apart from the Highlanders, must have been of Teutonic origin, and they point to the very probable theory as to the Picts having been a German race. They further suggest, that a Norman admixture might readily come to the national tongue, through the large intercourse between the two countries during the eleventh, twelfth, and thirteenth centuries. Thus, it is presumed, our common language was separately formed in the two countries, and owed its identity to its being constructed of similar materials, by similar gradations, and by nations in the same state of society.'* Whatever might be the cause, there can be no doubt that the language used by the first Scottish vernacular writers in the fourteenth century, greatly resembles that used contemporaneously in England.
JOHN BARBOUR The first of these writers was JOHN BARBOUR, archdeacon of Aberdeen. The date of his birth is unknown; but he is found exercising the duties of
[The Envious Man and the Miser.] Of Jupiter thus I find y-writ, How whilom that he would wit, Upon the plaints which he heard Among the men, how it fared, As of the wrong condition To do justification; And for that cause down he sent An angel, that about went, That he the sooth know may. So it befel upon a day This angel which him should inform Was clothed in a man's form, And overtook, I understand, Two men that wenten over lond : Through which he thought to aspy His cause, and go'th in company. This angel with his words wise Opposeth them in sundry wise; Now loud words and now soft, That made them to disputen oft; And each his reason had, And thus with tales he them led, With good exainination, Till he knew the condition, What men they were both two; And saw well at last tho, That one of them was covetous, And his fellow was en vious. And thus when he hath knowledging, Anon he feigned departing, And said he mote algate wend; But hearken now what fell at end! For than he made them understond, That he was there of God's sond, And said them for the kindship, He would do them some grace again, And bade that one of them should sain, What thing is him levest to crave, 3 And he it shall of gift have. And over that ke forth with all He saith, that other have shall The double of that his fellow axeth; And thus to them his grace he taxeth. The Covetous was wonder glad; And to that other man he bade, And saith, that he first ax should; For he supposeth that he would Make his axing of world's good; For then he knew well how it stood; If that himsell by double weight Shall after take, and thus by sleight Because that he would win, He bade his fellow first begin. This Envious, though it be late, When that he saw he mote, algate, Make his axing first, he thought, If he his worship and profit sought It shall be double to his fere, That he would chuse in no manner. But then he showeth what he was Toward envy, and in this case, Unto this angel thus he said, And for his gift thus he prayed, To make him blind on his one ee, So that his fellow nothing see. This word was not so soon spoke, That his one ee anon was loke: And his fellow forthwith also Was blind on both his eyes two.
Cathedral of Aberdeen. that office in 1357. Little is known of his personal history : we may presume that he was a man of political talent, from his being chosen by the bishop of Aberdeen to act as his commissioner at Edinburgh when the ransom of David II. was debated ; and of learning, from his having several times accornpanied men of rank to study at Oxford. Barbour probably formed his taste upon the romance writers who flourished before him in England. A lost work of his, entitled The Brute, probably another in addition to the many versions of the story of Brutus of Troy, first made popular by Geoffrey of Monmouth, suggests the idea of an imitation of the romances; and
3 Say. 3 What thing he was most disposed to crave.
his sole remaining work, The Bruce, is altogether of that character. It is not unlikely that, in The Brute, Barbour adopted all the fables he could find : in writing The Bruce, he would, in like manner, adopt every tradition respecting his hero, besides searching for more authoritative materials. We must not be surprised that, while the first would be valueless as a history, the second is a most important document. There would be the same wish for truth, and the same inability to distinguish it, in both cases; but, in the latter, it chanced that the events were of recent occurrence, and therefore came to our metrical historian comparatively undistorted. The Bruce, in reality, is a complete history of the memorable transactions by which King Robert I. asserted the independency of Scotland, and obtained its crown for his family. At the same time, it is far from being destitute of poetical spirit or rhythnical sweetness and harmony. It contains many vividly descriptive passages, and abounds in diguified and even in pathetic sentiment. This poem, which was completed in 1375, is in octo-syllabic lines, forming rhymed couplets, of which there are seven thousand. Barbour died at an advanced age in 1396.
And by the crown that was set Also upon his bassinet. And toward him he went in hy. 1 And the king sae apertly ? Saw him come, forouth all his fears, In hy till him the horse he steers. And when Sir Henry saw the king Come on, foroutin abasing, Till him he rode in great hy. He thought that he should weel lichtly Win him, and have him at his will, Sin' he him horsit saw sae ill. Sprent they samen intill a lyng :3 Sir Henry missed the noble king ; And he that in his stirrups stude, With the ax, that was hard and gude, With sae great main, raucht him a dint, That pouther hat nor helm micht stint The heavy dush, that he him gave, That near the head till the harns clave. The hand-ax shaft frushit in tway; And he down to the yird5 gan gae All flatlings, for him failit micht. This was the first straik of the ficht, That was performit douchtily. And when the king's men sae stoutly Saw him, richt at the first meeting, Forouten doubt or abasing, Have slain a knicht sae at a straik, Sic hard'ment thereat gan they tak, That they come on richt hardily. When Englishmen saw them sae stoutly Come on, they had great abasing ; And specially for that the king Sae sinartly that gude knicht has slain, That they withdrew them everilk ane, And durst not ane abide to ficht : Sae dreid they for the king's micht. * When that the king repairit was, That gart his men all leave the chase, The lordis of his company Blamed him, as they durst, greatumly, That he him put in aventure, To meet sae stith a knicht, and stour, In sic point as he then was seen. For they said weel, it micht have been Cause of their tynsal 6 everilk ane. The king answer has made them nane, But mainit 7 his hand-ax shaft sae Was with the straik broken in tway.
[A postrophe to Freedom.] (Barbour, contemplating the enslaved condition of his country, breaks out into the following aniinated lines on the blessIngs of liberty.-Elis.]
A! fredome is a nobill thing!
[Death of Sir Henry De Bohun.] [This incident took place on the eve of the Battle of Bannockburn.
And when the king wist that they were *
Him sae range his men on raw, 1 Caused. ordered * In this and the subsequent extract, the language is as far as possible reduced to modern spelling.
(The Battle of Bannockburn.] When this was said The Scottismen commonally Kneelit all doun, to God to pray, And a short prayer there made they To God, to help them in that ficht. And when the English king had sicht Of them kneeland, he said, in hy, • Yon folk kneel to ask mercy.' Sir Ingram' said, “Ye say sooth nowThey ask mercy, but not of you ; For their trespass to God they cry : I tell you a thing sickerly, That yon men will all win or die ; For doubt of deid? they sall not flee.'
Now be it sae then !' said the king. And then, but langer delaying, They gart trump till the assembly. On either side men micht then see
2 Openly, clearly. 9 They sprang forward at once, against each other, in a line. • Reached. Earth. Destruction. 7 Lamented 8 Sir Ingram D'Umphraville. 9 Fear of death.
Mony a wicht man and worthy,
Thus were they bound on either side ;
The gude earlt thither took the way,
The Stewart, Walter that then was,
That time thir three battles were
There micht men hear mony a dint,
On them! On them! On them! They fail!'
(The appearance of a mock host, composed of the sorvants of the Scottish camp, completes the panic of the English army; the king fies, and Sir Giles D'Argentine is slain. The narrative then proceeds.
They were, to say sooth, sae aghast,
On ane side, they their faes had,
Micht nane escape that ever came there. 1 Company.
8 Failed, gave way. 4 Shut up
6 Rabble. 6 Slime, mud.
The van of the English army.
9 Edward Bruce. That were scithout or out of the battle. 4 The Earl of Murray.
Lost amidst so great a multitude. 6 Exchanged 7 I promise you.
ANDREW WYNTOUN. About the year 1420, ANDREW WYNTOUN, or, as he describes himself, Androwe of Wyntoune, prior of St Serf's Monastery in Lochleven, completed, in
St Serf said, 'Gif I sae be,
In Paradise,' Serf said, she was.' * *
Lochleven. eight-syllabled metre, an Orygynale Cronykil of Scotland, including much universal history, and extending down to his own time: it may be considered as a Scottish member of the class of rhymed chronicles. The genius of this author is inferior to that of Barbour; but at least his versification is easy, his language pure, and his style often animated. His chronicle is valuable as a picture of ancient manners, as a repository of historical anecdotes, and as a specimen of the literary attainments of our ancestors.* It contains a considerable number of fabulous legends, such as we may suppose to have been told beside the parlour fire of a monastery of those days, and which convey a curious idea of the credulity of the age. Some of these are included in the following specimens, the first of which alone is in the original spelling :
[St Serf'st Ram.]
[Interview of St Serf with Sathanas.]
I ken thou art a cunning clerk.' * Dr Irving.
+ St Serf lived in the sixth century, and was the founder of tho monastery of which the author was prior.
[The Return of David II. from Captivity.] (David II., taken prisoner by the English at the battle of Durham, in 1346, was at length redeemed by his country in 1357. The following passage from Wyntoun is curious, as illus
ting the feelings of men in that age. The morning after his return, when the people who had given so much for their sovereign, were pressing to see or to greet him, he is guilty of a grose outrage against them—which the poet, strange to say, justifies.]
Yet in prison was King Davy.