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built for its accommodation; a railroad station But not only have Mr. Mill and the London us, swelled as it will be with the interest on our is to be established at the place, and thus value Times warned the British people of the danger securities, which is payable in specie. Whereas, is at once added to the taxable property of the which threatens her manufacturing and com in order to keep the balance of trade in our county, population to the country, income to mercial supremacy on account of the prospect favor, we ought to sell at least $100,000,000 the Government, and capital brought into the ive failure of her supply of coal, but I observe worth yearly more than we buy, we are on the country to carry on the business. It can no in the papers of to-day that Mr. Gladstone, other hand buying more than that amount longer be claimed that we are not old enough, Chancellor of the English Exchequer, in his yearly than we sell. Now, it is as easy to see that we cannot supply ourselves.

speech on the budget delivered in the British that such a state of things can no more last We have, on the other hand, the elements Parliament on the 3d instant, reiterates the than to expect that a man will live if a physiof success in every branch of industry. With same views, and points to the United States as cian takes more blood daily from him than his the proper tariff encouragement, such estab a country rich in mineral resources and pos system will make in the ordinary process of lishments as those I have referred to will extend | sessing boundless coal deposits. He asserts digestion and manufacture of the chyle into all over the country, and into every branch of that we fulfill all the conditions in the future, venous and arterial circulation. Our duties on manufacturing industry. No part of the nation the limitation or absence of which in England imports should also be specific rather than ad will be the special receptacle of the increased || .it is to be feared will one day compel labor and valorem, as is the case to a great extent in wealth which will flow in upon us. Such set movable capital to emigrate to the United Great Britain, Belgium, and other European tlements will be made in the great West to States. This remarkable admission of one countries. This would prevent the immense meet its wants, and in the South to rebuild its of the ablest of living statesmen should be frauds on the revenue, now of daily occurrence, waste places. The capital, the energy, the accepted as pointing out the future destiny of and which are winked at by custom-house offiexperience, and the really valuable industry the United States as a great manufacturing cials. Belgium, a rich and prosperous country, of the Old World will be transplanted here; country.

has three hundred and thirty specific to sixtythe capital for more rapid increase; the energy I regret also to state that the effects of the six ad valorem duties; while the United States to seek out new enterprises upon which to heavy internal taxation are already operating has two thousand four hundred and thirty-nine expend itself; experience to turn itself to to the benefit of foreign manufacturers and ad valorem to four hundred and seventy-nine account; and an industrious population to increasing their importations in a most alarm specific duties. The ad valorem duties colreceive a better return for its labor.

ing manner, as will be seen from the follow lected in England from 1845 to 1852, were one One of the reasons why the capitalists and ing table of importations at New York since and a quarter per cent. of the whole amount, manufacturers of Europe favored the breaking || June 1, 1865–66, compared with the importa while our customs are some forty per cent. ad up of this nation and sympathized with the tions for the same time in 1864-65:

valorem, offering a premium on fraud such as free traders and secessionists was that they

is held out nowhere else in the world. I have saw we were finding out that protection was

1865-66-peace. 1864-65-roar.

seen it stated in the public journals that the necessary to the development of our internal

$19.674,662 $10,684,485

frauds in the New York custom-house range resources, and such development would soon August,

26,401,412 15,507.970 from twelve to twenty-five million dollars yearly. bring a young but active competition against

25,586,747 12.075,000

Mr. Speaker, I have the honor to represent,

21.852,068 10.159.743 them into the markets of the world. Now, see


22,061,390 10.104,219 in part, a State which for its territorial extent ing that the efforts to break up the Government December

19,047.205 10,670,234 is not excelled by any other in the Union as a is a failure they are turning their eyes to this

27.219.868 11,711,178

manufacturing State. And I refer with espeFebruary.

26,560,301 11,472,456 country as a magnificerit field for their own

cial pride, in this regard, to the district repremeans, industry, and enterprise. Let them Total, cight months....$188,406,653 $92,385,285 | sented by my distinguished friend and colleague, come; there is room enough for all of them.

(Mr. Wright,] which is only second in the We are rich in mineral resources. Protect the If our exports were increasing in a corre Union in the amount of revenue it returns for industry that would develop them, and we shall sponding ratio there would be some comfort the support of the General Government. The soon be strong enough to cope with the poorest || and satisfaction in the above exhibit. But this l amount of tax returned in that district last paid labor in the world, on account of our im is not the case. The exports at New York, of year was $2,629,033 82; in the fourth district proved processes and perfected machinery. All || all

descriptions of produce, including specie, for

all descriptions of produce, including specie, for of New York, $4,457,835; and in the first disthe metals and minerals are produced here in eight months of the years as above, have been: trict of Pennsylvania, $2,377,938 82. Our abundance except tin and nickel.



constituents have consequently a deep interest But without a proper modification and increase

July 1 to Feb. 28. Julylto Feb. 28. in the question now before us. But New Jersey of the tariff we shall have prostration, “hard Domestic produce............$142.651.804 $147.535.193 is also great in agricultural as well as manutimes," no internal revenue to the Govern Foreign reëxports..

2,351,824 16.022,312

facturing resources. It is located between the ment, and most discouraging, prospects for

Specie ......
..... 16,601,290 25.881,554

great cities of the Atlantic seaboard; traversed new enterprises as well as established trades.

Total.......... .$161,604,918 $189,439,059 with railroads; of varied and productive soil With a proper tariff comes activity in all

and unlimited natural resources for improvebranches; new enterprises go forward, folAverage price of gold... .143 cent. 232 cent.

ment. It is destined to be the garden of the lowed by a development of all our great re

vast populations of those cities. In its agriculsources, prosperity everywhere, and an abun This exhibits a falling off of exports in 1865–66

tural products it stands at the present time first dance to be taxed, with willingness to pay. and an increase of imports, which would indi in the list of States in proportion to the extent National prosperity greater than before known cate that the country is rushing headlong into

of its territory; in the value of its lands, accordwill succeed our present prostration; national

debt, and at a rate excelling the speed of the || ing to the last census report, the first, notwithstrength will rise and show itself in what is most fashionable of modern spendthrifts. The standing its hundreds of thousands of acres of now a national weakness-the union of capital || ready sale of our bonds in Europe accelerates salt marsh and unproductive forests. The proand labor. Do not be afraid to tax a manuthe pace at which we are involving ourselves,

ducts of the State will be immeasurably infactured article because you may not be aware publicly and privately; with foreign manufac

creased when her present system of internal that it is made here in sufficient quantity to

turers and capitalists. The lowering of the improvements shall give way to the more benefisupply the market. Put on the tariff, and the || price of gold also tends to encourage that over

cent system of general legislation, an event I foreign maker will come with all his capital, his | importation which its former high price re trust destined soon to be consummated. My implements, and his labor to manufacture here.

pressed. This renders an increase of import constituents are chiefly an agricultural people; A few weeks since the celebrated political duties absolutely imperative. New goods from

as intelligent, prosperous, and honorable a economist, John Stuart Mill, in a speech in the

abroad are sold at a great advance for currency, || constituency as ever intrusted a Representative British House of Commons, asserted that within while our gold-bearing bonds are made the me. with their interests on this floor.

While they the next hundred years England will cease to

dium of remittance. These bonds will always | cultivate the soil they encourage and engage in be the manufactory of the world. Her coal

hereafter be a medium of foreign investment manufactures; they foster colleges, seminaries, and iron have heretofore given her great adas long as they are made to bear six per cent.

high, normal, and model schools, seats of scivantages. But her coal is being mined with interest in specie. Now, however, on account

ence and learning. They contribute their full more and more difficulty, cost, and risk of

of the difference in exchange, they are obtained || proportion to the support, advancement, and human life. Some of the mines have reached

at a rate that readily yields nine and ten per elevation of mankind; and I will say for the bena depth of three thousand feet, rendering ven cent. The Comptroller of the Currency, in his efit of those who delight in deriding New Jersey, tilation difficult. The London Times, in a Report for 1865, page 7, estimates the amount

that my congressional district is equaled by no recent editorial, strongly urges economy in the of our securities sent abroad in five years at

other agricultural district in this broad land se of fuel, thus indorsing the statement of Mr. $713,000,000, and says:

in the amount and value of its agricultural proMill. The time will come when the vast man “Our only resource to pay the balance against us ductions, or in the value of the land composing ufactures which now give England her supremhas been, and stillis, the sale of our securities abroad."

it for agricultural purposes, in its natural advanacy in the world will be transferred to the But if we add to this amount of our securi tages for improvement, or in its proximity to coal and iron fields of Pennsylvania and the ties sent abroad as above stated by the Comp- | market. Extending, diagonally, nearly from West and Southwest. Shall we encourage our troller, the amount sent abroad in previous | New York to Philadelphia, it is bounded on the people to make an early advance toward the periods, estimated at at least $500,000,000, we one side by an hundred miles of a sea-board, position nature has intended we shall occupy | have a debt owed by us in Europe amount with its immeasurable advantages for summer in the future, or shall we let slip the golden | ing to $1,213,000,000. At the rate at which resort and abundant natural productions; and opportunity to seize hold of which, at the proper our imports are now going on, say nearly on the other by a broad river which bears its moment, is the sure guerdon of success in the || $350,000,000 yearly, an immense sum will be products to the sea. It is a district of revolucase of nations as well as men?

required to pay the balance of trade against Il tionary renown, around which cluster many

glorious memories of that patriot age. There to be yet greater as a manufacturing State. But the following table will more fully illusthe Father of his Country sustained his great. The revenue paid on manufactures and pro. trate the value and importance of New Jersey est trials, there it was that he achieved his ductions by New Jersey for the fiscal year end as a manufacturing State. It is a comparatire greatest triumphs, on the memorable fields of ing June 30, 1865, was exceeded only by that statement showing the district that returned Trenton, Princeton, and Monmouth; and there, of New York, Pennsylvania, Massachusetts, the largest revenue, and its amount, on sereral too, repose the hallowed remains of men who | Ohio, and Illinois; and if we except distilled articles of manufacture in New York, New sealed their devotion to liberty and right with spirits, by the first four only of those States. | Jersey, and Pennsylvania, also the whole coltheir blood. It is a grand and noble district. In proportion to population New Jersey paid on lections on the articles and the tax per capita I ask no greater honor than to be its Repre- || manufactures a larger tax than either, except on each of those States, for the fiscal year endsentative, and my only ambition is to faithfully Massachusetts, the tax per capita being as fol- ing June 30, 1865, prepared by my friend, Mr. represent it in all its varied interests.

lows: Massachusetts, $12 64; New Jersey, Whitman, the admirable Deputy Commissioner But great as New Jersey is in proportion to $6 59 ; New York, $6 14 ; Pennsylvania, li of Internal Revenue, to whom I am indebted her territory as an agricultural, she is destined || $5 81, Ohio, $3 81; Illinois, $2 92.

for other statistical matter:

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$0 05

$46,688 23

9,283 11



$20,821 55

904 37 116,787 90 187,593 62

$136,115 62 $0 1480 04

10.850 16 05
25,231 79
527,327 28





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31,377 88 157.333 59 217,718 44

69,451 07 100,673 69 286,157 02

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$147,911 52

2,318 15 155,930 97 1,148,390 59 645,881 92

89,613 17 779,919 13 521,519 24

• 32 38 et 8 8 82 Tax per capita in New York.

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17 02

10 08

78,517 71 26,971 08 124,762 63



** SEP 8 9 ST 88 8 88 T B D & Tax per capita in Pennsylvanin.

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$84,898 66

31,336 99 156,820 95 210,643 56 52,599 71 91,655 84 164,999 08 141,157 30 119,339 11 15,449 72

7.306 04 62,093 76 30,344 17 119,774 35 30,176 49 58,303 34 16,977 19 25.112 94


100,867 78
37,271 82
4,537 32

Carriages and other vehicles.....
Copper and lead in ingots, pigs,

&c., spelter and brass....... Diamonds, emeralds, &c., and

all other jewelry...... Fermented liquors..... Furniture or other articles made

of wood....... Glass, inanufactures of.. Iron, manufactures of, not oth

erwise provided for. Leather of all descriptions, cur

ried or finished. Leather, manufactures of, not

otherwise provided for....... Pottery ware, manufactures of, Saleratus and bicarbonate of

soda.. Silk, manufactures of... Soap, fancy, scented, honey,

cream, &c. Steanr engines, including loco

motives and marine engines... Steel, in ingots, bars, sheets, &c..

over eleven cents per pound.. Thread, yarn, and warps, sold

before weaving..........
Varnish or japan
Zine, oxide of..
Materials not otherwise pro-

vided for...........
Total inanufactures and pro-

153,677 13
127.745 73
24,121 41




[blocks in formation]

46,499 14
58.048 85
3,555 46

403 07
3,865 84

6,878 99 106,509 63 66,142 58

292,072 14
226,715 42
723,035 07
271.762 22
161,360 28
12,681 98

614 96
8,011 80
18,329 57
204,200 39

86,676 87 125,441 00

11,460 78 14,681 54

[blocks in formation]

7,806 04 73,890 36 30,347 79

0002 003


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185,019 56 15,619 02 20,478 45 41,572 47 14,637 99 163,104 62 14,583 45 53,031 58 84,007 78


7 31,306 62






3,530 41



[blocks in formation]

153,751 94
35,867 43
58.303 34
17,337 18
26,836 42

[blocks in formation]
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30,761 53 5,356 23 14,681 54 389,560 03 2,377,938 82

[blocks in formation]
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4 578,731 91
4 14,457,835 00

526,141 00 2,594,816 95 1,211,596 40 4,431,358 67 23,820,044 51 16,885,367 84

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The tax per capita is computed on the basis of the population of the eighth census, which for the above States was as follows: New York, 3,880,735; New Jersey, 672,033: Pennsylvania, 2,906,215.

Some of the reasons which constitute New | In connection therewith I beg the Clerk will mation we have upon the subject; the English values Jersey so important a manufacturing State read the following letter from the secretary of being supplied by reliable persons lately connected are to be found in the fact of its proximity to the company. I do so because this branch

with the potting” interest in Staffordshire, while

the American rates are those actually paid by us large cities where supplies for materials are of manufacture is a new one in the country. when gold was at par. abundant and good markets for sales of easy | Immense quantities of crockery are now im. The most important items by far of this statement

are "coal" and "labor." Indeed all other items of access. Then its railroad, canal, and river | ported. It is a bulky and expensive article to the cost of production of our wares are of comparacommunications are unexcelled. Its water transport, while it requires an unusually large tively minor importance. It is closely estimated that power is magniticent. It is also in near prox || proportion of manual labor in its production, seventy-five per cent. of the producing cost is abimity to coal mines. Within its borders living thus giving employment to a large population. | sorbed by these two heavy items of expense. s cheap, taxes are low, the health of its peo The Clerk read as follows:

almost entirely by manual labor; and heat must be

used without stint. Perhaps po machine will ever pie unsurpassed. As I have shown, it already Trextox, NEW JERSEY, February 21, 1866.

be made to manipulate clay like the human hand, ranks high as a manufacturing State. It has

MY DEAR SIR: I received yesterday a note from although it is probable that invention may smooth long been noted for its large production of F. Kingman, Esq., with your request for some statis this rugged way somewhat. But the inventive genius glass, and for its iron of a very flexible, ducties relating to the manufacture of crockery. You native

to our soil has not found time during the turcile, and tensile quality, which are produced in

desire further that they shall bein the form in which moil of war for this new cbarge solately transplanted

we wish them to appear before Congress. This it is from a land where labor-saving and fuel-saving mathe first and second districts; for its steel of the perhaps rather difficult to comply with, inasmuch as chinery would pot seem worthy of consideration, finest manufacture; for its zinc, including paint we have not digested any particular form” of pre because of the plentiful supply of workmen, and the from that article, which has become admired troublesome to put into a few brief sentences all we

coal at their doors.

Labor and coal, then, are the main points in which the world over; for its enameled leather, and think necessary to say in our own behalf. I will, how we must compete with England. That labor is more for many other articles which enter largely ever, state our case in as concise and workable shape il casily and cheaply obtained there than here does not

as may be, at the same time thanking you for your require proof. into the industry of the country. Of late, new kind expression of a wish to aid us in this matter. We have said in the statement above that we pay branches of industry have sprung up in the It will be needful, in the course of this, to repeat not less than one hundred per cent. advance on a State; chief among which is a manufactory portions of my letter of January 17, And first the gold basis upon English rates of labor. This we beof white-ware at Trenton, with a capital of

following statement of relative values of potters' lieve to be a low estimate. Much of our ware is

materials in England and America, gold taken at a made "by piece," and we know of many articles for $1,000,000, and which employs over one thou par valuation :

which we paid in gold times three times as much as sand persons, although in operation but a few

Kaolin, or China clay, ton of 2,000 pounds worth in the English manufacturer. years. If this branch of industry is but appro- weight, worth in Trenton $19; in Staffordshire 89. Trenton $23; in Stafforshire $10. Ground flint, same Taking the coal used by the latter of all kinds, and

two dollars per ton will be found a high estimate, priately encouraged by protection, that part of Ground feldspar, same weight, worth in Trenton $20: while we now pay (in currency) eight and one half the State will indeed become the Staffordshirel in Staffordshire $12. Coal, ton of 2.240 pounds, worth dollars, and have paid within two years over thirof America. This great interest, I regret to

in Trenton $5; in Staffordshire $2. Labor is paid at teen dollars.

rates at least one hundred per cent. higher than those Observe the quantity of coal used by any pottery, say, now languishes for want of protection; of the English manufacturers. There are, in addi and you will bestruck by this statement of difference and I respectfully call the attention of the Com

tion to above, other minor articles, chemicals, &c., in favor of the Englishman. nittee of Ways and Means especially thereto.

which will range at about same ratio of difference. And now the argument for a protective system may

This statement was made up from the best infor be fairly and rightly strengthened by the following

brief narration of the riso and progress of this manufacturing interest in ourcity during the last few years.

Beforetho rebellion a few small potteries were here, struggling hard to maintain a somewhat precarious existence. The skilled laborers who vcro here, EngJismen, asked and obtained thcir own prices. The duty at that time wis thirty-livo percent, al valorem.

With the warcame theailvance on gold. llowever much we may deplore the inflation produced by a deprcciato curreney, certain it is that the high price of gold was, in the absence of more tariff, a benefit and protection to us. Alonce others saw this evident fact, in soon new firms began to appear: intelligent, practical workmcn, uniting with capitalists to build new potteries, and to take advantage of the temporary "protection" of the times. More hands were brought over from England, boys were apprenticed to learn the various trades, and from a nucleus of four factories we now have altogether twelve larger ones, employing about one thousand hands and representing nearly one inillion dollars of invested capital. This sum inay appear small when compared with the capital in many other kinds of manufacture, but any potter knows that $1,000,000 worth of crockery, or rather the crockery produced by working $1,000,000, would make a small mountain if it could be piled together.

Potting is a very bulky business, requiring a great deal of room and much labor for a comparatively sinall woney value. The Staffordshire potteries cover a large district of country. It is usually a non-speculative trade, prices keeping generally steady in common times. The incn engaged in it, both manufacturers and dealers, are honest, non-speculative men, who do not often fail and cheat their creditors.

It scemsclcar, then, from the fact that this business has so greatly increased during the war, that what it wants (and we think what it ought to have, for the bencfitofthe governmental revenue)is protection.” That this neel not mean "prohibition" is plain from the fact that foreign goods were largely imported and sold when we had the protection of from two hundreu to two hundred and eighty per cent, premium on gold. People will have their plates and cups and saucers, and they ought to be able to enjoy their daily bread without the aid of John Bull. The Government cannot lose by adding this privilege to the birthright of :in American citizen; in this case without distinction of color' we supposc it will have to be.

We have had but fivc per cent. additionalduty put upon furcign goods during the war, and if Congress desires to foster and assist the introduction of new branches of art into the country, they should not be unwilling to protect us when circumstances will no longer do so. "Gold is much lower now, " it may be said, “and yet you tlourish." True, but we are only sustained for a short time by the pressing needs of those now in process of reconstruction," assisted by the anger of Neptune and Æolus, who have wrecked or damaged a great deal of crockery lately. It is almost certain that in the coming summer Britannia will have it all her own way, and that we shall be fallen among the pots."

To know what kind of waro is made here, be particularto notice that our goods come under thesecond clause of paragraph four, ecction nine, of the tariff act of July 1, 1864, beginning, “on all other carthen, stone, or crockery ware, forty rer cent." Were this made sixty per cent., it would not in the least diminish the revenue by keeping out any foreign earthienware, mcrcly because of the increased duty, but we should feel that the manufacture of crockery wis on a pretty sure footing in this country; and there is overy reason to believe that it would continue to increasc rapidly, paying largo excise taxes into the national Treasury: If any change were made in this section of the tariff, it would be necessary, also, to change the duties upon china, white and decorated; these, however, would seem ncarer to the class of luxurics than the other, and there would not be tho samc hesitancy felt to put duty upon them. All kinds of warc, china as well as common,should be made in the United States, and will be, if Congress will help us.

Tronton is not the only point, although it is the principal one, at which crockery is manufactured. The best American ware is made here, but all parts of the country are more or less interested with us in the success of this business, for every State has some pottery interest. I remain, sir, very respectfully, yours,


Secretary Manufacturing Potters. Hon. WILLIAM A. NEWELL, Washington, D. C.

Mr. NEWELL. On the subject of window and hollow glass, a most important branch of industry, I have also before me the following interesting letter from a well known and honored constituent. Indeed, all the information I have from all parties engaged in manufacturing industry is to the effect that further protection is absolutely necessary, for the reasons I have given in the former portion of my remarks:

BALSTO, April 22, 1866. DEAR Sır: Unacquainted with any other member of the New Jersey delegation in Congress, I venture to address you upon a subject of great interest to all engaged in the manufacture of window glass. Acommittee was appointed at a meeting of glass makers to represent their grievances and the state of their business to the commission raised to revise the United Statcs excise and revenuo laws, and I have no doubt of the faithful performance of their duty: but as yet I have seen no indication of relief from Congress in our branch of business. We report monthly under oath the gross amount of our sales, anıl after making such deductions as are allowed by law, pay six per cent. on those sales. This, during the war, was done

39Tu Coxg. 1st Sess.- No. 170.

with great cheerfulness, inasmuch as every reputable the stability of our institutions. The very citizen desired to aid the Government to the full

nature of our Government and the social habits extent of his ability, and the constant inflation of the currenev cnabled him to secure remunerative prices and customs of our people demand that the for articles made. But upon the fall of Richmond a laborer should have such a fair and reasonable change occurred, and many manufactured articles were greatly reduced in price, and window glass fell

share of the profits of industry as will enable below the cost of production and heavy losses were him to enjoy, not only the comforts, but even the sustained. As window glass is a perishable article luxuries of life. Here education is universal. when kept in packages in warm weather, it was neces

Here one man is as good as every other man. sary to inake sacrifices during the last suinmer to avoid greater sacrifices anticipated by the importa

Here the doctrine of human rights, socially, tion of foreign glass, induced by the rapid fall of gold politically, morally, and religiously, has received and general depression in the industrial community.

its widest application. By no possible means On all these losses the Government has inexorably levicd the tax of six per cent. It would seem that can you unite in America a social aristocracy taxes should be uniform and equal, and imposed upon with our political democracy. I warn gentlemen goods in possession or upon profits, and not upon absolute losses.

of the folly of such an attempt. What do these Now, there are tiro largo paper mills in this vicin ten-hour and eight-hour movements indicate ity, cach of which produces monthly more than twice but a steady determination on the part of the the money value that I do, with less capital and

American mechanic to assert the principle trouble, and by law are taxable only three per cent. on their salts. This remission of one half the tax that he is not a mere beast of burden; that paid by other manufacturers was brought about by there are other faculties within him than those ncwspaper editors and demagogues with the view of reducing the price of printing paper and by the argu

that are merely instinctive, as it were, for the mncnt clamorously urged that the diffusion of educa preservation and sustentation of life; that the tion and knowledge could only be accoinplished by ideal as well as the actual, the artistic as well means of paper. But as the factories above mentioned, and most others in this country, make nothing

as the mechanical, the beautiful as well as the better than common wrapping paper for grocers and

useful in him needs to be unfolded and devel. hardware dealers, it is difficult to see how they can be oped? The same God who fashioned the dark deemed to assist in disseminating learning. I would

brown earth created the flower that springs
remark that the present system of levying and col-
lecting excise duties is expensive, cumbrous, and in-

quisitorial, and that the law seems to be calculated
to oppress the honest and to provoke the dishonest

"A thing of beauty and a joy forever."
to the commission of crime. Though I have written
this hurried note without consulting any one engaged

The Scripture says that “ man shall not live in the business, I think from former intervieirs with by bread alone." Neither can we brutalize Hon. A. K. Hay, and other glass makers, that they the image and likeness of his Maker by illwill concur in the statements and opinions herein expressed.

paid drudgery and unrequited toil without With the hope that you will also concur and be able | violating the eternal principles of truth and to afford relief to our depressed trade in the rear

justice and suffering fearfully therefor. By rangement of the tariff and excise laws, and with an apology for my importunity,

the late war we vindicated the right of man to I am respectfully yours,

his own labor and the enjoyment of the fruits T. H. RICHARDS.

thereof. Having rescued the negro from the Hon. WILLIAN A. NEWCLL.

bondage of chattelism, let us not permit the I am happy to know that the Committee of

white man and the negro together to be crushed Ways and Means have greatly relieved this | under the iron heel of a European civilization, important branch of industry by exempting | which claims that the only way to build up window glass from excise duty. Another branch of manufacture lately estab- | the laborer to the lowest minimum of compen

national industry and prosperity is by reducing lished in my State is that of watches. A large sation that will support existence. manufactory of that description has lately been Mr. HUBBARD, of Iowa, obtained the floor, organized near Newark. An extensive flax fac

but yielded lo tory has also been established in Paterson, the

Mr. SPALDING, who moved that the House seat of the largest paper, cotton, silk, thread,

do now adjourn. and locomotive factories in this country. And

The motion was agreed to; and accordingly lately the most beautiful fabric of silk-velvet

(at four o'clock and five minutes p. m.) the and tapestry has been produced in Newark

House adjourned.
which will compare favorably with the best
articles of European manufacture. A branch,
also, of Clark's spool cotton manufacturing

PETITIONS, ETC. establishmentat Glasgow, which supplies thread The following petitions, &c., were presented under for the civilized world, is shortly to be located the rule and referred to the appropriate committces:

By Mr. CONKLING: The petition of . P. Seyat the same place, bringing six hundred Scotch

mour, and others, praying a change in the law taxfemale operatives.

ing the circulation of State banks. In conclusion, Mr. Speaker, in view of the

By Mr. LAFLIN: The remonstrance of citizens of

Watertown, Jefferson county, New York, against the great needs of the manufacturing interests of

passage of the bill to reorganize the Federal judiciary.
my district and State and of the country gener-
ally; in view of the fact that we must rely al-

most altogether upon these interests for the
means to meet the interest on our now colossal

Monday, May 21, 1866.
public debt, I feel it my duty to demand of this

Prayer by Rev. Dr. Feaston, of Birmingham, House that protection which is absolutely England. necessary, not only for the welfare of those

The Secretary proceeded to read the Jourinterests, but for the preservation of the Gov

nal of Friday. ernment. From all these great industrial in

Mr. WADE. I move that the further read. terests of the country we have cries of distress coming up daily to our doors. Will we heed

ing of the Journal be dispensed with. There them? Or, on the other hand, will we allow

is no necessity for reading the action of the the principles and policy which came near

Senate on all those pension bills that were destroying this nation to be again the principles passed on Friday. and policy of the Government? If the latter,

The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The readthen woe to the stability of our institutions and | ing of the Journal can be dispensed with by the perpetuity of the freedom they were created

unanimous consent only. No objection being to preserve.

made, its further reading will be dispensed

An increase in our revenue tariff on impor-
tations is the only way which I see open to us

in order to remedy the evils of over importa The PRESIDENT pro tempore laid before
tion. It will increase the prosperity of home the Senate a message from the President of
manufactures; it will check foreign importa-

the United States, transmitting a copy of the tions, and gradually prepare the way for a safe || correspondence between the Secretary of State return to specie payments.

and Cornelius Vanderbilt, of New York, rela. The policy of European manufacturers and tive to the joint resolution of the 28th of Jan. capitalists, which is based on the principle of uary, 1864, upon the subject of the gift of the cheapening labor, in order to compete with steamer Vanderbilt to the United States : foreign countries, is fraught with revolution which, on motion of Mr. MORGAN, was ordered and rain to American interests, and even to to lie on the table, and be printed.

acted upon.



Second Assistant Postmaster General accom. Mr. WADE presented a communication ad Mr. WILLEY. On Friday last I entered a

panying the resolution are read they will give

that information. dressed to him by the Secretary of War, trans motion to reconsider the vote on the passage

Mr. CLARK. I do not know, of course, mitting information in relation to the petition of the bill (S. No. 328) for the relief of Mrs. of Mrs. Sarah A. Brewer, widow of Major Gen Abigail Ryan. I ask leave of the Senate now

what papers precisely the Senator refers to; eral Anson L. Brewer, praying for a pension; to withdraw the motion to reconsider that bill,

but perhaps it would be as well if the Senator which was referred to the Committee on Pen finding that it is all correct.

could give us the information himself. sions.

Leave was granted.

Mr. CONNESS. I cannot at this moment Mr. CIANDLER presented a memorial of

without examining these letters.

LEONARD ST. CLAIR, the Board of Trade of Bay county, Michigan,

Mr. CLARK. Would it not be better to let praying for an appropriation by Congress for Mr. LANE, of Indiana. On Friday last, by || it lie over until some examination can be had? the improvement of the harbor at the mouth a mistake, Ilouse bill No. 371, to grant a pen

Mr. CONNESS. I have no objection to of Saginaw river; which was referred to the sion to Leonard St. Clair, was omitted to be letting the joint resolution lie over until the Comunittee on Commerce.

I ask that it may now be taken Senator can examine it.

up and passed. It was omitted on Friday by The PRESIDENT pro tempore. The joint PAPERS WITHDRAWN AND REFERRED.

a mere mistake, not being marked on my resolution before the Senate will be laid aside On motion of Mr. JOHNSON, it was docket. I move now to take it up.

by common consent. Ordered, That the petition and other papers in the The motion was agreed to; and the Senate, Mr. CONNESS subsequently said: I ask case of Lydia Cruzer, executrix of Moses Shepherd, as in Committee of the Whole, proceeded to the Senate now to resume the consideration be taken from the files of the Senate and referred to the Committee on Claims. consider the bill (H. R. No. 371) to grant a

of House joint resolution No. 77, as I under. pension to Leonard St. Clair.

stand there is no objection to it. REPORTS OF COMMITTEES.

The Secretary of the Interior will be directed There being no objection, the Senate, as in Mr. WILSON, from the Committee on Mil

by the bill to place the name of Leonard St. Committee of the Whole, resumed the considitary Affairs and the Militia, to whom was re

Clair on the pension-rolls of the United States eration of the joint resolution, the question ferred a communication from the Secretary of War, covering a letter from General Dyer, chief

as a pensioner, at the rate of eight dollars per being upon the amendment reported by the month.

Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads to of Ordnance, in relation to the legislation ne

The bill was reported to the Senate without add to it the following words: cessary to fix and establish the position of the

amendment, ordered to a third reading, read And also to audit and settle, in like manner, the deChicago and Pock Island railroad at Rock Islthe third time, and passed.

mand of Daniel Wellington and J.C.Dorsey, for extra and, Illinois, so as to enable the War Depart

services in carrying the United States mails on route ment to occupy that island for military pur


No. 14602, between the towns of Carson City and

Aurora, in the State of Nevada, from July 1, 1862, to poses, reported a bill (S. No. 330) making Mr. CONNESS. I move that the Senate

June 30, 1865. further provision for the establishment of an proceed to the consideration of House joint

Mr. HENDRICKS. I would inquire how armory and arsenal of construction, deposit, resolution No. 77.

much is the amount of this claim. and repair on Rock Island, in the State of Illi The motion was agreed to; and the Senate, as nois; which was read and passed to a second in Committee of the whole proceeded to con

Mr. CONNESS. I will say to the Senator reading

that after this amendment is adopted, I propose sider the joint resolution (H. R. No. 87) for He also, from the same committee, to whom the relief of Ambrose L. Goodrich and Nathan

to limit the claim in both cases.

Mr. HENDRICKS. I ask the Senator if the was referred a bill (II. R. No. 3) to revive the Cornish, for carrying the United States mail grade of general in the United States Army, from Boise City to Idaho City, in the Territory

two cases stand on the same ground. reported it with an amendment.

Mr. CONNESS. I will say that the last of Idaho. It proposes to authorize the PostMr. POMEROY, from the Committee on

claim "has already been passed upon by the master General to audit and settle, as to him Military Affairs and the Militia, to whom was

Committee on Post Ofices and Post Roads of may appear just and equitable, the demand of recomunitted the bill (S. No. 224) to aid in the Ambrose L. Goodrich and Nathan Cornish for

this body, and the Senate has passed a bill for .construction ot'a southern branch of the Union carrying the United States mail on route No.

the relief of the parties, which is now lying in Pacific railway, and to secure to the Government

the House of Representatives. We propose to 16001, from Boise City to Idaho City, in the the use of the same for postal, military, and

add it to this resolution and put both in one Territory of Idaho, from the 5th of July, 1864,

measure. other purposes, reported it with an amendment. until the 1st of July, 1805, The Committee

I propose, however, to limit both.

The amendment was agreed to.
on Post Offices and Post Roads reported the

Mr. CONNESS. I now move to amend the joint resolution with an amendment, to insert Mr. WADE. I move that the bill (S. No. at the end of it the following:

resolution by inserting after “1865” in line 289) to provide for the probate of and for the

And also to audit and settle, in liko manner, the

ten, the words, “provided the amount to be recording of wills of real estate situated in the

demand of Daniel Wellington and J. C. Dorsey, for allowed shall not exceed $8,000. District of Columbia, and for other purposes, extra services in carrying the United States nails on The amendment was agreed to. which was reported adversely by the Commit

route No. 14612, between Carson City and Aurora, in tee on the District of Columbia, be recommitthe State of Nevada, from July 1, 1862, to Juno 30, 1865.

Mr. CONNESS. I now offer the following ted to that committee.

Mr. CONNESS. There is a report accom

amendment, to come in at the end of the res. The motion was agreed to.

panying the joint resolution from the House olution as amended:
of Representatives.

Prorider, TE the amount to be allowed shall not
The PRESIDENT pro tempore. Does the

exceed $20,000. Mr: RAMSEY asked, and by unanimous Senator ask for the reading of the report?

I will say that that is the amount provided consent obtained, leave to introduce a bill (S.

Mr. CONNESS. Perhaps it is best that for in the bill for the relief of Wellington & No. 331) requiring agents of the Post Oflice the Senate should hear it. It is a very short Dorsey which has already passed the Senate. Department to give bond in certain cases; which report. Ilowever, if there is no demand for The amendment was agreed to. was read twice by its title, and referred to the its reading, I shall not insist upon it.

The joint resolution was reported to the Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads. Mr. CLARK. I wish to have it read. Senate as amended; the amendments were Mr. NESMITH asked, and by unanimous The Secretary read it, as follows:

concurred in. It was ordered that the amendconsent obtained, leave to introduce a bill (S.

The Committee on Post Offices and Post Roads, to No. 832) to provide for the construction of a

ments be engrossed and the resolution read a whom was referred the joint resolutiou for the relief

third time. The resolution was read the third of Messrs. Goodrich & Cornisb, report as follows: wagon road from White Bluffs, in Washington

That during the fiscal year 1861-65, Messrs. GoodTerritory,'to Helena, in Montana Territory;

time and passed. Its title was amended by rich & Cornish, at the general request of the citi adding the words, “and of Daniel Wellington which was read twice by its title, and referred zens of Idaho, carried the United States mails beto the Committee on Military Affairs and the tween Boise City and Idaho City three times a week,

and J. C. Dorsey for extra services in carrying as appears from the testimony of the postinnsters at the mail." Militia.

the places named, and that they have received no Mr. POMEROY. I ask leave to introduce compensation for said service; that in consequence

SURVEYS OF UPPER MISSISSIPPI. a bill of which no previous notice has been of the discovery of new and atiractive mines in that

Mr. RAMSEY. I move that the Senate Territory a large inining population had emigrated given. I do it by request.

thero, who were entitled to mail facilities, for which proceed to the consideration of Senate bill There being no objection, leave was granted no provision had been made by the Government. No. 139. to introduce a bill (S. No. 333) to incorporate

Therefore the committee recommend that the Post-
master General be authorized to audit and settle the

The motion was agreed to ; and the Senate, the American Cotton Company of the District claim of Messrs. Goodrich & Cornish as to him may

as in Committee of the Whole, proceeded to of Columbia; which was read twice by its title, soem just and cquitable.

consider the bill (S. No. 139) to provide for and referred to the Committee on the District Mr. CLARK. I am a little sorry that the surveys of the upper Mississippi and Minneof Columbia.

committee have not reported something fur sota rivers.
ther in regard to the facts in this case.

The bill as introduced by Mr. Ramsey proMr. WILLIAMS submitted the following and letters from the Post Office Department thereof as may be necessary, for the survey:

Mr. CONNESS. There are other papers | posed to appropriate $20,000, or so much resolution; which was considered by unanimons consent and agreed to: on the subject.

under the direction of the Secretary of War, of Resolved, That the Committee on the Judiciary be information as to the services rendered, and

Mr. CLARK. I should like to have some the upper Mississippi river from or near the

falls of St. Anthony to the upper or Rock ticability of providing a uniform and effective mode of sccuring the election of Sepators in Congress by

what may be the amount required under the Island rapids, with a view to ascertain the most the Legislatures of tho several States, and that they joint resolution.

feasible means, by economizing the water of have lenve to report by bill or otherwise,

Mr. CONNESS. If the letters from the the stream, of insuring the passage at all navi


gable seasons of boats drawing four feet of If the Department to which this survey is is thus summed up by President Jackson in

proposed to be intrusted will designate com his message of December, 1830: The second section proposed to appropriate petent officers who will be willing to consult “The practice of defraying out of the Treasury of $5,000 for an examination and survey, under practical and intelligent river inen, I have no the United States the expeuses incurred by the estabthe direction of the Secretary of War, of the doubt but that the survey can be completed in

lishment and support of light-houses, beacons, buoys,

and public piers, within the bays, inlets, and harMinnesota river from its mouth to the mouth a single season, and a feasible plan of improve. bors, and ports of the United States, to render the of the Yellow Medicine, in order to ascertain ment recommended which can be accomplished navigation thereof safe and easy, is coeval with the the practicability and expense, by slack-water with little expense.

ac?option of the Constitution, and has been continued

without interruption or dispute." navigation or otherwise, of securing the con The improvement of this great artery of

That the power under which these expenses tinued navigability of that stream during the commerce, Mr. President, is a national work. usual season of navigation. When completed it will so increase facilities for

have been and are being incurred is as appliThe Committee on Commerce reported the effecting commercial exchanges, and so reduce

cable to the Mississippi river as to the Atlantic bill with an amendment to strike out the second the cost of transit of the great staple prodncts

coast, and is as full and perfect in reference to section. of the Northwest to the Atlantic and the Gulf,

one as the other, is attested by the general Mr. RAMSEY. Mr. President, the bill be that no part of the country will lose by the

course of legislation upon the subject. The fore us provides for an examination and survey | improvement, but all will gain. 'I therefore

earliest appropriation for the improvement of

the navigation of the Mississippi river is to be of the Minnesota and the upper Mississippi rivers ask the indulgence of the Senate while I pre

found in an act of Congress, approved 24th in order to ascertain the character of the ob sent a few considerations sufficient, in my

May, 1824. Since then Congress has at varistructions to their navigation, and the means opinion, to commend the improvement of the

ous times made appropriations for the improveadapted and expenses incident to their re upper Mississippi river to the favorable conmoval. The examinations are proposed to be sideration of Congress and of the country.

ment of the Mississippi, Ohio, Missouri, Armade under the directiou of the Secretary of In doing this I propose to enter into no dis

kansas, and Red rivers, amounting in the War by engineers of the Topographical corps, cussion of the constitutional authority of the

aggregate to $3,703,800. The latest legisla

tion in the premises was in 1856, when approaided by the practical experience of river ex Government to make the improvement. I perts. They are to be made in accordance

assume that the possession of this authority, in priations were made for continuing the imwith a prudent custom, which requires a par the broadest amplitude, has been most emphat. | removing obstructions in the mouth of the

provement of the Des Moines rapids and for ticular examination and an estimate before | ically settled by a series of acts which have

river, by a two-thirds vote of both Houses of appropriating money for objects of improve received the sanction of the people of the Uni

Congress, over the vetoes of President Pierce. ment. In this way desultory and inordinate ted States, and of every department of the

Even those theorists who have admitted with expenditures are avoided; useless or frivolous Federal Government; and that in the discusprojects are detected ; the merits of every prop sions that have taken place in and out of Con

the greatest reluctance any degree of authority

in Congress to make what are commonly called osition are thoroughly investigated, and Con gress upon the various provisions of the Congress is enabled to judge of the proportionstitution under which the exercise of this

internal improvements, have time and again between the cost of an improvement and its authority is claimed, and more especially upon

conceded the constitutionality of such improve.

ments as may follow the examination and survalue. During the late war appropriations || the intent and objects of the framers of the

vey proposed in the bill before us.

At a confor the improvement of our great rivers and Constitution in conferring on Congress the

vention assembled in the city of Memphis, on harbors were in a large measure suspended. | power “to regulate commerce with foreign

the 12th of November, 1817, Mr. Calhoun, in That this economy, under the circumstances, nations and among the States," the argument considering how far the aid of the General was justifiable and wise few, I presume, will is exhausted.

Government could be invoked for purposes of venture to dispute. And in view of the present If the practice of appropriating money from condition of the Treasury all of us, Mr. Presi the Treasury of the United States for the im

internal improvement, said:

"As to the inprovement of the valley of the Missig. dent, will admit the necessity of restricting provement of the navigation of the Mississippi sippi-what, then, can the General Government do? future expenditures in this direction to the river and its tributaries is of more recent origin The invention of Fulton has, if I may be allowed tho smallest sums commensurate with the impor- | than the practice of appropriating money from

expression, turned the Mississippi river and its tribui

taries into an inland sea, of equal importance in its tance of the objects sought to be attained. the same source to render navigation safe and navigation with the Chesapeake and Delaware bay.

In regard to the improvement of the Minne easy on the Atlantic coast, it is readily an. It is, therefore, a matter peculiarly within the jurissota river, for the survey of which the bill, as swered, that in the earlier days of the Govern

diction of the Federal Government, and deserving

in the highest degree of its police and protection. originally introduced, appropriates $5,000, I ment but a very inconsiderable portion of the This is not a matter to be left to individual States. will merely remark that if the result of the ex population of the United States had passed the It is one of high national importance. We may amination shall indicate that any very con Alleghany mountains ; that steam had not then

safely lay down as a rule, that whatever can be done siderable sum will be required to render the conquered a current too rapid for ascending is peculiarly within the province of States they

by individuals they ought to accomplish; whatever river navigable at all seasons, except when || navigation; that by the treaty of San Lorenzo should effect; and whatever is essentially within tilo obstructed with ice, I may not apply to the el Real, in 1795, the southern boundary of the

control of the General Government, it should accom

plish. I believe the free and uninterruptei naviganational Treasury for the inoney to make the United States was fixed at the thirty-first degree tion of these inland scas (so to speak) is within the improvement; but as the stream, though per: of latitude north of the equator, and the west peculiar province of the General Government.' haps the most important tributary of the upper ern boundary in the middle of the channel or Again, the national importance of the im. Mississippi, flows almost entirely within the bed of the Mississippi river from the northern provement of the Mississippi river is discussed limits of the State of Minnesota, I may ask boundary of the States to the thirty-first degree with great ability in an elaborate report made Congress to authorize Minnesota to undertake of north latitude; that thus the greater part of to the Senate by Mr. Calhoun on the 26th of the improvement in such way as she may see the valley of the Mississippi belonged to Spain, June, 1816, from the select committee to whom fit, either in her State capacity or by appeal to who claimed the exclusive riglit to navigate the resolutions and memorial of the Memphis private enterprise. For ibis reason, Mr. Pres. the river south of the thirty-first parallel, and convention were referred. Though we may ident, I hope that the amendinent to the bill a right in common with us to the residue; and reject many of the conclusions of this report, which has been reported from the Committee that, although by the treaty of Paris, of the and deem many of the distinctions taken to be on Commerce may be rejected, and that my 30th of April, 1803, Napoleon ceded to the unsound and delusive, we will not dissent from honorable friend from Michigan, the chairman United States the colony or province of Loui the unanimous opinion of the committee that of the committee, will not urge its adoption in siana, with the same limits ihat it had in the Congress has the power, under the Constituconsideration of the importance of the exami hands of Spain, when it was ceded by that tion, to improve the navigation of the Missisnation, and the very moderate sum appropriated Power to France, by the treaty of St. Ildefonso, | sippi river; and that it is clearly embraced in to make it.

of the 1st of October, 1800, conflicting claims the power to regulate commerce ainong the But, Mr. President, the bill further provides and pretensions to portions of the Territory || States. an appropriation of $20,000 for the survey of the were not definitely adjusted until the Adminis. Now, Mr. President, having regard to relative upper Mississippi river, from the Rock river | tration of Mr. Monroe, when the boundary line population ; to the respective amount and value rapids to the head of navigation, a distance between Spain and the United States, west of of commerce, tonnage, and navigation; or to of some five hundred miles, in order to ascer the Mississippi, was fixed with precision by an the general proposition that the internal trade tain some practical mode of making this por: article of the same treaty, in virtue of which of all nations greatly exceeds their external, I tion of the river navigable for boats drawing the Floridas were acquired.

hold it to be undeniable that the appropriations four feet in those cycles of low water which Provision for the improvement of the sea heretofore made for the improvement of the occur with us at regular intervals, and seem to board was made in one of the earliest acts of Mississippi and its waters have not been in a be governed by certain and well-defined physical || the first Congress, under the present Consti just and fair proportion to those for improve. laws. I hope that no Senator will be deterred | tution of the United States, entitled "An act ments on the Atlantic coast. Without going from approving this appropriation by any for the establishment of light-houses, buoys, into any minnte calculation, it may be safely apprehension that it will initiate a large and beacons, and public piers,”: approved by Presi asserted that the expenditures for the one have uncertain expenditure; for I think that I shall dent Washington on the 7th of August, 1789. very many times exceeded those for the other. be able to show that the improvement which is Similar laws were enacted on the 22d of July, To ihese expenditures upon our eastern frontier desired may be effected at a very moderate cost. 1790, on the 3d of March, 1791, on the 2d of I certainly interpose no objection. On the What is wanted is a practical, sensible exami- || March, 1793, on the 2d of March, 1795, on contrary, I approve of them all, believing the nation or survey-not a refined, scientific in the 30th of May, 1796 ; and since then, with objects to be general, not local, national, not vestigation of the regimen and hydraulics of a few special exceptions, provision for the same

sectional. I advocate no narrow, contracted, the river, which might prove curious rather purpose has been made in the general appro or selfish system of legislation ; but I do claim than useful.

priation laws. The history of this legislation ll that while vast sums have been appropriated

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