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hitting men on the shins, if it were sensible of its tract on Human Nature has scarcely an ambiguous own motion, would think it proceeded from its own or a needless word. He has so great a power of will, unless it felt what lashed it. And is a man any always choosing the most significant term, that he wiser when he runs to one place for a benefice, to an- never is reduced to the poor expedient of using many other for a bargain, and troubles the world with in its stead. He had so thoroughly studied the writing errors, and requiring answers, because he genius of the language, and knew so well to steer thinks he does it without other cause than his own between pedantry and vulgarity, that two centuries will, and secth not what are the lashings that cause have not superannuated probably more than a dozen that will ?

of his words.'* Among his greatest philosophical

errors are those of making no distinction between [Concerning the justice of punishing criminals on

the intellectual and emotive faculties of man-of the supposition of necessity of the will, he remarks)

representing all human actions as the results of in-The intention of the law is not to grieve the delin

tellectual deliberation alone—and of in every case quent for that which is past, and not to be undone,

deriving just and benevolent actions from a cool but to make him and others just, that else would not

survey of the advantages to self which may be exbe so; and respecteth not the evil act past, but the

pected to flow from them. In short, he has given good to come; insomuch as, without the good intention

to neither the moral nor the social sentiments a place for the future, no past act of a delinquent could jus

in his scheme of human nature. The opponents of tify his killing in the sight of God. But you will

this selfish system have been numberless; nor is the say, How is it just to kill one man to amend another,

controversy terminated even at the present day. if what were done were necessary? To this I answer,

The most eminent of those who have ranged themthat men are justly killed, not for that their actions

selves against Hobbes are Cumberland, Cudworth, are not necessitated, but because they are norious; and

Shaftesbury, Clarke, Butler, Hutcheson, Kames, that they are spared and preserved whose actions are

Smith, Stewart, and Brown. not noxious. For where there is no law, there no killing, nor anything else, can be unjust; and by the right of nature we destroy (without being unjust) all

LORD HERBERT. that is noxious, both beasts and men. * * When Among the distinguished persons whom we have we make societies or commonwealths, we lay down mentioned as intimate with Hobbes, is LORD HERour right to kill, excepting in certain cases, as murder, BERT OF CHERBURY (1581-1648), a brave and theft, or other offensive action; so that the right which high-spirited man, at a time when honourable the commonwealth hath to put a man to death for feeling was rare at the English court. Like the crimes, is not created by the law, but remains from philosopher of Malmesbury, he distinguished him. the first right of nature which every man hath to self as a free-thinker; and, says Dr Leland, as preserve himself ; for that the law doth not take that he was one of the first, so he was confessedly one right away in the case of criminals, who were by law of the greatest writers that have appeared among excepted. Men are not, therefore, put to death, or

or us in the deistical cause.'t He was born at Eyton, punished, for that their theft proceedeth from election; lin Shrop

in Shropshire, studied at Oxford, and acquired, both but because it was noxious, and contrary to men's l at home and on the continent, a high reputation for preservation, and the punishment conducing to the the almost Quixotic chivalry of his character. In preservation of the rest ; inasmuch as, to punish those

1616 he was sent as ambassador to Paris, at which

se he that do voluntary hurt, and none else, frameth and

place he published, in 1624, his celebrated deistical maketh men's wills such as men would have them.

m. | book, De Veritate, prout distinguitur à Revelatione And thus it is plain, that from the necessity of a

e necessity. oi


Verisimili, Possibili, et à Falso--T. Of Truth, as it is voluntary action cannot be inferred the injustice of

distinguished from Probable, Possible, and False the law that forbiddeth it, or of the magistrate that

Revelation']. In this work, the first in which deism panisheth it.

was ever reduced to a system, the author main

tains the sufficiency, universality, and absolute per[As to praise or dispraise] — These depend not

fection of natural religion, and the consequent useat all on the necessity of the action praised or dis

dislessness of supernatural revelation. This universal praised. For what is it else to praise, but to say a

| religion he reduces to the following articles :-1. thing is good? Good, I say, for me, or for somebody

That there is one supreme God. 2. That he is else, or for the state and commonwealth. And what

chiefly to be worshipped. 3. That piety and virtue is it to say an action is good, but to say it is as I would

are the principal part of his worship. 4. That we wish, or as another would have it, or according to the

must repent of our sins, and if we do so, God will will of the state ; that is to say, according to the law ?

pardon them. 5. That good men are rewarded, and Does my lord think that no action can please me, or

bad men punished, in a future state ; or, as he somehim, or the commonwealth, that should proceed from

times expresses it, both here and hereafter. In necessity! Things may be therefore necessary, and

reprinting the work at London in 1645, lie added yet praiseworthy, as also necessary, and yet dispraised,

" two tracts, De Causis Errorum [. Of the Causes and neither of them both in vain; because praise

of Error'], and De Religione Laici [.Of the Reliand dispraise, and likewise reward and punishment, do, by example, make and conform the will to

gion of a Layman']; and soon afterwards he pub

lished another book, entitled De Religione Gentilium, good or evil. It was a very great praise, in my opinion, that Velleius Paterculus gives Cato, where

Errorumque apud eos Causis, of which an English he says, that he was good by nature, et quia aliter

translation appeared in 1705, entitled “The Ancient

Religion of the Gentiles, and Cause of their Errors, esse non potuit'-['and because he could not be otherwise.']

Considered.' The treatise De Veritate' was answered

by the French philosopher Gassendi, and numerous The style of Ilobbes is characterised by Sir James

replies have appeared in England. Lord Herbert wrote Mackintosh as the very perfection of didactic lan

a History of the Life and Reign of King Henry VIII.,

which was not printed till 1649, the year after his guage. Short, clear, precise, pithy, his language never has more than one meaning, which never re

death. It is termed by Lord Orford .a masterpiece quires a second thought to find. By the help of his

* Second Preliminary Dissertation to · Encyclopædia Britanexact inethod, it takes so firm a hold on the mind, nica,' . 318. that it will not allow attention to slacken. His little + Leland's View of the Deistical Writers, Letter II.

of historic biography;' and in Bishop Nicolson's

[Sir Thomas More's Resignation of the Great Scal.] opinion, the author has acquitted himself with the like reputation as Lord Chancellor Bacon gained by

Sir Thomas More, Lord Chancellor of England, the Life of Henry VII., having, in the rolite and after divers suits to be discharged of his place (which martial part, been admirably exact, froni the best

he had held two years and a-half), did at length by records that remain.' He has been accused, how

the king's good leare resign it. The example whereof ever, of partiality to the tyrannical monarch whose b

being rare, will give me occasion to speak more partiactions he relates, and of having produced rather a

cularly of him. Sir Thomas More, a person of sharp

wit, and endued besides with excellent parts of panegyric, or an apology, than a fair and judicious wit, ana, representation. As to style, the work is considered learning (as his works may testify), was yet (out of 1 one of the best old specimens of historical compo.

know not what natural facctiousness) given so much sition in the language, being manly and vigorous,

I to jesting, that it detracted no little from the gravity and unsullied by the guaintness and pedantry of the land importance of his place, which, though generally age. Lord Herbert is remarkable also as the earliestno

noted and disliked, I do not think was enough to of our autobiographers. The memoirs which he left

make him give it orer in that mcrriment we shall of his own life were first printed in 1764, and have

find anon, or retire to a private life. Neither can I

believe him so much addicted to his private opinions ever since been popular. In the following extract,

as to detest all other governments but his own Utopia, there is evidence of the singular fact, that though he

so that it is probable some vehement desire to follow conceived revelation unnecessary in a religious point

his book, or secret offence taken against some person of view, he seriously looked for a communication of

or matter (among which perchance the king's new inthe Divine will as to the publication or suppression

tended marriage, or the like, might be accounted) of his principal work :

occasioned this strange counsel ; though, yet, I find no My book, De Veritate, prout distinguitur à Rere

reason pretended for it, but infirmity and want of latione Verisimili, Possibili, et à Falso, having been

health. Our king hereupon taking the seal, and givbegun by me in England, and formed there in all its ing it, togeti

ing it, together with the order of knighthood, to principal parts, was about this time finished ; all the

Thomas Audeley, speaker of the Lower House, Sir spare hours which I could get from my visits and

Thomas More, without acquainting any body with negotiations being employed to perfect this work,

what he had done, repairs to his family at Chelsea, which was no sooner done, but that I communicated

where, after a mass celebrated the next day in the it to Hugo Grotius, that great scholar, who, having

church, he comes to his lady's pew, with his hat in escaped his prison in the Low Countries, came into

his hand (an office formerly done by one of his gentleFrance, and was much welcomed by me and Monsieur

| men), and says, “ Madam, my lord is gone.' But she Tieleners also, one of the greatest scholars of his time,

thinking this at first to be but one of his jests, was who, after they had perused it, and given it more

little moved, till he told her sadly, he had given up commendations than it is fit for me to repeat, ex

the great seal; whercupon she speaking some pashorted me earnestly to print and publish it; howbeit,

sionate words, he called his daughters then present to as the frame of my whole book was so different from

see if they could not spy some fault about their anything which had been written heretofore, I found

| mother's dressing ; but they after search saying they I must either renounce the authority of all that had

could find none, he replied, ' Do you not perceive that written formerly concerning the method of finding out you

your mother's nose standeth somewhat awry ? - of truth, and consequently insist upon my own way, or

which jeer the provoked lady was so sensible, that she hazard myself to a general censure, concerning the

went from him in a rage. Shortly after, he acquainted

his servants with what he had done, dismissing thern whole argument of my book ; I must confess it did not a little animate me, that the two great persons above

also to the attendance of some other great personages, mentioned did so highly value it, yet, as I knew it

to whom he had recommended them. For his fool, he would meet with much opposition, I did consider

bestowed him on the lord mayor during his office, and whether it was not better for me a while to suppress

afterwards on his successors in that charge. And now it. Being thus doubtful in my chanıber, one fair day

coming to himself, he began to consider how much be in the summer, my casement being open towards the

had left, and finding that it was not above one hunsouth, the sun shining clear, and no wind stirring, I

dred pounds yearly in lands, besides some money, he took my book • De Veritate in my hand, and, kneel. / advised with his daughters how to live together. But ing on my knees, devoutly said these words :

the grieved gentlewomen (who knew not what to re*0 thou eternal God. author of the light which ply, or indeed how to take these jests) remaining now shines upon me, and giver of all inward illumi- ||

| astonished, he says, 'We will begin with the slender nations, I do beseech thee, of thy infinite goodness,

diet of the students of the law, and if that will not to pardon a greater request than a sinner ought to

hold out, we will take such commons as they have at make; I am not satisfied enough whether I shall

Oxford ; which yet if our purse will not stretch to publish this book De Veritate; if it be for thy glory,

maintain, for our last refuge we will go a-begging, and i beseech thee give me some sign from heaven; if not,

at every man's door sing together a Salve Regina to get I shall suppress it.'

alms. But these jests were thought to have in them I had no sooner spoken these words, but a loud,

w more levity, than to be taken everywhere for current ; though yet gentle noise, came from the heavens (for

he might have quitted his dignity without using such it was like nothing on earth), which did so comfort

sarcasms, and betaken himself to a more retired and and cheer me, that I took my petition as granted, and

quiet life, without making them or himself contempthat I had the sign I demanded, whereupon also I

tible. And certainly whatsoever he intended hereby, resolved to print my book.

his family so little understood his meaning, that they This, how strange soever it may seem, I protest

needed some more serious instructions. So that I before the eternal God is true. neither am Lany way cannot persuade myself for all this talk, that so exsuperstitiously deceived herein, since I did not only

cellent a person would omit at fit times to give his clearly hear the noise, but in the serenest sky that

family that sober account of his relinquishing this ever I saw, being without all cloud, did to my think

place, which I find he did to the Archbishop Warham, ing see the place from whence it came.

Erasmus, and others. As a sample of his “Life of Henry VIII.,' take his


One of the most important literary undertak.

ings of this era was the execution of the present that such devilish arts have been and are : the other, authorised translation of the Bible. At the great what exact trial and severe punishment they merit: couference held in 1604 at Hampton Court, be- and therefore reason I, what kind of things are pos- . tween the established and puritan clergy, the ver-sible to be perforined in these arts, and by what sion of Scripture then existing was generally dis- natural causes they may be. Not that I touch every approved of, and the king'consequently appointed particular thing of the devil's power, for that were infifty-four men, many of whom were eminent as finite : but only, to speak scholasticly (since this Hebrew and Greek scholars, to commence a new cannot be spoken in our language), I reason upon translation. In 1607, forty-seven of the number genus, leaving species and differentia to be compremet, in six parties, at Oxford, Cambridge, and West- hended therein. As, for example, speaking of the minster, and proceeded to their task, a certain por-power of magicians in the first book and sixth chapter, tion of Scripture being assigned to each. Every I say that they can suddenly cause be brought into individual of each division, in the first place, trans- them all kinds of dainty dishes by their familiar lated the portion assigned to the division, all of spirit : since as a thief he delights to steal, and as a which translations were collected ; and when each spirit he can subtilly and suddenly enough transport party had determined on the construction of its part, the same. Now, under this genus may be comprehended it was proposed to the other divisions for general all particulars depending thereupon ; such as the approbation. When they met together, one read the bringing wine out of a wall (as we have heard oft to new version, whilst all the rest held in their hands have been practised) and such others; which partieither copies of the original, or some valuable ver- culars are sufficiently proved by the reasons of the sion; and on any one objecting to a passage, the general. reader stopped till it was agreed upon. The result was published in 1611, and has ever since been re

[Ilow Witches Travel.] puted as a translation generally faithful, and an

Philomathes. But by what way say they, or think ye excellent specimen of the language of the time. it possible, they can come to these unlawful conven. Being universally read by all ranks of the people, it

tions ? has contributed most essentially to give stability and

Epistemon. There is the thing which I esteem their uniformity to the English tongue.

senses to be deluded in, and, though they lie not in

confessing of it, because they think it to be true, yet KING JAMES I.

not to be so in substance or effect, for they say, that

by divers means they may convene either to the adorKing JAMES was himself an author, but his works

ing of their master, or to the putting in practice any are now considered merely as curiosities. His most

service of his committed unto their charge ; one way is celebrated productions are the Basilicon Doron,

natural, which is natural riding, going, or sailing, at monology, and A Counterblast to Tobacco. The first

what hour their master comes and advertises them. was written, for the instruction of his son Prince

And this way may be easily believed. Anoth r way Henry, a short time before the union of the crowns,

is somewhat more strange, and yet it is possible to be and seems not to have been originally intended for

true : which is by being carried by the force of the the press. In the Dæmonology,' the British Solo

spirit which is their conductor, either above the earth or mon displays his wisdom and learning in maintain- | above the sea, swiftly, to the place where they are to ing the existence and criminality of witches, and

meet : which I am persuaded to be likewise possible, discussing the manner in which their feats are in respect that as Habakkuk was carried by the angel performed. Our readers will be amused by the in that form to the den where Daniel lay, so think I following extracts from this performance, the first the devil will be ready to imitate God, as well in that of which is from the preface :

as in other things : which is much more possible to

him to do, being a spirit, than to a mighty wind, [Sorcery and Witchcraft.]

being but a natural meteor, to transport from one place The fearful abounding at this time in this country

to another a solid body as is commonly and daily seen of these detestable slaves of the devil, the witches or

| in practice. But in this violent form they cannot be enchanters, hath moved me (beloved reader) to des

carried but a short bounds, agreeing with the space patch in post this following treatise of mine, not in

that they may retain their breath: for if it were any wise (as I protest) to serve for a show of my learn

longer, their breath could not remain unextinguished, ing and ingine, but only, moved of conscience, to

their body being carried in such a violent and forcible press thereby, so far as I can, to resolve the doubting

manner, as, by example, if one fall off a small height, hearts of many; both that such assaults of Sathan are

his life is but in peril, according to the hard or soft most certainly practised, and that the instruments

lighting ; but if one fall from a high and stayl rock, thereof merits most severely to be punished : against

his breath will be forcibly banished from the body be. the damnable opinions of two principally in our age,

fore he can wino to the earth, as is oft seen by experi. whereof the one called Scot, an Englishman, is not

ence. And in this transporting they say themselves, ashamed in public print to deny that there can be

that they are invisible to any other, except amongst such a thing as witchcraft ; and so maintains the old

themselves. For if the devil may form what kind of error of the Sadducees in denying of spirits. The

impressions he pleases in the air, as I have said before, other called Wierus, a German physician, sets out a

speaking of magic, why may he not far casier thicken public apology for all these crafts-folks, whereby, pro

and obscure so the air that is next about them, by concuring for their impunity, he plainly bewrays himself

tracting it strait together, that the beams of any other to have been one of that profession. And for to make

man's eyes cannot pierce through the same, to see this treatise the more pleasant and facile, I have put it

them? But the third way of their coming to their in form of a dialogue, which I have divided into three

conventions is that wherein I think them deluded : for books : the first speaking of magic in general, and

some of them saith that, being transformed in the likenecromancy in special : the second, of sorcery and

ness of a little beast or fowl, they will come and pierce witchcraft: and the third contains a discourse of all

through whatsoever house or church, though all ordi. these kinds of spirits, and spectres that appears and

od nary passages be closed, by whatsoever open the air troubles persons : together with a conclusion of the ma

may enter in at. And some saith, that their bo lies whole work. My intention in this labour is only to lying still, as in an ecstacy, their spirits will be prove two things, as I have already said : the one, I

* Steep.

. Got

ravished out of their bodies, and carried to such places ; verbatim, from Burton, without acknowledgment. and for verifying thereof will give evident tokens, as Many others have, with like silence, extracted mawell by witnesses that have seen their body lying terials from his pages. The book has lately been senseless in the mcan time, as by naming persons more than once reprinted. whom with they met, and giving tokens what purpose Prefixed to the · Anatomy of Melancholy' is a was amongst them, whom otherwise they could not poem of twelve stanzas, from which Milton has have known; for this form of journeying they affirm borrowed some of the imagery of his . Il Pensers to use most when they are transported from one coun- The first six stanzas are as follows: try to another.


[The Author's Abstract of Melancholy.] One of the most entertaining prose writers of this

When I go musing all alone, age was ROBERT BURTON (1576—1639-40), rector

Thinking of divers things foreknown, of Segrave in Leicestershire, and a member of

When I build castles in the air, Christ-church, Oxford. Burton was a man of great

Void of sorrow, void of fear, benevolence, integrity, and learning, but of a whim

Pleasing myself with phantasms sweet, sical and melancholy disposition. Though at cer

Methinks the time runs very fleet. tain times he was a facetious companion, at others

All my joys to this are folly; his spirits were very low; and when in this condi

Nought so sweet as melancholy.
When I go walking all alone,
Recounting what I have ill-done,
My thoughts on me then tyrannise,
Fear and sorrow me surprise ;
Whether I tarry still, or go,
Methinks the time moves very slow.

All my griefs to this are jolly ;

Nought so sad as melancholy.
When to myself I act and smile,
With pleasing thoughts the time beguile,
By a brook side or wood so green,
Unheard, unsought for, or unscen,
A thousand pleasures do me bless,
And crown my soul with happiness.

All my joys besides are folly;

None so sweet as melancholy.
When I lie, sit, or walk alone,
I sigh, I grieve, making great moan ;
In a dark grove or irksome den,
With discontents and furies then,
A thousand miseries at once
Mine heavy heart and soul en conce.

All my griefs to this are jolly;
Robert Burton.

None so sour as melancholy. tion, he used to go down to the river near Oxford

Methinks I hear, methinks I see and dispel the gloom by listening to the coarse

Sweet music, wondrous melody, jests and ribaldry of the bargemen, which excited

Towns, palaces, and cities, fine ; his violent laughter. To alleviate his mental dis

Here now, then there, the world is mine, tresi, he wrote a book, entitled The Anatomy of

Rare beauties, gallant ladies shine, Melancholy, which appeared in 1621, and presents,

Whate'er is lovely is divine. in quaint language, and with many shrewd and

All other joys to this are folly; amusing remarks, a view of all the modifications

None so sweet as melancholy. of that disease, and the manner of curing it. The

Methinks I hear, methinks I see erudition displayed in this work is extraordinary,

Ghost, goblins, fiends: my phantasie every page abounding with quotations from Latin

Presents a thousand ugly shapes ; authors. It was so successful at first, that the

Headless bears, black men, and apes; publisher realised a fortune by it; and Warton says, Doleful outeries and fearful sights that 'the author's variety of learning, his quota My sad and dismal soul affrights. tions from scarce and curious books, his pedantry,

All my griefs to this are jolly; sparkling with rude wit and shapeless elegance,

None so damn'd as melancholy. miscellaneous matter, intermixture of agreeable tales and illustrations, and, perhaps above all, the singu

Of Burton's prose, the following will serve as a larities of his feelings, clothed in an uncommon

ronder + specimen : quaintness of style, have contributed to render it, even to modern readers, a valuable repository of amusement and information.' It delighted Dr John

[Melancholy and Contemplation.] son so much, that he said this was the only book that ever took him out of bed two hours sooner than Voluntary solitariness is that which is familiar with he wished to rise.' Its reputation was considerably melancholy, and gently brings on, like a Siren, a extended by the publication of Illustrations of shooing-horn, or some sphinx, to this irrevocable gulf: Sterne,' in 1798, by the late Dr Ferriar of Manches- a primary cause Piso calls it : most pleasant it is at ter, who convicted that writer of copying passages, I first, to such as are melancholy given, to lie in bed


whole days, and keep their chambers; to walk alone of our forefathers' devotion, consecrated to pious uses. in some solitary grove, betwixt wood and water, by a Some monasteries and collegiate cells might have been brook side; to meditate upon some delightsome and well spared, and their revenues otherwise employed, pleasant subject, which shall affect them most; 'ama- here and there one, in good towns or cities at least, bilis insania,' and ' mentis gratissimus error.' A most for men and women of all sorts and conditions to incomparable delight it is so to melancholise, and live in, to sequester themselves from the cares and build castles in the air ; to go smiling to them- tumults of the world, that were not desirous or fit selves, acting an infinite variety of parts, which they to marry, or otherwise willing to be troubled with suppose and strongly imagine they represent, or that common affairs, and knew not well where to bestow they sce acted or done. Blanda quidem ab initio' themselves ; to live apart in, for more conveniency, - [ pleasant, indeed, it is at first '], saith Lemnius, good education, better company sake; to follow their to conceive and meditate of such pleasant things studies (I say) to the perfection of arts and sciences, sometimes, present, past, or to come, as Rhasis speaks. common good, and, as some truly devoted monks of So delightsome these toys are at first, they could old had done, freely and truly to serve God : for these spend whole days and nights without sleep, even men are neither solitary nor idle, as the poet made whole years alone in such contemplations and fan- | answer to the husbandınan in Æsop, that objected tastical meditations, which are like unto dreams : and idleness to him ; he was never so idle as in his comthey will hardly be drawn from them, or willingly i pany; or that Scipio Africanus, in Tully, 'nunquam interrupt. So pleasant their vain conceits are, that minus solus, quam cum solus ; nunquam minus they hinder their ordinary tasks and necessary busi- otiosus quam cum esset otiosus'--['never less soliness; they cannot address themselves to them, or tary than when he was alone, never more busy than almost to any study or employment : these fantasti- when he seemed to be most idle'). It is reported cal and bewitching thoughts so covertly, so feelingly, by Plato, in his dialogue De Amore, in that proso urgently, so continually set upon, creep in, insinu- digious commendation of Socrates, how a deep media ate, possess, overcome, distract, and detain them ; tation coming into Socrates's mind by chance, he they cannot, I say, go about their more necessary stood still musing, codem vestigio cogitabundus,' business, stave off or extricate themselves, but are from morning to noon ; and when, as then he had ever musing, melancholising, and carried along, as he not yet finished his meditation, 'perstabat cogitans,' (they say) that is led round about an heath with a he so continued till the evening; the soldiers (for he puck in the night. They run earnestly on in this then followed the camp) observed him with admiralabyrinth of anxious and solicitous melancholy me- tion, and on set purpose watched all night ; but he ditations, and cannot well or willingly refrain, or persevered immoveable, 'ad exortum solis,' till the easily leave off winding and unwinding themselves, as sun rose in the morning, and then, saluting the sun, No many clocks, and still pleasing their humours, until went his ways. In what humour constant Socrates at last the scene is turned upon a sudden, by some did thus, I know not, or how he might be affected ; bad object; and they, being now habituated to such but this would be pernicious to another man ; what rain meditations and solitary places, can endure no intricate business might so really possess him, I cancompany, can ruminate of nothing but harsh and not easily guess ; but this is otiosum otium- caredistasteful subjects. Fear, sorrow, suspicion, 'sub- less tranquillity']; it is far otherwise with these men, rusticus pudor- clownish bashfulness'], discontent, according to Seneca : 'omnia nobis mala solitudo percares, and weariness of life, surprise them in a mo- sua let'--['this solitude undoeth us']; pugnat curg ment; and they can think of nothing else : conti- vità sociali’--[''tis a destructive solitariness'). These nually suspecting, no sooner are their eyes open, but men are devils alone, as the saying is, 'homo solus this infernal plague of melancholy seizeth on them, aut deus aut demon'-- ['a man alone, is either a and terrifies their souls, representing some dismal saint or a devil']; 'mens ejus aut languescit, aut tuobject to their minds, which now, by no means, no mescit'---' his niind either languishes or bursts']; labour, no persuasions, they can avoid ;' hæret lateri and “væ soli!- in this sense, wo be to him that is lethalis arundo'-['the deadly arrow sticks fast in so alone! These wretches do frequently degenerate their side'l; they may not be rid of it; they can- from men, and, of sociable creatures, become beasts, not resist. I may not deny but that there is some monsters, inhumane, ugly to behold -- misanthropi; profitable meditation, contemplation, and kind of they do even loathe themselves, and hate the company solitariness to be embraced, which the fathers so of men, as so many Timons, Nebuchadnezzars, by highly commended (Hierom, Chrysostome, Cyprian, too much indulging to these pleasing humours, and Austin, in whole tracts, which Petrarch, Erasmus, through their own default. So that which MercuStella, and others, so much magnify in their books);rialis (consil. 11.) sometimes expostulated with his A paradise, a heaven on earth, if it be used aright, melancholy patient, may be justly applied to every yood for the body, and better for the soul ; as many solitary and idle person in particular : Natura de of these old monks used it, to divine contemplation; te ridetur conqueri ponse,' &c.[Nature may justly as Simulus, a courtier in Adrian's time, Dioclesian complain of thce, that, whereas she gave thee a the emperor, retired themselves, &c. In that sepse, good wholesome temperature, a sound body, and God • Vatia solus scit vivere'--[' Vatia alone knows how hath given thee so divine and excellent a soul. so to live'l; which the Romans were wont to say, many good parts and profitable gifts; thou hast not when they commended a country life; or to the bet-only contemned and rejected, but hast corrupted tering of their knowledge, as Democritus, Cleanthes, them, polluted them, overthrown their temperature. and those excellent philosophers have ever done, to and perverted those gifts with riot, idlenegs, solitari! sequester themselves from the tumultuous world ; ness, and many other ways; thou art a traitor to Gou or as in Pliny's Villa Laurentana, Tully's Tuscula, and nature, an enemy to thyself and to the world'). Jovius's study, that they might better 'vacare studiis Perditiæ tuæ ex te' &c.-['thou hast lost thyself wil. et Deo'r give themselves up to God and their studies').fully, cast away thyself; thou thyself art the efficient Methinks, therefore, our too zealous innovators were cause of thine own misery, by not resisting such vain not so well advised in that general subversion of ab- cogitations, but giving way unto them'). beys and religious houses, promiscuously to fling down all. They might have taken away those gross Burton, who believed in judicial astrology, is abuses crept in amongst them, rectified such incon- said to have foretold, from a calculation of his venicnces, and not so far to have raved and raged nativity, the time of his own death; which occurred against those fair buildings and everlasting monuments I at the period he predicted, but not without some


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