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THE AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR OF IO GIRLS -OPERATORS

ATTENDING FACTORY SCHOOL AS COMPARED WITH THE
AVERAGE EARNINGS PER HOUR OF IO GIRLS-OPERATORS

NOT ATTENDING FACTORY SCHOOL
(CORRESPONDING AGE AND LENGTH OF EXPERIENCE)

32 weeks preceding opening of school: March 2.1913 Oct. 11.1913. Not attending tasa note below,

23.2 School

cents

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Not attending

22.8
cents

Attending

21.1
cents

school

12 weeks of school Not attending

school

23.1
cents

Atending

school

21.2
cents

16 weeks of school

Not attending

23.1
cents

school

school

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school

note :- By "not attending school" is meant ; nest attending the factoon school, having had previous pohooling.

Charted by B. Maruchess May 29.1914

under the direction of Cotton Garment Industry

Charles H. Winslow. Expert

. U.S.Bureau Data for Ishop

of Labor Statistics.

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girls has been increased from 10 per cent to 40 per cent. This result is in accordance with the established educational principle that increased intelligence creates increased efficiency, and increased efficiency produces increased earning capacity.

Not only have the girls gained in knowledge and earning power but their ambition has been aroused, they have a keen sense of the distinction between right and wrong and they are imbued with a better spirit.”

This leads up to the same conclusion that in working out of these extension schools, that while efficiency increases it found its place in the pay enevolpe of the employee, and a very interesting chart has been drawn, which indicates — the white line — those employees who were literates and in the shaded line those who were illiterates, showing that preceding the attendance at school those who had had previous educational advantages were earning 22.3 cents per hour, while those who had not thus attended school were earning 19.5 cents per hour. After four weeks of school those who had previously been literates were earning 23.4 cents while the earnings of those who had been attending school these four weeks, and who had been illiterates was 20.9 per hour. After eight weeks of school the relation of those two figures were 22.8 to 21.1; after twelve weeks 23.1 to 21.2, and after sixteen weeks of school those who had not been in the classes were earning 23.1, the earning capacity being practically stationary with the beginning of 23.2, while the earning capacity of those who had had the advantage of the school training bad increased from 19.5 to 22.2. By Mr. ELKUS:

Q. Do you know, Mr. Bloomingdale, whether that is piece work or wage work? A. Piece work.

Q. In other words, after they had this training they could do so much more work? A. After they had this training they were more capable and more efficient in turning out the work.

Q. And these illiterate girls were foreign born? A. Most of those who had been illiterate.

Q. Do you know whether there would be any objection on the part of these gentlemen to allowing the investigators of the commission to visit the factory and make such inspection as they want of the books ? A. Not only no objection, but I am sure they would

be perfectly delighted. It was because of your question to Doctor Dean and his inability to answer it categorically that I have gotten these figures and I will admit that I have not been able to digest them fully.

Commissioner DREIER: Were these immigrants illiterate?

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: I think mainly they were.

By Mr. ELKUS:

Q. The limit they reached is 23 cents, is that it? A. Yes.

Q. The literate limit is 23 cents ? A. The earning capacity of those that were literates at the beginning of the school year, that is whom it was not found desirable to include in these extension schools, had an earning capacity of 23.2 cents and the relation of those two figures is more significant in that it shows that this increase from 19.5 to 22.2. is not the result of a business development.

By Commissioner DREIER :

Q. Was there anything like a strike or anything of that kind ? A. No. Those who had previously been literates remained practically stationary while there was a steady increase in those who had elevated out of the darkness of illiteracy and brought to the point where they were able to comprehend.

Q. You don't know whether there was any strike during that time, I mean strike among the foreigners and not among the literates? A. I don't think there was any strike. They never have a strike.

By Commissioner GOMPERS :

Q. On what class of work were these girls employed ? A. I think they were all employed at the sewing machines. It is a white goods factory.

Mr. ELKUS: Shirts ?

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: No, women's undergarments.

Q. Do you know of any effort being made by workers in the same class of work outside of the establishment you have mentioned? A. Yes, I do, Mr. Gompers. This work is being generally developed in very many establishments. Not wanting to take advantage of the courtesy of Mr. Elkus in permitting me to interject myself in the proceedings I haven't read of others here, but the final clause of the report that I read first is, from time to time interested visitors, educators and employers visited the class, which received favorable attention and notice in the daily press, with the result that other employers were stimulated to establish similar classes. The gentleman who is at the head of this firm has prepared a very elaborate press report on this work, on its advantages both to industry and the individual, and on the duty that employers owe, and is intending to send it out in order that this principle may be still further developed, and has only hesitated in sending it out because during the present depression it occurred to him it was not a particularly desirable time to carry on a propaganda which might possibly mean a larger expenditure to employers.

By Mr. ELKUS:

Q. Isn't it a fact that some of the department stores have established classes during working hours for the improvement of the saleswomen? A. For the improvement of not only the saleswoman but for minor employees and those in the clerical departments.

Mr. PODELL: I would like to know if it isn't a fact that the reason for this extension school system in the factory and so on is not owing to it being a sound economic proposition and being advantageous to the employer and employee generally?

Mr. BLOOMINGDALE: It has been accepted for those reasons.

By Commissioner DREIER:

Q. I am informed that Sicher's is a union shop with preferential contracts ? A. I don't know. Miss Hill is here and perhaps she can answer that.

Miss HILL: It is an open shop. We have both union and otherwise,

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