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comfort in sickness, keep thy mind and body free, his trade, and his studies were suspended till the save thee from many perils, relieve thee in thy.elder bounty of Dr Parker, archbishop of Canterbury, years, relieve the poor and thy honest friends, and enabled him again to prosecute them. In 1565 he give means to thy posterity to live, and defend them | published his Summary of English Chronicles, dediselves and thine own fame. Where it is said in the cated to the Earl of Leicester, at whose request the Proverbs, “That he shall be sore vexed that is surety work was undertaken. Parker's death, in 1575, mafor a stranger, and he that hateth surt tyship is sure ;'terially reduced his income, but he still managed it is further said, 'Th. poor is hated even of his own to continue his researches, to which his whole time neighbour, but the rich have many friends.' Lend and energies were now devoted. At length, in 1598, not to him that is mightier than thyself, for if thou appeared his Survey of London, the best known of lendest him, count it but lost ; be not surety above his writings, and which has served as the groundthy power, for if thou be surety, think to pay it. work of all subsequent histories of the metropolis.

There was another work, his large Chronicle, or RICHARD CRAFTON.

History of England, on which forty years' labour had

been bestowed, which he was very desirous to pubWe now revert to a useful, though less brilliant, lish; but of this he succeeded in printing only an class of writers, the English chroniclers; a continu- abstract, entitled Flores Historiarum, or Annals of ous succession of whom was kept up during the England (1600). A volume published from his papers period of which we are now treating. The first who after his death, entitled Stow's Chronicle, does not attracts our attention is RICHARD GRAFTON, an contain the large work now mentioned, which, though individual who, in addition to the craft of author- left by him fit for the press, seems to have somehow ship, practised the typographical art in London in gone astray. In his old age he fell into such poverty, the reigns of llenry VIII. and three succeeding as to be driven to solicit charity from the public. inonarchs. Being printer to Edward VI., he was Having made application to James I., he received employed, after the death of that king, to prepare the the royal license to repair to churches, or other proclamation which declared the succession of Lady places, to receive the gratuities and charitable beneJane Grey to the crown. For this simply profes- volence of well-disposed people.' It is little to the sional act he was deprived of his patent, and osten- honour of the contemporaries of this worthy and insibly for the same reason committed to prison. While there, or at least while unemployed after the loss of his business, he compiled An Abridgment of the Chronicles of England, published in 1562, and of which a new edition, in two volumes, was published in 1809. Much of this work was borrowed from Hall; and the author, though sometimes referred to as an authority by modern compilers, holds but a low rank among English historians.




JOAN sTow. His contemporary, John Stow, enjoys a much higher reputation as an accurate and impartial recorder of public events. This industrious writer was born in London about the year 1525. Being the son of a tailor, he was brought up to that business, but early exhibited a decided turn for antiquarian research. About the year 1560, he formed the design of composing annals of English history, in consequence of which, he for a time abandoned his trade, and travelled on foot through a considerable part of England, for the purpose of examining the historical manuscripts preserved in cathedrals and other public establishments. He also enlarged, as far as his pecuniary resources allowed, his collection of old books and manuscripts, of which there were many scattered through the country, in consequence of the suppression of monasteries by Henry VIII.* Necessity, however, compelled him to resume


* Vast numbers of books were at this period wantonly destroyed. A number of them which purchased these supersti. tious mansions,' says Bishop Bale, reserved of those library

Stow's Monument in the church of St Andrew under books some to serve their jakes, some to scour their candle

Shaft, London. sticks, and some to rub their boots, and some they sold to the dustrious man, that he should have been thus litegrocers and soap-sellers, and some they sent over sea to book rally reduced to beggary. Under the pressure of binders, not in small numbers, but at times whole ships full. want and disease, Stow died in 1605, at the advanced Yea, the universities are not all clear in this detestable fact; but cursed is the belly which seeketh to be fed with so ungodly ries' (London, 1813). The splendid and magnificent abbey of gains, and so deeply shameth his native country. I know a Malmesbury,' says he, which possessed some of the finest merchantman (which shall at this time be nameless) that manuscripts in the kingdom, was ransacked, and its treasures bought the contents of two noble libraries for forty shillings either sold or burnt to serve the commonest purposes of life. price: a shame it is to be spoken. This stuff hath he occupied An antiquary who travelled through that town many years instead of grey paper, by the space of more than these ten years, after the dissolution, relates that he saw broken windows and yet hath he store enough for as many years to come.'- patched up with remnants of the inost valuable manuscripts Bale's Declaration, &c., quoted in . Collier's Eccles. Hist.'ii. 166. on vellum, and that the bakers had not even then consumed the Another illustration is given by the editor of Letters written by stores they had accumulated, in heating their ovens !' (Vol. i., Eminent Persons, in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centu. p. 278.)

age of eighty years. His works, though possessing quarto, published in London in 1807-8. It was from few graces of style, have always been esteemed for the translation of Boece that Shakspeare derived the accuracy and research. He often declared that, in ground-work of his tragedy of Macbeth. As a specomposing them, he had never allowed himself to be cimnen of these chronicles, we are tempted to quote swayed either by fear, favour, or malice; but that some of Harrison's sarcastic remarks on the degehe had impartially, and to the best of his knowledge, neracy of his contemporaries, their extravagance in delivered the truth. So highly was his accuracy dress, and the growth of luxury among them. Ilis esteemed by contemporary authors, that Bacon and account of the languages of Britain, however, being Camden took statements upon his sole credit. The peculiarly suited to the object of the present work, following extract is taken from the · Survey of Lon- and at the same time highly amusing from the don:

quaintness and simplicity of the style, it is here given

in preference to any other extract. [Sports upon the Ice in Elizabeth's Reign.] When that great moor which washeth Moorfields,

[The Languages of Britain.] at the north wall of the city, is frozen over, great com The British tongue called Cymric doth yet repanies of young men go to sport upon the ice ; then main in that part of the island which is now called fetching a run, and setting their feet at a distance, Wales, whither the Britons were driven after the and placing their bodies sidewise, they slide a great Saxons had made a full conquest of the other, which way. Others take heaps of ice, as if it were great we now call Eugland, although the pristine inte. mill-stones, and make seats ; many going before, I grity thereof be not a little diminished by mixture of draw him that sits thereon, holding one another by the Latin and Saxon speeches withal. Howbeit, many the hand in going so fast ; some slipping with their poesies and writings (in making whereof that nation feet, all fall down together : some are better practised hath evermore delighted) are yet extant in my time, to the ice, and bind to their shoes bones, as the legs whereby some ditterence between the ancient and of some beasts, and hold stakes in their hands headed present language may easily be discerned, notwithwith sharp iron, which sometimes they strike against standing that among all these there is nothing to be the ice ; and these men go on with speed as doth a found which can set down any sound and full testi. bird in the air, or darts shot from some warlike en- 1 mony of their own original, in remeinbrance whereof gine: sometimes two men set themselves at a distance, their bards and cunning men have been most slack and run one against another, as it were at tilt, with and nerlicent. these stakes, wherewith one or both parties are thrown Next unto the British speech, the Latin tongue was down, not without some hurt to their bodies; and after / brought in by the Romans, and in manner generally their fall, by reason of the violent motion, are carried planted through the whole region, as the French was a good distance from one another; and wheresoerer the

| after by the Normans. Of this tongue I will not say ice doth touch their head, it rubs off all the skin, and much, because there are few which be not skilful in lays it bare ; and if one fall upon his leg or arin, it the saine. Howbeit, as the speech itself is easy and is usually broken ; but young men greedy of honour, delectable, so hath it perverted the names of the and desirous of victory, đo thus exercise themselves in

ancient rivers, regions, and cities of Britain, in such counterfeit battles, that they may bear the brunt more

wise, that in these our days their old British denomistrongly when they come to it in good carnest. nations are quite grown out of memory, and yet those

of the new Latin left as most uncertain. This reRAPHAEL HOLINSHED-WILLIAM HARRISON JOHN

maineth, also, unto my time, borrowed from the HOOKER-FRANCIS BOTEVILLE.

Romans, that all our deeds, evidences, charters, and

writings of record, are set down in the Latin tongue, Among all the old chroniclers, none is more fre-though now very barbarous, and thereunto the copies quently referred to than RAPHAEL HOLINSHED, of and court-rolls, and processes of courts and leets whom, however, almost nothing is known, except registered in the same. that he was a principal writer of the chronicles The third language apparently known is the Scywhich bear his name, and that he died about the thian,* or High Dutch, induced at the first by the year 1580. Among his coadjutors were WILLIAM Saxons (which the Britons call Saysonacct as they do HARRISON, a clergyman, John HOOKER, an uncle the speakers Sayson), a hard and rough kind of speech, of the author of the Ecclesiastical Polity,' and God wot, when our nation was brought first into acFRANCIS BOTEVILLE, an individual of whom no-quaintance withal, but now changed with us into a thing has been recorded, but that he was a man of far more fine and easy kind of utterance, and so great learning and judgment, and a wonderful lover polished and helped with new and milder words, that of antiquities.' John Stow, also, was among the it is to be avouched how there is no one speech under contributors. Prefixed to the historical portion of the sun spoken in our time that hath or can have the work is a description of Britain and its inhabi- more variety of words, copiousness of phrases, or tants, by William Harrison, which continues to be figures and flowers of eloquence, than hath our Eng. highly valued, as affording an interesting picture of lish tongue, although some have affirmed us rather to the state of the country, and manners of the people, bark as dogs than talk like men, because the most of in the sixteenth century. This is followed by a his- our words (as they do indeed) incline unto one syllable. tory of England to the Norman Conquest, by Ilolin- This, also, is to be noted as a testiinony remaining shed; a history and description of Ireland, by still of our language, derived from the Saxons, that Richard Stanihurst; additional chronicles of Ireland, the general name, for the most part, of every skilful translated or written by Hooker, Holinshed, and artificer in his trade endeth in here with us, albeit the Stanihurst; a description and history of Scotland, I be left out, and er only inserted, as, scriren here, mostly translated from Hector Boece, by Holinshed writehere, shiphere, &c.--for scrivener, writer, and or Ilarrison; and, lastly, a history of England, by shipper, &c. ; beside many other relics of that speech, Holinshed, from the Norman Conquest to 1577, when never to be abolished. the first edition of the Chronicles' was published. In After the Saxon tongue came the Norman or French the second edition, which appeared in 1587, several ' *

* It is scarcely necessary to remark, that this term shects containing matter offensive to the queen and misapplied

is bere her ministers were omitted; but these have been + The Highlanders of Scotland still speak of the English as restored in the excellent edition in six volumes | Sassenach (meaning Saxons),

language orer into our country, and therein were our , in mine opinion, they are both but a corrupted kind laws written for a long time. Our children, also, of British, albeit so far degenerating in these days were, by an especial decree, taught first to speak the from the old, that if either of them do ineet with a saine, and thereunto enforced to learn their construc- Welshman, they are

onstruc- Welshman, they are not able at the first to understand tions in the French, whensoever they were set to the one another, except here and there in some odd words, grammar-school. In like sort, few bishops, abbots, or without the help of interpreters. And no marvel, in other clergymen, were admitted unto any ecclesiastical mine opinion, that the British of Cornwall is thus function here among us, but such as came out of corrupted, since the Welsh tongue that is spoken in religious houses from beyond the seas, to the end they the north and south part of Wales doth differ so much should not use the English tongue in their sermons to in itself, as the English used in Scotland doth from the people. In the court, also, it grew into such con- that which is spoken among us here in this side of tempt, that most men thought it no small dishonour the island, as I have said already. to speak any English there ; which bravery took his The Scottish-English hath been much broader and hold at the last likewise in the country with every less pleasant in utterance than ours, because that ploughman, that eren the very carters began to wax nation hath not, till of late, endeavoured to bring the weary of their mother-tongue, and laboured to speak same to any perfect order, and yet it was such in French, which as then was counted no small token of manner as Englishinen themselves did speak for the gentility. And no marvel ; for every French rascal, most part beyond the Trent, whither any great amendwhen he came once hither, was taken for a gentleman, ment of our language had not, as then, extended only because he was proud, and could use his own itself. How beit, in our time the Scottish language language. And all this (I say) to exile the English endeavoureth to come near, if not altogether to match, and British speeches quite out of the country. But our tongue in fineness of phrase and copiousness of in vain ; for in the time of king Edward I., to wit, words, and this may in part appear by a history of toward the latter end of his reign, the French itself the Apocrypha translated into Scottish verse by Hudceased to be spoken generally, but most of all and by son, dedicated to the king of that country, and conlaw in the inidst of Edward III., and then began the taining six books, except my memory do fail me.. English to recover and grow in more estimation than before ; notwithstanding that, among our artificers, the most part of their implements, tools, and words

RICHARD HAKLUYT. of art, retain still their French denominations even

RICHARD IIAKLUYT is another of the laborious comto these our days, as the language itself is used like

1 pilers of this period, to whom the world is indebted wise in sundry courts, books of record, and matters of

for the preservation, in an accessible form, of narralaw; whereof here is no place to make any particular rehearsal.

tives which would otherwise, in all probability, have Afterward, also, by diligent travail of

fallen into oblivion. The department of history which Geoffrey Chaucer and John Gower, in the time of Richard II., and after them of John Scogan and John

he chose was that descriptive of the naval adven

tures and discoveries of his countrymen. Hakluyt Lydgate, monk of Bury, our said tongue was brought

was born in London about the year 1553, and received to an excellent pass, notwithstanding that it never

his elementary education at Westminster school. lle came unto the type of perfection until the time of Queen Elizabeth, wherein John Jewel, bishop of Sarum,

afterwards studied at Oxford, where he engaged in John Fox, and sundry learned and excellent writers,

an extensive course of reading in various languages, have fully accomplished the ornature of the same, to

on geographical and maritime subjects, for which their great praise and immortal commendation ; al

he had early displayed a strong liking. So much though not a few other do greatly seek to stain the

reputation did his knowledge in those departments same, by fond affectation of foreign and strange words,

acquire for him, that he was appointed to lecture presuming that to be the best English which is most

at Oxford on cosmography and the collateral sciences, corrupted with external terins of eloquence and sound

and carried on a correspondence with those celeof many syllables. But as this excellency of the

brated continental geographers, Ortelius and VierEnglish tongue is found in one, and the south part cator. At a subsequent period, he resided for five of this island, so in Wales the greatest number (as years i

years in Paris as chaplain to the English ambasI said) retain still their own ancient language, that

sador, during which time he cultivated the acquaintof the north part of the said country being less cor- / ance of persons eminent for their knowledge of runted than the other, and therefore reputed for the geography and maritime history. On his return better in their own estimation and judgment. This, / from France in 1588, Sir Walter Ralcigh appointed also, is proper to us Englishmen, that since ours is a him one of the society of counsellors, assistants, and middle or intermediate language, and neither too adventurers, to whom he assigned his patent for rough nor too smooth in utterance, we may with much the prosecution of discoveries in America. Prefacility learn any other language, beside Hebrew, | viously to this, he had published, in 1582 and 1587, Greek, and Latin, and speak it naturally, as if we two small collections of voyages to America ; but were home-born in those countries ; and yet on the these are included in a much larger work in three other side it falleth out, I wot not by what other volumes, which he published in 1598, 1599, and 1600, means, that few foreign nations can rightly pronounce entitled The Principal Navigations, Voyages, Trafours, without some and that great note of imperfection, I fiques, and Discoveries of the English Nation, made by especially the Frenchmen, who also seldom write any - Sea or Over Land, to the Remote and Tarthest Distant thing that savoureth of English truly. But this of Quarters of the Earth, within the Compass of these 1500 all the rest doth breed most adıniration with me, that years. In the first volume are contained voyages if any stranger do hit upon some likely pronunciation to the north and north-east; the true state of Iceof our tongue, yet in age he swerveth so much from land; the defeat of the Spanish Armada; the expethe same, that he is worse therein than ever he was, dition under the Earl of Essex to Cadiz, &c. In the and thereto, peradventure, halteth not a little also in second, he relates voyages to the south and southhis own, as I have seen by experience in Reginald east; and in the third, expeditious to North AmeWolfe, and others, whereof I have justly marvelled. rica, the West Indies, and round the world. Nar.

The Cornish and Devonshire men, whose country ratives are given of nearly two hundred and twenty the Britons call Cerniw, have a speech in like sort of voyages, besides many relative docunients, such as their own, and such as hath indeed more affinity with patents, instructions, and letters. To this collection the Armorican tongue than I can well discuss of. Yet all the subsequent compilers in this department have been largely indebted. In the explanatory catalogue that of interlarding theological reflections and disprefixed to Churchill's Collection of Voyages,' and cussions with his narratives. Purchas died about of which Locke has been said to be the author, 1628, at the age of fifty-one. His other works are, Hakluyt's collection is spoken of as valuable for Microcosinus, or the Ilistory of Man (1619); the Kiny's the good there to be picked out: but it might be Touer and Triumphant Arch of London (1623); and wished the author had been less voluminous, deli- a Funeral Sermon (1619). His quaint eulogy of the vering what was really authentic and useful, and sea is here extracted from the · Pilgrimage:not stuffing his work with so many stories taken upon trust, so many trading voyages that have

[The Sea.] nothing new in them, so many warlike exploits not at all pertinent to his undertaking, and such a As God hath combined the sea and land into one multitude of articles, charters, privileges, letters, globe, so their joint combination and mutual assist. relations, and other things little to the purpose of ance is necessary to secular happiness and glory. The travels and discoveries.'* The work having become sea covereth one-half of this patrimony of man, whereof very scarce, a new edition, in five volumes quarto, God set him in possession when he said, “Replenish was published in 1809. Hakluyt was the author, the earth, and subdue it, and have dominion over the also, of translations of two foreign works on Florida; fish of the sea, and over the fowl of the air, and over and, when at Paris, published an enlarged edition of every living thing that moveth upon the earth.' * * a history in the Latin language, entitled De Rebus Thus should man at once lose half his inheritance, if the Oceanicis et Orbe Novo, by Martyr, an Italian author; art of navigation did not enable him to manage this this was afterwards translated into English by a untamed beast, and with the bridle of the winds and person of the name of Lok, under the title of the saddle of his shipping to make him serviceable. Now History of the West Indies, containing the Acts and for the services of the sea, they are innumerable: it Adventures of the Spaniards, which have Conquered and is the great purveyor of the world's commodities to Peopled those Countries; enriched with Variety of Plea- our use; conveyer of the excess of rivers ; uniter, by sant Relation of Manners, Ceremonies, Laws, Govern- traffick, of all nations : it presents the eye with diverments, and Wars, of the Indians. In 1601 Hakluytsified colours and motions, and is, as it were, with published the Discoveries of the World, from the First rich brooches, adorned with various islands. It is an Original to the Year of our Lord 1555, translated, open field for merchandise in peace; a pitched field with additions, from the Portuguese of Antonio for the most dreadful fights of war; yields diversity Galvano, governor of Ternate, in the East Indies. of fish and fowl for diet; materials for wealth, mediAt his death, in 1616, his papers, which were nume

| cine for health, simples for medicines, pearls, and rous, came into the hands of

other jewels for ornament ; amber and ambergrise for delight; the wonders of the Lord in the deep' for

instruction, variety of creatures for use, multiplicity SAMUEL PURCHAS,

of natures for contemplation, diversity of accidents

for admiration, compendiousness to the way, to full another English clergy man, who made use of them bodies healthful evacuation, to the thirsty earth fertile in compiling a history of voyages, in four volumes,

moisture, to distant friends pleasant meeting, to weary entitled Purchas his Pilgrims. This appeared in

persons delightful refreshing, to studious and religious 1625; but the author had already published, in 1613,

minds a map of knowledge, mystery of temperance, before Hakluyt's death, a volume called Purchas his

exercise of continence; school of prayer, meditation, Pilgrimage ; or, Relations of the World, and the Reli

devotion, and sobriety; refuge to the distressed, porgions Oberred in all Ayes and Places Discovered from

tage to the merchant, passage to the traveller, customs the Creation unto this Present. These two works (a to the prince, springs, lakes, rivers, to the earth ; it new edition of the latter of which was published in hath on it tempests and calms to chastise the sins, to 1620) form a continuation of Ilakluyt's collection, exercise the faith, of seamen ; manifold affections in but on a more extended plan. The publication of itself, to affect and stupify the subtlest philosopher : this voluminous work involved the author in debt : sustaineth moveable fortresses for the soldier ; mainit was, lowever, well received, and has been of taineth (as in our island) a wall of defence and watery much utility to later compilers. The writer of the

garrison to guard the state ; entertains the sun with catalogue in Churchill's collection says of Purchas, l vapours, the moon with obsequiousness, the stars also that he has imitated Hakluyt too much, swelling with a natural looking-glass, the sky with clouds, the his work into five volumes in folio;' yet, he adds, air with temperateness, the soil with suppleness, the

the whole collection is very valuable, as having rivers with tides, the hills with moisture, the valleys preserved many considerable voyages that might with fertility ; containeth most diversitied matter otherwise have perished. But, like Hakluyt, he has meteors, most multiform shapes, most various, numethrown in all that came to hand, to fill up so many | rous kinds, most immense, difformed, detorined, unvolumes, and is excessive full of his own notions, | formed monsters ; once (for why should I longer detain and of mean quibbling and playing upon words; yet you ?) the sea yields action to the body, meditation for such as can make choice of the best, the collec- to the mind, the world to the world, all parts thereof tion is very valuable.'I Among his peculiarities is to each part, by this art of arts, navigation.


* Churchill's Collection, vol. i., p. xvii.

JOHN DAVIS. + The contents of the different volumes are as follow : Vol. I. of the Pilgrims' contains Voyages and Travels of Ancient Among the intrepid navigators of Queen ElizaKings, Patriarchs, Apostles, and Philosophers; Voyages of Cir-beth's reign, whose adventures are recorded by Hakcuinnavigators of the Globe ; and Voyages along the coasts of

luyt, one of the most distinguished is John DAVIS, Africa to the East Indies, Japan, China, the Philippine Islands,

| a native of Devonshire, who, in 1585, and the two and the Persian and Arabian Gulfs. Vol. II. contains Voyages and Relations of Africa, Ethiopia, Palestine, Arabia, Persia,

following years, made three voyages in search of a and other parts of Asia. Vol. III. contains Tartary, China,

north-west passage to China, and discovered the Russia, North-West America, and the Polar Regions. Vol. IV.

well-known straits to which his name has ever since contains America and the West Indies, Vol. V. contains the

been applied. In 1595 he himself published a small Pilgrimage, a Theological and Geographical Ilistory of Asia, and now exceedingly rare volume, entitled The Africa, and Americu.

World's llydrographical Description, wherein,' as * Vol. i., p. xvii.

we are told in the title-page, is proued not onely

by aucthoritie of writers, but also by late experience | Dartmouth. And acquainting master Secretory with of trauellers, and reasons of substantiall probabilitie, the rest of the honorable and worshipfull adventurers that the worlde in all his zones, clymats, and places, of all our procedinges, I was appointed againe the is habitable and inhabited, and the seas likewise seconde yeere to search the bottome of this straight, universally nauigable, without any naturall anoy- / because by all likelihood it was the place and passage ance to hinder the same; whereby appeares that by us laboured for. In this second attempt the inerfrom England there is a short and speedie passage chants of Exeter and other places of the West beinto the South Seas to China, Malucca, Phillipina, came adventurers in the action, so that, being sutiand India, by northerly navigation, to the renowne, ciently furnished for sixe monthes, and having direction honour, and benefit of her maiesties state and com- to search this straighte, untill we found the same to munalty.' In corroboration of these positions, he fall into an other sea upon the West side of this part gives a short narrative of his voyages, which, not- of America, we should agayne retourne, for then it was withstanding the unsuccessful termination of them not to be doubted but shiping with trade inight all, he considers to afford arguments in favour of safely bee conueied to China and the parts of Asia. the north-west passage. This narrative, with its We departed from Dartrnouth, and ariving unto the original spelling, is here inserted as an interesting south part of the cost of Desolation costed the same specimen of the style of such relations in the age of upon his west shore to the lat. of 66. decres, and Elizabeth.

there ancored among the ylls bordering upon the same,

where wee refreshed our selues. The people of this place [Darix's Voyages in Search of the North-West Passage.] | came likewise ynto vs, by whome I vnderstood through

their signes that towardes the North the sea was large. In my first royage, not experienced of the nature At this place the chiefe shipe whereupon I trusted, of those clymattes, and having no direction either by called the Mermayd of Dartmouth, found many occaChart, Globe, or other certayne relation in what alti-sions of discontentment, and being unwilling to protude that passage was to bee searched, I shaped a ceede she there forsooke me. Then considering howe Northerly course and so sought the same towards the I had giuen my fayth and most constant promise to South, and in that my Northerly course I fell upon my worshipfull good friend master Williain Sanderthe whore which in ancient time was called Groynland, son, who of all men was the greatest aduenturer in fiue hundred leagues distant from the durseys West that action, and tooke such care for the perfourmance Nor West Northerly, the land being very high and thcerof that hee hath to my knowledge at one time full of mightie mountaines all couered with snow, no disbursed as much money as any fiue others whatsoviewe of wood, grasse, or earth to be seene, and the eurer out of his owne purse, when some of the comshore two leages of into the sea so full of yse as that pany have bin slacke in giuing in their aduenture. no ubipping cold by any meanes come neere the same. I And also knowing that I sho

hat I should lose the fauour of The lothsome rewe of the shore, and irksome noyse of master Secretory, if I should shrinke from his direction, the yse was such, as that it bred strange conceipts ainong in one small barke of thirty tonnes, whereof master us, so that we supposed the place to be wast and voyd Sanderson was owner, alone without farther comfort or of any sencible or vegitable creatures, wherupon Icompany I proceeded on my voyage, and ariuing unto called the same Desolation; so coasting this shore this straights followed the same eightie leages, vntill towardes the South in the latitude of sixtie degrees, I l I came among many ylandes, where the water did eb found it to trend towardes the west. I still followed and flowe sixe fadome vpright, and where there had the leading thereof in the same height, and after fiftie beene great trade of people to make trayne. But by or sixtie leayes, it fayled and lay directly north, which such thinges as there we found, wce knewe that t I still followed, and in thirtie leaves savlin upon the were not Xtians of Europe that ysed that trade ; in West side of this coast by me named Desolation, we fine, by seaching with our boate, wee founde small mere past all the yse and found many greene and hope to passe any farther that way, and therefore plesant Ills bordering upon the shore, but the moun- retourning againe recouered the sea and so coasted tains of the inaine were still covered with great quan- the shore towardes the South, and in so doing (for it tities of snowe. I brought my shippe among those ylls was to late to search towardes the North) wee founde and there mored to refreshe our selves in our wearie an other great inlett neere fortie lea ges broade where travell, in the latitude of sixtie foure degrees or there the water entred in with violent swiftnes. This we about. The people of the country, having espyed our likewise thought might be a passage, for no doubt but shipps, came down unto us in their canoes, holding up the North partes of America are all ylands, by ought their right hand to the Sunne and crying Yliaout, that I could perceiue therein ; but because I was alone would stricke their brestes; we doing the like the in a small barke of thirtie tonnes, and the yeere people came aborde our shippes, mien of good stature, spent I entered not into the same, for it was now the unbearded, small eyed and of tractable conditions ; by seuenth of September, but coaxting the shore towardes whom, as signes would permit, we understoode that the South we saw an incredible number of birdes. towardes the North and West there was a great sea, Hauing diuers fishermen aborde our barke, they all and using the people with kindnesse in geuing them concluded that there was a great scull of fish. Wee nayles and knifes which of all things they most de- beeing vnprouided of fishing furniture, with a long sired, we departed, and finding the sea free from yse, spike nayle mayde a hoke, and fastening the same to supposing our selves to be past all daunger, we shaped one of our sounding lynes. Before the bayte was our course West Nor West, thinking thereby to passe changed wee tooke more than fortie great cods, the for China, but in the latitude of sixtie sixe degrees, fishe swimming so aboundantly thicke about our wee fell with an other shore, and there founde an barke as is incredible to be reported of, which with a other passage of 20 leages broade directly West into small portion of salte that we had, wee preserued the same, which we supposed to bee our hoped strayght. some thirtie couple, or there aboutes, and so returned We intered into the same thirty or fortie leagcs, finding for England. And hauing reported to master Secreit neithertowyden nor straighten; then, considering that tory the whole successe of this attempt, hee comthe yeere was spent, for this was in the fyne of August, manded mee to present unto the most honorable and not knowing the length of this straight and dan- Lorde high thresurer of England some parte of that gers thereof, we tooke it our best course to retourne fish, which when his Lordship saw and hearde at large with potice of our good successe for this small time the relation of this seconde attempt, I receiued fauor. of search. And so retourning in a sharpe fret of able countenance from his honour, aduising mee to Westerly windes, the 29 of September we arrived at prosecute the action, of which his Lordship conceiuen

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