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bishops and their officials, the same distinction of ranks, and offices with the church of Rome. The Greek church comprehends in its bosom a considerable part of Greece, the Grecian isles, Wallachia, Moldavia, Egypt, Abyssinia, Nubia, Lydia, Arabia, Mesopotamia, Syria, Silicia, and Palestine ; Alexandria, Antioch, and Jerusalem; the whole of the Russian empire in Europe; great part of Siberia in Asia; Astracan, Casan, and Georgia. The riches of some of the Greek churches and monasteries, in jewels, (particularly pearls) in plate, and in the habits of the clergy, are very great, and not much inferior to those in Roman Catholic countries,

Select Books on Ecclesiastical History. Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History, continued to the end of the 18th century, by Dr. Coote, 6 vuls. 8vo. Jortin's Remarks ou Ecclesiastical History, 3 vols. 8vo. Milner's History of the Church of Christ. Five volumes only of this work have yet been published. Mc Crie's Life of John Knox, 8vo. He'ss' Life of Zuingle, by Miss Aikin, 12mo.

Christian Secte. A brief account of these may be found in Mr. Evans' excellent and compendious Sketch of the difierent Dénomi. nations of the Christian w orld, 8vo. or 12no. and Sequel to com, plete the work, H. Adams' View of Religions, 8vo. or 12mo, and Buck's Theological Dictionary, 2 vols. 8vo. This last is an excellent Digest, written with candous and impartiality, of the most important subjects in Theology, and Ecclesiastical History.". To all these works we are indebted for the information comprised in 2. Adam's Religious World Displayed, 3 vols. 8vo.


1. BIOGRAPHY is a species of history, which records the lives and characters of remarkable persous, This is at once the most entertaining and instructive kind of history, It admits of all the colouring of romance, but with this very essential difference, that our passions are more keenly ipterested; because the characters and incidents are not only agreeable to pature, but strictly true. Few books çan, with more propriety, be put into the bands of young persons than well written pieces of biography; which, while they exhibit the failings of individuals, serve as a beacon to caution the unwary against error; and which at the rame time that they display the excellencies of a particular


character, point out, with equal fidelity, the means by which similar excellencies may be attained.

2. As the subjects of biography are the lives of either public or private persons, many useful observations may be made from authentic accounts of those who have been eminently beneficial to 'society. The lives of immoral characters may serve as a warning to deter others, and especially youth, from listening to the temptations of folly and vice. Posterity should ever perpetuate the memory of those philanthropists, who have exposed their lives, or employed their faculties, in the service of their fellow-creatures. This act is but a just tribute of public gratitude, and serves to treasure up, in the annals of history, a multitude of virtuous examples. The love of fame is natural to the human mind; and, when properly directed, is at once, productive of happiness to the individual, and general benefit to inankind. In the lives of great men, their public characters are principally to be regarded; the investigation of their private conduct may also occasionally be useful, to illustrate the influence of example; but, too nrinute an inquiry into the foibles and infirmities of eminent men, is highly illiberal, and can never be sufficiently deprecated, The best exemplifications of the interesting and useful department of biography will be found in the following list.

Select Books on Biography. Watkins' Biographical Dictionary, 8vo. Lempriere's Classical Dictionary, 8vo. Chalmers' Biographical Dictionary, 8vo. nowiu course of publication. . Platarch's Lives, translated by Langhorne, 6 vols. 8vo. Mavor's Abridgment of Plutarch, 12mo. Mavor's British Nepos, 12mo. Johnson's Lives of the Poets. 3 yols. 12mo. Bp. Burnet's Lives, 12mo. Hunter's Sacred Biography, 5 vols. 8vo." Robinson's Scriptore Characters, 4 vols. 8vo. or 12mo. Lindley Murray's Power of Religion on the Mind, 8vo. or 12mo.

Memoirs of Colonel Hutchinson, 8vo. Jortin's Life of Erasmus, 3 vols. 8vo. Forbes' Life of Dr. Beattie, 4 vols, 8vo. Pennington's Life of Mrs. Carter, 2 vols. 8vo. Hayley's Life of Cowper, 4 vols. 8vo. Macdiarmid's Lives of British Statesmen, 4to. Wordsworth's Ecclesiastical Biography, 5 vots. 8vo. Cumberland's Memoirs of himself, 2 vols. 8vo. Mudford's Critical Examination of the Life and Writings of Cumberland, 2 vols. 8vo,., Bausset's Life of Fene. Ion by Mudford, 2 vols. 8vo. Butler's Lives of Fenelon and Bossuet, 12mo. Nichols Literary Anecdotes of the 18th century,

with Index, 7 vols. 8vo.

CHAP. IV.-HERALDRY. 1. HERALDRY teaches the knowledge of those marks of honour commonly called coats of arms. Its chief use consists iu explaining the several distinctions established among mankind, -ju enabling us to pay proper regard to perfons of rank and quality,--in assisting us to trace the genealogies of families, -and in exciting men to imitate the virtues of their ancestors. Arms were formerly called symbola, because they were the marks or badges given to the soldiers by their commanders, to distinguish ihem as well among themselves, as from their enemies;- from these devices were derived coats of arms. Iu process of time, they were bestowed upon persons as badges of honour, for some signal services; and accordingly, arms took their denomi. nation from those devices, which martial men used to have painted or engraven upon their shields.

2. The antiquity of these devices is very remarkable, there being scarcely a nation in the universe which does not distinguish itself by something of this kind. The Israelites made choice of the Hebrew letter Tau; the Scythians, a Thunderbolt; the Egyptians, an Ox; the Phrygians, a Swine, the Thracians, Mars; the Romans, an Eagle; the Persians, a Bow and Arrows; the Goths, a Bear. At the siege of Troy, we learn from Homer, that the heroes had their respective devices upon their shields; that of Achilles is an excellent example of the antiquity of this practice. Emperors, generals, captains, and other great officers chose such bearings for themselves as best suited their rank and station, or were thought to resemble some virtue, quality, or character, for which they were emiuently conspicuous.

3. During the imperial government of Theodosius, and in the time of Charles the Great, heraldry received material improvements, and arms were more frequently used. They were at first confined to the camp, but afterwards were besa towed upon persons of learning and nierit, and upon all those who bad rendered any service to their country. This method of rewarding merit is ascribed to the bounty of Charles IV. who, conceiving that the services of good mi. nisters and able counsellors, were of no less importance to a state, than the conduct of generals and milijiry comman

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ders, thought, and justly, that both should be equally distinguished. Accordingly, we are told, he conferred a coat of arms upon one Bartholus, a learned civilian, who is reported to have been the first of the profession entitled to this honourable privilege.

The example bas been followed by most civilized prioces. Without some knowledge of heraldry, the descendants of families entitled to armorial distinctions, must for ever remain ignorant of the circumstances which procured them these honours.

4. The art of heraldry consists in blazoning and marshalling. The word blazoning is a term of art, borrowed from the French word emblazoner; and signifies displaying or explaining the several emblems and colours of an achievment in proper terms. The blazoning of the arms of gentlemen, esquires, kuights, and baronets, is derived from metals and colours; those of barons, viscounts, earls, marquisses, and dukes, from precious stones; and those of princes, kings, and emperors, from the planets. Marshalling is the orderly disposition of several coats of arms, belonging originally to differeut families, within one shield or escocheon, together with all the proper armorial eusigns, , oruanients, aud decorations.

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$ 1. Order of the Garter. 1. This order is military, and was instituted by Edward III. in 1344, under the title of the Sovereign, and Knightscompanions

of the most noble order of the Garter. There were some alterations made in 1557, and 1788. It consists of twenty-six kuights or companions, generally all peers or princes; of whom the king of England is sovereign, or chief. They are a corporation, baving a great and little seal; their officers are, a prelate, chancellor, register, hing at arms, and usher. They have also a dean and twelve canons, with petty canons, vergers, and twentysix pensioners, or poor kuights. The order is under the patroriage or protection of St. George of Cappadocia, the tutelar saint of this kingdoin. Their college is held in Wind ior-castle, within the chapel of St. George, and the chapter-house, erected by the founder for that purpose.

2. The origin of this order is differently related by different authors. The common account is, that it was erected in honour of a garter of the countess of Salisbury, which she dropped in dancing, and which was picked up by king Edward; but our best antiquaries denounce this as fabulous. Camden, Fern, and others, think it was instituted on occasion of the victory obtained over the French at the battle of Cressy; when Edward ordered his garter to be displayed as a signal of battle; to commemorate this, he made a garter the principal ornament of the order, erected in memory of this signal victory, and a symbol of the indissoluble union of the knights.

3. The habit and ensigns of the order, are, a surcoat, garter, mantle, hood, george, collar, cap, and feathers. The motto on the garter and star is, Honi soit qui mal y pense, (evil be to him that evil thinks.) The garter is of blue velvet bordered with gold. The george is the figure of St. George, on Horseback, in armour, encountering a dragon with a tilting spear, the whole of gold enamelled. It may be enriched with jewels at the pleasure of the pos

It is worn across the rigbt shoulder pendant to a garter blue or dark riband. The collar is of gold. Charles II. ordained that the knights should always wear in public, embroidered on the left side of their coats or cloaks, the cross of St. George, surrounded with the garter, with rays of silver, forming a star of eight points.

4. This is the most antient and noble lay order in the world, and the only one which has been granted to foreign princes. Of this illustrious order there have been eight emperors of Germany; five kings of France ; three kings of Spain; one king of Arragon; seven kings of Portugal; one king of Poland; two kings of Sweden; six kings of Denmark; two kings of Naples; one king of Sicily and Jerusalem; one king of Bohemia; two kings of Scotland; five princes of Orange; and 34 foreign electors, dukes, margraves, and counts.

At a chapter held June 3d, 1786, it was ordained that in future this order should consist of the sovereign, and twenty-five knights, exclusive of the sot's of his majesty, or his successors, who have been or shall be elected knights of this most noble order.


34 foreign electors, dukes,

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