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still worse and worse. Then would he tell them tale, forsooth, he cometh unto you, with a tale which stories of such gallants as he had known; and so, holdeth children from play, and old men from the with pleasant company, beguiled the time's haste, and chimney corner; and pretending no more, doth intend shortened the way's length, till they came to the side the winning of the mind from wickedness to virtue ; of the wood, where the hounds were in couples, stay-even as the child is often brought to take most wholeing their coming, but with a whining accent craving some things, by hiding them in such other as have a liberty ; many of them in colour and marks so re- pleasant taste; which, if one should begin to tell them sembling, that it showed they were of one kind. The the nature of the aloes or rhubarbarum they sbould huntsmen handsomely attired in their green liveries, receive, would sooner take their physic at their ears as though they were children of summer, with staves than their mouth. So is it in men (most of whom in their hands to beat the guiltless earth, when the are childish in the best things, till they be cradled in hounds were at a fault; and with horns about their their graves). Glad they will be to hear the tales of necks, to sound an alarm upon a silly fugitive; the Hercules, Achilles, Cyrus, Æneas; and hearing them, hounds were straight uncoupled, and ere long the must needs hear the right description of wisdom, stag thought it better to trust to the nimbleness of valour, and justice ; which, if they had been barely his feet than to the slender fortification of his lodge (that is to say, philosophically) set out, they would ing ; but even his feet betrayed him ; for, howsoever swear they be brought to school again. they went, they themselves uttered themselves to the scent of their enemies, who, one taking it of another,
LORD BURLEIGU. and sometimes believing the wind's advertisements, sometimes the view of their faithful counsellors) Another of the favourites of Queen Elizabeth was the huntsmen, with open mouths, then denounced WILLIAM CECIL, LORD BURLEIGH, who, for forty war, when the war was already begun. Their cry years, ably and faithfully served her in the capabeing composed of so well-sorted mouths, that any city of secretary of state. He died in 1598, at the man would perceive therein some kind of propor-age of seventy-six. As a minister, this celebrated tion, but the skilful woodmen did find a music. individual was distinguished for wariness, appliThen delight and variety of opinion drew the horse cation, sagacity, calmness, and a degree of closemen sundry ways, yet cheering their hounds with ness which sometimes degenerated into hypocrisy. voice and horn, kept still, as it were, together. The Most of these qualities characterised also what is, wood seemed to conspire with them against his own properly speaking, his sole literary production; citizens, dispersing their noise through all his quarters ; namely, Precepts or Directions for the Well Ordering and even the nymph Echo left to bewail the loss of and Carriage of a Man's Life. These precepts were Narcissus, and became a hunter. But the stag was addressed to his son, Robert Cecil, afterwards Earl in the end so hotly pursued, that, leaving his flight, of Salisbury. Some of them are here subjoined. he was driven to make courage of despair; and so turning his head, made the hounds, with change of speech, to testify that he was at a bay : as if from hot
[Choice of a life.] pursuit of their enemy, they were suddenly come to a When it shall please God to bring thce to man's parley.
estate, use great providence and circumspection in
choosing thy wife. For from thence will spring all [Praise of Poetry.]
thy future good or evil. And it is an action of life,
like unto a stratagem of war; wherein a man can err The philosopher showeth you the way, he informeth but once. If thy estate be good, match near home you of the particularities, as well of the tediousness and at leisure ; if weak, far off and quickly. Inquire of the way, as of the plcasant lodging you shall have diligently of her disposition, and how her parents hare when your journey is ended, as of the many bye-turn- / been inclinedl in their youth. Let her not be poor, ings that may divert you from your way ; but this is how generous soever. For a man can buy nothing in to no man, but to him that will read him, and read the market with gentility. Nor choose a base and him with attentive studious painfulness ; which con- uncomely creature altogether for wealth ; for it will stant desire whosoever hath in him, liath already passed cause contempt in others, and loathing in thee. Neither half the hardness of the way, and therefore is beholden make choice of a dwarf, or a fool; for, by the one thou to the philosopher but for the other half. Nay, truly, shalt beget a race of pigmnies; the other will be thy learned men have learnedly thought, that where once continual disgrace, and it will yirke thee to hear her reason hath so much overmastered passion, as that talk. For thou shalt find it, to thy great grief, that the mind hath a free desire to do well, the inward light there is nothing more fulsome than a she-fool. each man hath in itself is as good as a philosopher's book; since in nature we know it is well to do well,
[Domestic Economy.] and what is well and what is evil, although not in the words of art which philosophers bestow upon us ; for And touching the guiding of thy house, let thy out of natural conceit the philosophers drew it. But hospitality be moderate, and, according to the means to be moved to do that which we know, or to be mored of thy estate, rather plentiful than sparing, but not with desire to know, 'hoc opas hic labor est'-- ['this is costly. For I never knew any man grow poor by keepthe grand difficulty.')
ing an orderly table. But some consume themselves Now, therein, of all sciences (I speak still of human, through secret vices, and their hospitality bears the and according to the human conceit) is our poet the blame. But banish swinish drunkards out of thine monarch. For he doth not only show the way, but house, which is a vice impairing health, consuming giveth so sweet a prospect into the way, as will entice much, and makes no show. I never heard praise any man to enter into it. Nay, he doth, as if your jour- ascribed to the drunkard, but for the well-bearing of ncy should lie through a fair vineyard, at the very first, his drink ; which is a better commendation for a give you a cluster of grapes; that, full of that taste, brewer's horse or a drayman, than for either a gentleyou may long to pass farther. He beginneth not with man or a serving-man. Beware thou spend not above obscure definitions ; which must blur the margin with three of four parts of thy revenues ; nor above a third interpretations, and load the memory with doubtful- part of that in thy house. For the other two parts ness; but he cometh to you with words set in delight-will do no more than defray thy extraordinaries, which ful proportion, either accompanied with, or prepared for, the well enchanting skill of music ; and with a
always surmount the ordinary by much ; otherwise marriage, which proved a constant source of annoythou shalt live like a rich beggar, in continual want. ance to him during life. The circumstances of this And the needy man can never live happily nor con- union, which place in a strong light the simple and tentedly. For every disaster makes him ready to unsuspecting nature of the man, were these. Having mortgage or sell. And that gentleman, who sells ,an been appointed to preach at Paul's Cross in London, acre of land, sells an ounce of credit. For gentility he put up at a house set apart for the reception of is nothing else but ancient riches. So that if the the preachers. On his arrival there from Oxford, foundation shall at any time sink, the building must he was wet and weary, but received so much kindneeds follow.
[Education of Children.] Bring thy children up in learning and obedience, yet without outward austerity. Praise them openly, reprehend them secretly. Give them good countenance and convenient maintenance according to thy ability, otherwise thy life will seem their bondage, and what portion thou shalt leave them at thy death, they will thank death for it, and not thee. And I am persuaded that the foolish cockering of some parents, and the over-stern carriage of others, causeth more men and women to take ill courses, than their own vicious inclinations. Marry thy daughters in time, lest they marry themselves. And suffer not thy sons to pass the Alps ; for they shall learn nothing there but pride, blasphemy, and atheism. And if by travel they get a few broken languages, that shall profit them nothing more than to have one meat served in divers dishes. Neither, by my consent, shalt thou train them up in wars; for he that sets up his rest to live by that profession, can hardly be an honest man or a good Christian. Besides, it is a science no longer in request than use ; for soldiers in peace are like chimneys in summer.
[Suretyship and Borrowing.)
Richard Hooker. Beware of suretyship for thy best friends. He that payeth another man's debts, seeketh his own decay. I ness and attention from the hostess, that, according But, if thou canst not otherwise choose, rather lend | to his biographer (Walton), in his excess of gratitude. thy money thyself upon good bonds, although thou he thought himself bound in conscience to believe borrow it. So shalt thou secure thyself, and pleasure all that she said. So the good man came to be perthy friend. Neither borrow inoney of a neighbour, or suaded by her that he was a man of a tender constia friend, but of a stranger, where, paying for it, thou tution; and that it was best for him to have a wife, shalt hear no more of it. Otherwise thou shalt eclipse that might prove a nurse to him-such an one as thy credit, lose thy freedom, and yet pay as dear as
might both prolong his life, and make it more comto another. But in borrowing of money, be precious
fortable ; and such an one she could and would proof thy word ; for he that hath care of keeping days of
vide for him, if he thought fit to marry.' Hooker, payment, is lord of another man's purse.
little apt to suspect in others that guile of which he
himself was so entirely free, became the dupe of this RICHARD HOOKER.
woman, authorising her to select a wife for him, and
promising to marry whomsoever she should choose. One of the earliest, and also one of the most The wife she provided was her own daughter, distinguished prose writers of this period, was Rich- described as 'a silly, clownish woman, and withal a ARD HOOKER, a learned and gifted theologian, born mere Xantippe,' whom, however, he married accordof poor but respectable parents near Exeter, abouting to his promise. With this helpmate he led
ir 1553. At school he displayed so much but an uncomfortable life, though apparently in a aptitude for learning, and gentleness of disposition, spirit of resignation. When visited by Sandys and that, having been recommended to Jewel, bishop Cranmer at a rectory in Buckinghamshire, to which of Salisbury, he was taken under the care of that he had been presented in 1584, he was found by prelate, who, after a satisfactory examination into them reading Horace, and tending sheep in the his merits, sent him to Oxford, and contributed to absence of his servant. In his house they received his support. At the university, Hooker studied little entertainment, except from his conversation; with great ardour and success, and became much and even this, Mrs Booker did not fail to disturb, by respected for modesty, prudence, and piety. After calling him away to rock the cradle, and by exhibitJewel's death, he was patronised by Sandys, bishop ing such other samples of good manners, as made of London, who sent his son to Oxford to enjoy them glad to depart on the following morning. In the benefit of Hooker's instructions. Another taking leave, Cranmer expressed his regret at the of his pupils at this time was George Cranmer, a smallness of Hooker's income, and the uncomfortable grand-nephew of the famous archbishop of that state of his domestic affairs; to which the worthy name; and with both these young men he formed a man replied, "My dear George, if saints have usually close and enduring friendship. In 1579, his skill in a double share in the miseries of this life, I, that am the oriental languages led to his temporary appoint- none, ought not to repine at what my wise Crcator ment as deputy-professor of Hebrew; and two years hath appointed for me, but labour (as indeed I do later, he entered into holy orders. Not long after daily) to submit mine to his will, and possess my this he had the misfortune to be entrapped into a soul in patience and peace.' On his return to Lon. don, Sandys made a strong appeal to his father in ber 1600. A few days previously, his house was behalf of Hooker, the result of which was the ap- robbed, and when the fact was mentioned to him, he pointment of the meek divine, in 1585, to the office anxiously inquired whether his books and papers of master of the Temple. He accordingly removed were safe. The answer being in the affirmative, he to London, and commenced his labours as forenoon exclaimed, “Then it matters not, for no other loss preacher. It happened that the office of afternoon can trouble me.' lecturer at the Temple was at this period filled by Hooker's treatise on * Ecclesiastical Polity'displays Walter Travers, a man of great learning and elo- an astonishing amount of learning, sagacity, and quence, but highly Calvinistical in his opinions, industry; and is so excellently written, that, accordwhile the views of Hooker, on the other hand, both ing to the judgment of Lowth, the author has, in on church government and on points of theology, correctness, propriety, and purity of English style, were of a moderate cast. The consequence was, hardly been surpassed, or even equalled, by any of that the doctrines delivered from the pulpit varied his successors. This praise is unquestionably too very much in their character, according to the high ; for, as Dr Drake has observed, though the preacher from whom they proceeded. Indeed, the words, for the most part, are well chosen and pure, two orators sometimes preached avowedly in oppo the arrangement of them into sentences is intricate sition to each other-a circumstance which gave and harsh, and formed almost exclusively on the occasion to the remark, that the forenoon sermons idiom and construction of the Latin. Much strength spoke Canterbury, and the afternoon Geneva.' This and vigour are derived from this adoption, but perdisputation, though conducted with good temper, spicuity, sweetness, and ease, are too generally sacexcited so much attention, that Archbishop Whitgiftrificed. There is, notwithstanding these usual feasuspended Travers from preaching. There ensued tures of his composition, an occasional simplicity in between him and Hooker a printed controversy, his pages, both of style and sentiment, which truly which was found so disagreeable by the latter, that charms.'* Dr Drake refers to the following sentence, he strongly expressed to the archbishop his wish to with which the preface to the 'Ecclesiastical Polity' retire into the country, where he might be permitted is opened, as a striking instance of that elaborate to live in peace, and have leisure to finish his treatise collocation which, founded on the structure of a Of the Laws of Ecclesiastical Polity, already begun. language widely different from our own, was the A letter which he wrote to the archbishop on this fashion of the age of Elizabeth. Though for no other occasion deserves to be quoted, as showing not only cause, yet for this, that posterity may know we that peacefulness of temper which adhered to him have not loosely, through silence, permitted things through life, but likewise the object that his great to pass away as in a dream, there shall be, for men's work was intended to accomplish. It is as follows: information, extant this much concerning the pre
sent state of the church of God established amongst My lord-When I lost the freedom of my cell,
us, and their careful endeavours which would have which was my college, yet I found some degree of it
upheld the same.' in my quiet country parsonage. But I am weary of
The argument against the Puritans is conducted the noise and oppositions of this place; and, indeed,
by Hooker with rare moderation and candour, and God and nature did not intend me for contentions,
certainly the church of England has never had a but for study and quietness. And, my lord, my par
more powerful defender. The work is not to be ticular contests here with Mr Travers have proved the
regarded simply as a theological treatise; it is still more unpleasant to me, because I believe him to be a
referred to as a great authority upon the whole range good man ; and that belief hath occasioned me to
of moral and political principles. It also bears a examine mine own conscience concerning his opinions.
value as the first publication in the English lanAnd to satisfy that, I have consulted the holy Scrip
guage which observed a strict methodical arrangeture, and other laws, both human and divine, whether
ment, and presented a train of clear logical reasoning. the conscience of him and others of his judgment
As specimens of the body of the work, several ought to be so far complied with by us as to alter our frame of church government, our manner of God's
extracts are here subjoined : worship, our praising and praying to him, and our established ceremonies, as often as their tender con
[Scripture and the Law of Nature.] sciences shall require us. And in this examination I have not only satisfied myself, but have begun al points it doth perform. Howbeit, that here we swerve
What the Scripture purposeth, the same in all treatise in which I intend the satisfaction of others,
rs, not in judgment, one thing especially we must obby a demonstration of the reasonableness of our laws
serve; namely, that the absolute perfection of Scripture of ecclesiastical polity. But, my lord, I shall never
I never is seen by relation unto that end whereto it tendeth, be able to finish what I have begun, unless I be re- | And even hereby it cometh to pass, that, first, such as moved into some quiet parsonage, where I may see
imagine the general and main drift of the body of God's blessings spring out of my mother carth, and
sacred Scripture not to be so large as it is, nor that eat my own bread in peace and privacy : a place
God did thereby intend to deliver, as in truth he doth, where I may, without disturbance, meditate my ap
a full instruction in all things unto salvation necesproaching mortality, and that great account which all
sary, the knowledge whereof man by nature could not flesh must give at the last day to the God of all
otherwise in this life attain unto; they are by this spirits.'
very mean induced, either still to look for new reveIn consequence of this appeal, Hooker was pre
lations from heaven, or else dangerously to add to the sented, in 1591, to the rectory of Boscomb, in Wilt
word of God uncertain tradition, that so the doctrine shire, where he finished four books of his treatise,
of man's salvation may be complete ; which doctrine which were printed in 1594. Queen Elizabeth hay
we constantly hold in all respects, without any such ing in the following year presented him to the rec:
things added, to be so complete, that we utterly refuse tory of Bishop's-Bourne, in Kent, he removed to that
as much as once to acquaint ourselves with anything place, where the remainder of his life was spent in
further. Whatsoever, to make up the doctrine of the faithful discharge of the duties of his office.
man's salvation, is added as in supply of the ScripHere he wrote the fifth book, published in 1597 ; 1
ture's insufficiency, we reject it ; Scripture, purposing and finished other three, which did not appear till
| this, hath perfectly and fully done it. Again, the after his death. This event took place in Novem- 1 * Essays Illustrative of the Tatler, &c., I. 10.
scope and purpose of God in delivering the holy Scrip- please him not. For which cause, if they who this ture, such as do take more largely than behoveth, way swerve be compared with such sincere, sound, and they, on the contrary, side-racking and stretching it discreet as Abraham was in matter of religion, the further than by hiin was meant, are drawn into sun service of the one is like unto flattery, the other like dry as great inconveniences. They, pretending the the faithful sedulity of friendship. Zeal, except it Scripture's perfection, infer thereupon, that in Scrip-be ordered ariyht, when it bendeth itself unto conflict ture all things lawful to be done must needs be con- with all things either indeed, or but imagined to be, tained. We count those things perfect which want opposite unto religion, useth the razor many times nothing requisite for the end whereto they were in- with such eagerness, that the very life of religion itseif stituted. As, therefore, God created every part and is thereby hazarded ; through hatred of tares the corn in particle of man exactly perfect-that is to say, in all the field of God is plucked up. So that zeal needeth both points sufficient unto that use for which he appointed ways a sober guide. Fear, on the other side, if it have it-so the Scripture, yea, every sentence thereof, is not the light of true understanding concerning God, perfect, and wanteth nothing requisite unto that pur- , wherewith to be moderated, breedcth likewise superpose for which God delivered the same. So that, if here-stition. It is therefore dangerous that, in things divine, upon we conclude, that because the Scripture is per- we should work too much upon the spur either of zeal fect, therefore all things lawful to be done are com-or fear. Fear is a good solicitor to devotion. How beit, prehended in the Scripture ; we may even as well sith fear in this kind doth grow from an apprehension conclude so of every sentence, as of the whole sum of Deity endued with irresistible power to hurt, and and body thereof, unless we first of all prove that it is, of all affections (anger excepted), the unaptest to was the drift, scope, and purpose of Almighty God in admit any conference with reason, for which causc the holy Scripture to comprise all things which man may wise man doth say of fear, that it is a betrayer of the practise. "But admit this, and mark, I beseech you, forces of reasonable understanding; therefore, except what would follow. God, in delivering Scripture to men know beforehand what manner of service pleaseth his church, should clean hare abrogated among them God, while they are fearful they try all things which the Law of Nature, which is an infallible knowledge fancy offereth. Many there are who never think on imprinted in the minds of all the children of men, God but when they are in extremity of fear; and then, whereby both general principles for directing of human because what to think, or what to do, they are unceractions are comprehended, and conclusions derived tain ; perplexity not suffering them to be idle, they from them ; upon which conclusions groweth in parti-think and do, as it were in a phrensy, they know not cularity the choice of good and evil in the daily affairs what. Superstition neither knoweth the right kind, of this life. Admit this, and what shall the Scripture nor observeth the due measure, of actions belonging be but a snare and a torment to weak consciences, to the service of God, but is always joined with a filling them with infinite perplexities, scrupulosities, wrong opinion touching things divine. Superstition doubts insoluble, and extreme despairs? Not that the is, when things are either abhorred or observed, with Scripture itself doth cause any such thing (for it a zealous or fearful, but erroneous relation to God. tendeth to the clean contrary, and the fruit thereof By means whereof, the superstitious do sometimes is resolute assurance and certainty in that it teacheth); serve, though the true God, yet with needless offices, but the necessities of this life urging men to do that and defraud him of duties necessary, sometimes load which the light of nature, common discretion, and others than him with such honours as properly are his. judginent of itself directeth them unto ; on the other side, this doctrine teaching them that so to do were to
[Defence of Reason.] sin against their own souls, and that they put forth their hands to iniquity, whatsoever they go about, and But so it is, the name of the light of nature is made have not first the sacred Scripture of God for direc- l hateful with men ; the star of reason and learning, tion ; how can it choose but bring the simple a thou- and all other such like helps, beginneth no otherwise sand times to their wits' end ; how can it choose but to be thought of, than if it were an unlucky comet ; vex and amaze them? For in every action of common or as if God had so accursed it, that it should never life, to find out some sentence clearly and infallibly l shine or give light in things concerning our duty any setting before our eyes what we ought to do (seem we way towards him, but be esteemed as that star in the in Scripture never so expert), would trouble us more revelation, called Wormwood, which, being fallen than we are aware. In weak and tender minds, we from heaven. maketh rivers and waters in which it little know what misery this strict opinion would
falleth so bitter, that men tasting them die thereof. breed, besides the stops it would make in the whole
A number there are who think they cannot admire as course of all men's lives and actions. Make all things they ought the power and authority of the word of sin which we do by direction of nature's light, and by God, if in things divine they should attribute any the rule of common discretion, without thinking at force to man's reason; for which cause they never use all upon Scripture ; admit this position, and parents reason so willingly as to disgrace reason. Their usual shall cause their children to sin, as oft as they cause and common discourses are unto this effect. First, them to do anything, before they come to years of the natural man perceireth not the things of the capacity, and be ripe for knowledge in the Scripture. spirit of God, for they are foolishness unto him; Admit this, and it shall not be with masters as it was neither can he know them, because they are spiritu with him in the gospel; but servants being com- / discerned.' &c. &c. By these and the like disputes, an manded to go, shall stand still till they bave their
opinion hath spread itself very far in the world; as if errand warranted unto them by Scripture. Which, as
the way to be ripe in faith, were to be raw in wit and it standeth with Christian duty in some cases, so in judgment; as if reason were an enemy unto religion, common affairs to require it were most unfit.
childish simplicity the mother of ghostly and divine
wisdom. [Zeal and Fear in Religion.]
To our purpose, it is sufficient that whosoerer doth
serve, honour, and obey God, whosoever believeth in Two affections there are, the forces whereof, as they him, that man would no more do this than innocents bear the greater or lesser sway in man's heart, frame and infants do but for the light of natural reason that accordingly to the stamp and character of his religion- shineth in him, and maketh him apt to apprchend the one zeal, the other fear. Zeal, unless it be rightly those things of God, which being by grace discovered, guided, when it endeavoureth most busily to please are effectual to persuade reasonable minds, and none God, forceth upon him those unscasonable offices which other, that honour, obedience, and credit, belong aright unto God. No man cometh unto God to offer also that carrieth, as it were, into ecstacies, filling the him sacrifice, to pour out supplications and prayers mind with a heavenly joy, and for the time in a before him, or to do him any service, which doth not manner severing it from the body; so that, although first believe him both to be, and to be a rewarder of we lay altogether aside the consideration of ditty or them who in such sort seek unto him. Let men be matter, the very harmony of sounds being framed in taught this, either by revelation from heaven, or by due sort, and carried from the ear to the spiritual instruction upon earth; by labour, study, and medi- faculties of our souls, is, by a native puissance and tation, or by the only secret inspiration of the Holy efficacy, greatly available to bring to a perfect temper Ghost; whatsoever the mean be they know it by, if whatsoever is there troubled ; apt as well to quicken the knowledge thereof were possible without discourse the spirits as to allay that which is too eager; soveof natural reason, why should none be found capable reign against melancholy and despair; forcible to thereof but only men; nor men till such time as they draw forth tears of devotion, if the mind be such as come unto ripe and full ability to work by reasonable can yield them; able both to more and to moderate understanding ? The whole drift of the Scripture of all affections. The prophet David having, therefore, God, what is it, but only to teach theology? Thcology, singular knowledge, not in poetry alone, but in music what is it, but the science of things divine? What also, judged them both to be things most necessary for science can be attained unto, without the help of the house of God, left behind him to that purpose a natural discourse and reason ! Judge you of that number of divinely-indited poems, and was further which I speak, saith the apostle. In vain it were to the author of adding unto poetry melody in public speak anything of God, but that by reason men are prayer; melody, both vocal and instrumental, for the able somewhat to judge of that they hear, and by dis- raising up of men's hearts, and the sweetening of their course to discern how consonant it is to truth. Scrip- affections towards God. In which considerations the ture, indeed, teacheth things above nature, things church of Christ doth likewise at this present day which our reason by itself could not reach unto. Yet retain it as an ornament to God's service, and an help those also we believe, knowing by reason that the to our own devotion. They which, under pretence of Scripture is the word of God. * * The thing the law ceremonial abrognted, require the abrogation we have handled according to the question moved of instrumental music, approving, nevertheless, the about it, which question is, whether the light of rea- use of vocal melody to remain, must show some reason be so pernicious, that, in devising laws for the son wherefore the one should be thought a legal cerechurch, men ought not by it to search what may be mony, and not the other. In church music, curiosity fit and convenient! For this cause, therefore, we or ostentation of art, wanton, or light, or unsuitable hare endeavoured to make it appear, how, in the na- harmony, such as only pleaseth the car, and doth not ture of reason itself, there is no impediment, but that naturally serve to the very kind and degree of those jhe self-same spirit which revealeth the things that impressions which the matter that gocth with it God hath set down in his law, may also be thought to leaveth, or is apt to leave, in men's minds, doth rather aid and direct men in finding out, by the light of rea- | blemish and disgrace that we do, than add either son, what laws are expedient to be made for the guid- beauty or furtherance urto it. On the other side, the ing of his church, over and besides them that are in faults prevented, the force and efficacy of the thing Scripture.
itself, when it drowneth not utterly, but fitly suiteth
with matter altogether sounding to the praise of God, [Church Music.]
is in truth most admirable, and doth much edify, if Touching musical harmony, whether by instrument not the understanding, because it teacheth not, yet or by voice, it being but of high and low in sounds a surely the affection, because therein it worketh much. due proportionable disposition, such notwithstanding They must have hearts very dry and tough, from whom is the force thereof, and so pleasing effects it hath in the melody of the psalms doth not sometime draw that very part of man which is most divine, that some that wherein a mind re igiously affected delighteth. have been thereby induced to think that the soul itself by nature is, or hath in it, harmony ; a thing which
LORD BACON. delighteth all ages, and beseemeth all states ; a thing
Sasonable in grief as in joy; as decent, being added But the fame of Hooker, as indeed of all his conunto actions of greatest weight and solemnity, as temporaries, is outshone by that of the illustrious being used when men most sequester themselves from Lord Bacon. Francis Bacon, son of Sir Nicholas action. The reason hereof is an admirable facility Bacon, lord-keeper of the great seal, was born in Lonwhich music hath to express and represent to the don on the 22d of January 1561, and in childhood mind, more inwardly than any other sensible mean, displayed such vivacity of intellect and sedateness of the very standing, rising, and falling, the very steps behaviour, that Queen Elizabeth used to call him and inflections every way, the turns and varieties of her young lord-keeper. At the age of thirteen, he was all passions whereunto the mind is subject; yea, so sent to Cambridge, where, so early as his sixteenth to imitate them, that, whether it resemble unto us the year, he became disgusted with the Aristotelian phi. same state wlercin our minds already are, or a clean losophy, which then held unquestioned sway in the contrary, we are not more contentedly by the one con- great English schools of learning. This dislike of the firmed, than changed and led away by the other. In philosophy of Aristotle, as Bacon himself declared harmony, the very image and character even of vir- to his secretary Dr Rawley, he fell into “not for the tue and rice is perceived, the mind delighted with worthlessness of the author, to whom he would ever their resemblances, and brought by having them often ascribe all high attributes, but for the unfruitfulness iterated into a love of the things themselves. For which of the way ; being a philosophy, as his lordship used cause there is nothing more contagious and pestilent to say, only strong for disputations and contentions, than some kinds of harmony ; than some, nothing but barren of the productivu of works for the benefit more strong and potent unto good. And that there is of the life of man.* After spending about four years such a difference of one kind from another, we need at Cambridge, he travelled in France, his acute no proof but our own experience, inasmuch as we are observations in which country were afterwards pubat the hearing of some more inclined unto sorrow and lished in a work entitled Of the State of Europe. heaviness, of some more mollified and softened in By the sudden death of his father in 1579, he was mind ; one kind apter to stay and settle us, another compelled to return hastily to England, and engage to move and stir our affections ; there is that draweth to a marvellous grave and sober mediocrity ; there is
* Rawley's Life of Bacon.