Page images


flagitious of the confederate leaders. What the should have a general amnesty; but by no pos with our red-handed traitors, whose crimes are nation desires, and all it asks, is the ordinary | sible means would I spare the unmatched vil certainly unsurpassed in history, and have filled administration of justice against the most extra lains who conceived the bloody project of the land with sorrow and blood, we utterly ordinary national criminals.

The treason spun

national dismemberment, and by their devilish decline to execute against them the very Confrom their brains, and deliberately fashioned arts lured into their horrid service the igno. stitution which they sought to overturn by into the bloody warp and woof of a four years' rant and misguided people of their section. years of wholesale rapine and murder. war, involving the sacrifice of hundreds of thou Whoever may escape justice, either North or Sir, this fact is at once monstrous and startsands of lives, and thousands of millions of South, or whatever embarrassments may be ling. We seize the murderer who only takes treasure, ought to be branded by the nation as long to the problem of punishment at the end the life of one man, indict him, convict him, a crime. It ought to be made * odious" and of this stupendous conflict, nothing remains so and then hang him. Undoubtedly some mur: “infamous.” T'he punishment of that crime, I perfectly clear and unquestionable as the duty derers escape punishment through pardons and prescribed by the Constitution, is death ; and of the nation to execute the great malefactors otherwise, but certainly the penalty of death

who fashioned to their uses all the genius and is inflicted in most countries. The pirate, who set aside and made void in this respect, in the resources of the South, and throughout the en boards a vessel on the sea, and murders a few interest of vanquished rebel leaders, as I was tire struggle invoked all the powers of hell in sailors, is “chased by the civilized world to the to see it trampled under foot by their armed their work of national destruction.

gallows." The plea in his behalf of magnalegions while the war continued. Indeed, the Mr. Speaker, the adequate punishment of the nimity to a vanquished criminal would not save punishment of these leaders is a necessary part rebel leaders involves the whole question of the him, and his friends would scarcely urge it. of the logic of their infernal enterprise, and rebellion itself. It is not a matter which the Gov Public justice demands the sacrifice of his life, without it the rebellion itself, instead of being ernment may dispose of indifferently, but is and no one expects him to be spared if fairly effectually crushed, must find a fresh incentive vital to the nation's peace, if not to its very exist convicted. But Jefferson Davis is no ordinary to renew its life in its impunity from the just

To trifle with it is to trifle with public assassin or pirate. He did not murder a single consequences of its guilt. It will not do to say justice and the holy cause for which the coun citizen, but hundreds of thousands ot' men. He these leaders have been sufficiently punished try has been made to bleed and suffer. It is to did not board a ship on the sea and murder a already, by the failure of their treason, the loss mock our dead heroes, and confess our own few sailors, but he boarded the great ship of of their coveted power, and their humiliation, pusillanimity or guilt. It is to make treason state, and tried, by all the power of his evil poverty, and disgrace. Kindred arguments respectable, and put loyalty under the ban. It genius, to sink her, cargo and crew, with the would empty our jails and penitentiaries, and is to call evil good and good evil; and since hopes of the world forever, into the abyss of make the administration of criminal justice | God is not to be mocked, it must in some form eternal night. And is not his guilt as much everywhere a farce. The way of all transgress- || bring down upon our own heads the retribution greater than that of an ordinary assassin or ors is hard ; but this hardship cannot justify | which we may only escape by enforcing the pirate as the life of a great republic is greater society in failing to protect itself by litly chas penal laws of the nation against the magnifi than the life of one man? Was not each one tising its enemies. Justice to the nation whose cent felons who have sought its life.

of these leaders a national assassin, aiming his life has been attempted, and to the assassins Sir, I shall take it for granted that treason is bloody dagger at the country's vitals, and is who made the attempt, is the great demand of a crime, and not a mere accident or mistake. not his guilt multiplied by the millions whose the hour.

In this most frightful and desolating struggle interests were imperiled? And shall justice And here, again, Mr. Speaker, I hope I || there is transcendent and unutterable guilt ; only be defied by the world's grandest villains shall be understood. In pleading for justice I and I take it for granted that that guilt is on and outlaws, and mercy defile herself by taking . mean of course public justice, which seeks the the side of those who wantonly and causelessly them into her embrace?

prevention of crime by making an example of took up arms against the nation, and not on Mr. Speaker, Jefferson Davis was a favored the criminal. Human laws do not pretend to the side of those who fought to save it from child of the Republic. He had been educated fathom the real moral guilt of offenders. They destruction. Treason is a crime, and there. at the nation's expense, and upon him had have no power to do this. Their sole aim is fore not a mere difference of opinion; a crime, been lavished the honors and emoluments of the prevention of crime. They have nothing | and therefore not an honest mistake of judg. office. He owed bis country nothing but gratto do with that retributive justice which grad ment about the right of a State to secede; a itude and fidelity, and no man understood these uates the punishment of each transgressor by || crime, and therefore not a mere struggle of the obligations better than himself. Again and the exact measure of his guilt. To the great Soutlı for independence while the North con again he had asked his Maker to witness that Searcher of all hearts belongs this prerogative, || tended for empire; a crime, and therefore not he would be faithful to the Constitution, wbich while society, acting through government as a mere “misapprehension of misguided men,” at the time he was plotting to destroy. Long its agent, and having an eye single to its own as some of our copperhead journals affirm ; a years before the rebellion he had been inocuprotection, must deal with its criminals. This, || crime, and the highest of all crimes, including lating the public opinion of the South with the sir, is my reply to the plea often urged that we all lesser villainies, and eclipsing them all, in poison of his heresies, and secretly hatching should not hang the rebel leaders, because we its heaven-daring leap at the nation's throat; his treason in the foul atmosphere which he cannot also hang the leading sympathizers of the and therefore those who withstood it by arms helped to create. His perfidy was most coldnorthern States who are perhaps more guilty. were patriots and heroes, fighting for nationality blooded, deliberate, and premeditated. In The Government has nothing to do with the and freedom, against rebels whose sure and order to blast the Government of his fathers, question of degrees of moral guilt or blame swift punishment should be made a warning and establish upon its ruins a confederacy with worthiness, either in the North or the South. against the repetition of their deeds.

slavery as its corner-stone, he has ruthlessly Its concern is with the nation's enemies, whose Mr. Speaker, if a man were to come into our wrapped his country in fire and blood. He overt acts of treason have made them amena midst and persuade us that treason and loyalty has wantonly destroyed the lives of more than ble to the laws, and whose punishment should are about the same thing; that right and wrong, two hundred and fifty thousand soldiers, who bc made a terror to evil doers hereafter. The good and evil, virtue and vice, are convertible gloriously perished in resisting his treason in fact that our power of punishment cannot reach terms; that God and Satan are in fact the same arms. He has maimed and crippled for life more all who are guilty, including many men in the personage, under different names, and that it than two hundred and fifty thousand more. He loyal States who richly deserve the halter, is matters little under whose banner we fight; has duplicated these atrocities in his own section no reason whatever for allowing those to go and if he could thus enlist us in the work of ofthe Union. He has organized grand conspiraunwhipped who are properly within the reach | uprooting the foundations of Government, of cies in the North and Northwest to lay in rapine of public justice.

morals, of society, of everything held sacred and blood the towns and cities and plantations Ånd the same reasoning applies to the argu among men, would he not be the most exe of the whole loyal portion of the land. He has ment sometimes urged against all punishment crable creature in the universe? If he could put to death, by the slow torture of starvation founded on the numbers who would fairly be || indoctrinate mankind with his theory of “re in rebel prisons, sixty thousand brave men who liable to suffer. The question is frequently construction," would not this beautiful earth went forth to peril their lives in saving the asked, would you build a gallows in every village of ours be converted into a first-class hell, country from his devilish crusade against it. and neighborhood of the South? Would you with the devil as its king? Sir, you dare not He has deliberately sought to introduce into shock the Christian world by the spectacle often trifle with this question of the punishment of the United States and to nationalize among us thousand gibbets, and the hangingofall who have traitors. Theory goes before practice. Right || pestilence, in the form of yellow fever; an enbeen guilty of treason, or even a respectable believing, on moral or political issues, precedes terprise which, had it succeeded, would have fraction of their number? I answer, I would right acting; and you touch the very marrow startled the very heavens above us with the do no such thing Public justice and the high of the rebellion when you approach the ques. agony and sorrow it would have lavished upon est good of the State do not require it. I would tion of the punishment of the rebels. Sir, the land. He stands charged by the Governsimply apply the ordinary rules of criminal there is not a State in this Union, nor a civil ment with the murder of the President of the jurisprudence to the question, and as in other ized country on earth, which in the treatment United States, and that charge, as I am well conspiracies, so in this grand one, I would of its criminals sanctions the sickly magna assured, is amply verified by proofs which will inete out the severest punishment to the ring. 1 nimity and inisapplied humanity of this nation very soon be given to the public, and awaken leaders. Most undoubtedly I would give them in dealing with its leading traitors. No civil. a stronger and sterner demand for his punisha constitutional entertainment on the gallows ; || ized Government, in my judgment, could pos ment. He has instigated the burning of our or should the number of ringleaders be too sibly be maintained on any such loose and hotels. He has plauted infernal machines in the great, or the guilt of some of them be less tla

confounded principles. Crime would have ll tracks of his armies. He has poisoned our wells. grant than others, perpetual exile might be unchecked license, and public justice would He has murdered our wounded soldiers. He has substituted. The rebel masses, both on the not even be a decent sham. No man will dis. made drinking cups of their skulls and jewelry score of their numbers and their qualified guilt, Il pute this, or fail to be amazed that, in dealing ll of their bones. He has spawned upon the

world atrocities so monstrous as to defy all say to turbulent and seditious spirits every assented gladly to any terms or conditions of definition, and which nothing but the hot where that they have full liberty, when it may reconstruction dictated by him, including even incubation of the slave power, as the ripe fruit suit their convenience, to levy war against the negro suffrage. Having staked all on the issues of its two hundred years of diabolism, could nation, and that while it may lead their deluded of war and lost, they felt that they were entitled have warmed into life. Sir, he has done every followers to wholesale slaughter, they shall be | only to such rights as the conqueror might see thing, by the help of his confederates, that an allowed to escape. You say that although the fit to inpose. incarnate demon could do to let loose "the nation participated in the hanging of John Sir, this golden season was sinned away by whole contagion of hell,': and convert his native Brown as a traitor, for the crime of loving lib the President, and that systematic recreancy land into one grand refuge of devils.

erty“ not wisely, but too wel!," that same na to his pledges and record wbich has marked Mr. Speaker, the pardon of a criminal so tion, which has copied John Brown's example his subsequent career, has brought the country transcendently guilty would be an act in itself in emancipating slaves by military power, shall into the most fearful peril. The responsibility strongly partaking of treason against the nation. turn loose upon society tlie hideous monster who is upon him, and it must be measured by the It would be at once a monstrous denial and a waged war to establish and eternize a mighty | magnificent opportunity which the situation frightful mockery of justice. Do you plead for slave empire on the ruins of our free institu afforded him for an easy solution of our namercy to the great confederate assassin? I tions. And you speak it in the ear of the nations tional dilliculties, and at the same time a solid refer that plea to the Father of Mercies, who, as your deliberate estimate of the value of free and permanent reconstruction of the South. I believe, only pardons on condition of re government, whose very life is the breath of "No important political movement,' says a pentance; and as yet I bave heard of no rebel the people, that the bloody conspirator who famous English writer, “was ever obtained in leader who even professes penitence for his seeks to destroy it by the hand of war is unde a period of tranquillity. If the effervescence of crimes. Sir, I repudiate, as counterfeit, the | serving of punislıment, and consequently inno the public mind is suffered to pass away withmerey which can only be exercised by tramp cent of crime.

out effect, it would be absurd to expect from ling justice under our feet, while it forgets both Mr. Speaker, can we, dare we, hope for the languor what enthusiasm has not obtained. If justice and mercy to the millions who have been favor of God in thus confounding the distinc radical reform is not, at such a moment, promade to mourn throngl stricken lives by the hu tion betwcen right and wrong, between treason cured, all partial changes are evaded and deman monsters who plunged our peaceful coun and loyalty, and forgetting that government is feated in the tranquillity which succeeds." try into war. The loyal people of the nation a divine ordinance, whose authority can only These are suggestive and solemn words, and demand that they be dealt with as criminals. be maintained by enforcing obedience to its the reflection is a very sad one that the nation For myself, I would not have a civil trial for mandates? I speak earnesily, because I feel to-day would have been saved and blest, if the leader of a belligerent power, which has | deeply, on this question of the punishment of the President had lieeded them. He disobeyed maintained a public war against us for years. || leading traitors." The grand peril of the hour the divine command to “ execute justice in the The nation cannot afford to submit the question comes from the mistake of the Government on morning," and did not even remember the of the right of a State to secede to a jury of this point. During the war our deserters and heathen maxim, that "the gods themselves twelve men in one of the rebel States, and a bounty jumpers were executed. Our brave boys, cannot save those who neglect opportunities." majority of them traitors, under an implied overcome by weariness, who fell asleep at their Sir, while I dislike the occupation of an alternative that if they fail to convict, the Gov posts as sentinels, were shot. A year ago the mis alarmist, I must say that I have seen few ernment itself ivould stand convicted of half a erable tools of Davis and Lee, selected for their darker seasons than the present since the first million murders. After the nation has estab infernal deeds because of their known fitness battle of Bull Ran. The President has not lished its right to exist by a four years' war, it to perform them, were summarily tried and kept the faith. He has not favored the hangcannot put that right on trial by a jury of its hung. But in no solitary instance has treason ing of a single rebel leader. He has not made conquered enemies, or any carthly tribunal. Sir, yet been dealt with as a crime. Pardon, par: treason infamous, nor impoverished traitors. let Jefferson Davis be tried by a military court, don, pardon, has been the order of the day, as if He has not favored the confiscation of rebel as he should have been, promptly, at the time the Government desired to make haste to apol estates, and their distribution among the poor. other and smaller offenders were dealt with a ogize for its mistake in fighting traitors, and He has not required traitors to take the back year ago Let him have the compliment of a wished to reinstate itself in their good opinion, seats in the work of reconstruction. Ile has formal inquiry to determine what the whole Beccaria, in his celebrated Essay on Crimes and not coöperated with Congress in placing the world already knows, that he is immeasurably | Punishments

, says that “clemency is a virtue | governing power of the South and of the naguilty. And when that guilt is pronounced let which belongs to the legislator, and not to the tion in the hands of loyal men. He has not the Government erect a gallows, and hang liim executor of the laws; a virtue which ought to shown himself the "Moses'' of our loyal colored in the name of the Most IIigh. I put aside shine in the code, and not in private judgment. millions in leading them out of their grievous mercy on the one hand, and vengeance on the To show mankind that crimes are sometimes bondage. He has done the opposite of all these. other, and the simple claim I assert, in the pardoned, and that punishment is not the ne The Richmond Times, the leading organ of nation's behalf, is justice. In the name of half cessary consequence, is to nourish the flatter: treason in Virginia, says that “in his course a million soldiers who have gone before their | ing hope of impunity, and is the cause of their toward the mass of those who supported the Maker as witnesses against the deep damna considering every punishment inflicted as an act southern confederacy the President has been tion of their taking off;'' in the name of our of injustice and oppression. The prince, in singularly magnanimous and wisely lenient. living soldiers, who have waded through seas pardoning, gives up the public security in favor Nine tenths of those who for four years, with of fire in deadly conflict with rebels in arins; of an individual, and by ill-judged benevolence | unparalleled gallantry upheld the confederacy, in the name of the Republic, whose life has only proclaims a public act of impunity."

have long since been unconditionally pardoned. been saved by the precious offering of multi Dr. Lieber says that "every pardon granted The cabinet officers who counseled the presitudes of her most idolized children; in the name upon insufficient grounds becomes a serious dent of the confederacy, the congressmen who of the great future, with its procession of count: offense against society, and he that grants it is, enacted those stringent conscript and imprison. less generations of men, whose fate to-day swings in justice, answerable for the offenses which the ment laws which kept up our armies, and many in the balance, awaiting the example you are to offender may commit, and the general injury || distinguished generals of the confederate armake of treason, I demand the execution of done to political morality by undue interference | mies, have either been formally pardoned, or Jefferson Davis. The gallows is the symbol with the law." With these wise and just senti been released upou parole, and no one dreams of infamy throughout the civilized world, and ments the President of the United States, on that they will ever be molested in person or no criminal cver earned a clearer right to be accepting his high office, perfectly agreed. He estate. The military bastiles of the country, crowned with its honors.

declared that mercy to the individual is often with one exception, have long since been Sir, I ask why the Constitution should be cruelty to the State. He said that “ robbery thrown open, and the distingnished confedmocked when it demands his life? Wbat right || is a crime, murder is a crime, treason is a erate officers who were confined in them hare have the authorities of the Government to cheat crime, and crime must be punished.” He said been restored to their friends and families." the halter out of his neck? Not for all the honors tható treason must be made odious, and traitors And these Virginia traitors who thus damn and offices of this nation, not for all the gold | impoverished,'' and he reiterated and multi our President by their encomiums openly and glory of the world, would I spare him if plied these declarations on very many occasions demand the unconditional release of Jefferson in my power; for I would expect the ghosts of which were offered him for weeks and months Davis from prison. Judging the President by tbree hundred thousand murdered soldiers to following his inauguration. He repeatedly the logic of his policy thus far, the demand haunt my poor, cowardly life to the grave. As referred, approvingly, to his past record, cov: will be complied with. When he decided, I have said already, the punishment of the rebel | ering declarations in favor of hanging the lead nearly a year ago, against the trial of Davis conspirators is a necessary part of the work of || ing traitors, in favor of dividing up their great by a military court, he virtually decided that suppressing the rebellion. Their treason was plantations into small farms for honest and his treason should go unpunished; for no jury deliberately aimed at the cause of free govern. industrious men, without regard to color, and of southern rebels would ever find a verdict of ment on earth, and they are justly to be classed in favor of breaking up the great aristocracy of guilty, and the trial itself would only be an inamong the guiltiest wretches whose crimes ever the South, and compelling the rebels to “ take sult to the nation. Jefferson Davis, I doubt drenched the earth in blood. Every one of the back seats in the work of reconstruction." not, is to be restored to his family and friends, them should have a felon's death. The grave For a season the whole loyal country was elec and the argument of consistency demands it at of every one of them should be made a grave trified by the clear ring of bis words, while the hands of the President. of infamy, and the cause they served should be rebels were as completely palsied and dumb. Robert E. Lee, whose spared life bas outpilloried by all the ages to come. Sir, if you | They understood the new President quite as raged the honest clains of the gallows ever discharge the confederate chiefs because of the little as his loyal friends. They expected no since his surrender, is running at large, pervery magnitude of their work of carnage, you quarter, and studiously sought their pleasure in fectly unmolested and safe from all harin. offer a public license to treason hereafter. You ll the will of the Executive. They would have Black with treason, perjury, and murder, guilt

ier by far than the Christless wretch who obeyed | desperation to the end, he unites with them in Mr. WILSON, of Iowa, moved to reconhis orders in starving our soldiers at Anderson- || branding loyalty itself as treason, while he sider the vote by which the resolution was viiie, he goes his way in peace, while the Gov. employs the power and patronage of his high referred ; and also moved that the motion to ernment, in this monstrous and appalling fact, oflice in rewarding his minions, and opposing reconsider be laid on the table. confesses to the world that treason is unworthy the very men who made him their standard The latter motion was agreed to. of its notice. He is president of a Virginia | bearer along with Abraham Lincoln, in the The SPEAKER. The next business in order college, and teacher of her youth. He visits | faith that his loyalty was unselfish and sincere. is the call of States and Territories in inverted, Washington, and tenders his advice to our pub- In fact, every phase of the presidential policy,

phase of the presidential policy, order, commencing with the Territory of Monlic men about the work of restoring the Union. as latterly displayed, contounds the difference

tana, for the introduction of resolutions. He goes before the reconstruction committee between loyal and disloyal men, and gives aid and gives his testimony, as if an oath could and comfort to the rebels by mitigating or

MONTANA TERRITORIAL LIBRARY. take any possible hold upon his seared con removing the just consequences of their crimes. Mr. McLAIN presented a joint memorial science; and all that can be said is, that his Mr. Speaker, this policy, utterly fatal to the of the Territorial Legislature of Montana, askunpunished crimes are doing precisely as much nation's peace, as I have shown, must be aban ing Congress for an appropriation for a terri: to make the Government infamous, as the Gov doned. The Government cannot wholly undo | torial library, and for other purposes; which emment itself has done to make those crimes the mistakes of the past, but it can do much was referred to the Committee on Territories, respectable. The Legislature of Virginia in for the future, and save the loyal cause, if the and ordered to be printed. dorses him as a fit man for Governor, and the people, who see the threatened danger, will set

ANNEXATION TO IDAIIO. champions of this proposition visit our Repub. themselves to work so resolutely as to compel lican President, laud his principles and policy, a change. In God's name, let this be done.

Mr. McLAIN also presented a joint memoand take the front seats in the house of his Let the people speak, for the power is in their

rial of the Territorial Legislature of Montana, friends. hands, and if faithful now, as they proved

protesting against a joint resolution asking for The vice president of the southern confed themselves during the war, justice will prevail.

the annexation of a certain portion of said eracy is likewise at large, and has been elected Let them thunder it in the ears of the Presi: || Territory to the Territory of Idaho; which a Senator in Congress from his State. He also dent that the nation cannot be saved, nor the

was referred to the Committee on Territories,

and ordered to be printed. visits Washington, and gives his testimony | fruits of our victory gathered, if in the settlebefore the joint committee of fifteen. Like the ment of this bloody conflict with treason right PUBLIC BUILDINGS IN NEBRASKA. other leading traitors, he very naturally "ac and wrong are confounded, and public justice Mr. HITCHCOCK introdnced a bill approcepts the situation,” because he could not do trampled down. This is the duty of the loyal

priating certain proceeds of internal revenue otherwise, but he shows not the smallest token inillions; and here lies the danger of the holir.

in the Territory of Nebraska, for the purpose of penitence, says the rebels were in the right, It is just as impossible for the country to. pros of erecting a penitentiary and completing the and seems wholly unconscious of his real char per if it shall sanction the present policy of capitol in said Territory; which was read a acter as simply an unhung traitor, whose the Executive, as it is for a man to violate a

first and second time, referred to the Commitadvice and opinions we shall only accept at law of his physical being and escape the con tee on Territories, and ordered to be printed. their value. Leading traitors are not only sequences. The demands of justice are as in. pardoned by wholesale, but they hold nearly all exorable as the demands of natural law in the

CONSTRUCTION OF WAGON ROAD. the places of power and profit in the South. material world; and the moral distinctions Mr. HITCHCOCK also introduced a bill to They are made Governors, judges, postmasters, which God himself has established cannot be proride for the construction of a wagon road revenue officers, and are likewise frequently slighted with the least possible impunity by from Columbus, Nebraska, to Virginia City, chosen to represent their cause in Congress ; || individuals or nations. There is a diference, in Montana Territory; which was read a first and the President, our distinguished Secretary | leaven-wide, between fighting for a slave em and second time, referred to the Committee of the Treasury, and the Postmaster General, | pire and fighting for freedom and the univer: on Public Lands, and ordered to be printed. . have all openly trampled under their feet the sal rights of man. The cause of treason and

MAIL ROUTES IN NEVADA. law of Congress requiring a test oath, in order the cause of loyalty are not the same. Per

Mr. ASHLEY, of Nevada, presented resothat rebels might fill these oflices, and on the jury is not as honorable as keeping a man's false pretense that loyal men could not be found oath. The black flag of slavery and treason

lutions of the Legislature of the State of Nevada qualified to fill them in a country which fur was not as noble a standard to follow as that

in favor of the establishment of a daily mail nished more than forty thousand loyal white of the stars and stripes. The leading trai

between the city of Austin, in the county of soldiers during the war. As might naturally be

Lander, and Silver Peak, in Esmeralda county, tors of the South should not have the same expected under this system of reconstruction, honorable treatinent and recognition as the

in that State; which were referred to the Comloyal men are more unsafe in the revolted dis. patriot 'heroes of the Union. The grandest

mittee on the Post Office and Post Roads, and

ordered to be printed. tricts now than they were before the war, while || assassins and cut-throats of history should not the condition of the negroes in very many local

Mr. ASHLLY, of Nevada, also presented defraud the gallows, while ordinary murderers ities is more pitiably deplorable than that of are hung. Jefferson Davis should not have

resolutions of the Legislature of Nevada in their former slavery. So intense and wide the same honorable place in history as George

favor of a weekly mail from Ione to Crystal spread is the feeling of hostility to the Union in Washington. Benedict Arnold was not the

Springs, in said State ; which were referred to

the Committee on the Post Office and Post these regions that loyalty is branded as both a beau ideal of a patriot, nor was Judas Iscariot crime and a disgrace, while even Wilkes Booth a high-soulcd gentleman and a man of honor,

Roads, and ordered to be printed. is regarded as a martyr, and his pictures hang in

a misguided citizen of his country

DRANCI MINT IN NEVADA. the parlors of southern gentlemen' whose who engaged in a mistaken cause.

Mr. ASHLEY, of Nevada, also presented children are called by his name.

mounds under which sleep our slaughtered he resolutions of the Legislature of Nevada in Nor am I surprised at the audacity of the roes are not to have any moral comparison with relation to the building of a United States mint rebel leaders. Neither do I complain, or blame the graves of traitors. The "throng of dead, in Carson City in said State ; which were rethem. They do not disguise their real charac led by Stonewall Jackson,'' are not to contri ferred to the Committee of Ways and Means, ter and opinions, because they have been made bute equally with the noble spirits of the North and ordered to be printed. sure of the executive favor. With the Pres to the renown of our great Republic.” Truth

JEFFERSON DAVIS. ident resolutely on the side of Congress in this and falsehood, right and wrong, heaven and

Mr. ASHLEY, of Nevada, also presented crisis, a very different exhibition of feeling and hell, are not mere names which signify nothing,

resolutions of the Legislature of Nevada in policy would have been developed in the South. but they pertain to the great veracities of the

relation to the trial of Jefferson Davis; which The danger now at our doors would never have universe, and the throne of God itself is imappeared. The prospect of another bloody war

were referred to the Committee on the Judimovable, only because its foundations are justo complete the work which we supposed al

ciary, and ordered to be printed. tice. ready accomplished would never have alarmed Mr. Speaker, I now move that this resolu


The President has deserted the tion be referred to the Committee on the Mr. ASHLEY, of Nevada, also presented loyal millions who crushed the rebel cause at Judiciary,

resolutions of the Legislature of Nevada on the end of a conflict of four years and joined Mr. WILSON, of Iowa. On that motion I

the subject of the sale of mineral lands; which himself to that very cause which is now bor call for the previous question.

were referred to the Committee on Public rowing new life from the fertilizing sunshine The previous question was seconded and Lands, and ordered to be printed. of his favor, reasserting its old heresies, and the main question ordered. renewing its treasonable demands. This is at Mr. HARRIS. I would like to make some once the root and source of our present na: remarks in reply to the gentleman from Indi

Mr. WHALEY introduced a bill in relation tional troubles, the prophecy and parent of ana, [Mr. JULIAN.]

to claims for horses turned over to the United whatever calamity may come. The President The SPEAKER. The House is acting at

States; which was read a first and second time, not only opposes the will of the nation, the present under the operation of the previous

and referred to the Committee on Military policy of the nation, as expressed through Con question.

Affairs. gress, but he brands as traitors before a rebel Mr. HARRIS. I ask the gentleman from JUDGMENTS OF COURTS-MARTIAL. moh leading and representative men in both Iowa [11r. Wilson] to withdraw the call for Mr. BIDWELL submitted the following res. Houses, who are as guiltless of treason as the the previous question.

olution ; which was read, considered, and great majority with whom they act. Not con Mr. WILSON, of Iowa. I cannot do that.

agreed to: tent with the good fellowship of the men who The motion to refer the resolution to the

Resolved, That the Committee on Military Affairs began the war and fought us with matchless Committee on the Judiciary was agreed to. be requested to inquire into the propriety of providing

nor even

* The green


by law that hercafter whenever any person subject to portion of its male citizens not less than twenty-one sequence of indisposition; he is paired on all the Rules and Articles of Warshall be tried by court years of age, or in any way abridged, except for par

political questions with my colleague, Mr. martial for any alleged offensc, and the finding of the ticipation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of rep

Randall . court shall be that the person tried is not guilty of the resentation in such State shall be reduced in the chiarge or charges against him, the president and proportion which the number of inale citizens shall Mr. ANCONA said: My colleague, Mr. judge advocate or recorder of the court shall gire a bear to the whole number of such male citizens not

Johnson, is paired with Mr. HOOPER, of written certificate of acquittal to the accused, who less than twenty-one years of age

Massachusetts. shall then be released from arrest or confinement. SEC. 3. Until the 4th day of July, in the year 1870,

all persons who voluntarily adhered to the late ipsur The result of the vote was announced as INTERNAL REVENUE FRAUDS.

rection, giving it aid and comfort, shall be excluded above. Mr. HIGBY. I offer the following resolu

from the right to vote for Representatives in Con-
gress and for clectors for President and Vice Pres-

The question was taken upon postponing the tion, upon which I demand the previous ques ident of the United States.

further consideration of the joint resolution till tion:

Scc. 4. Neither the United States, nor any State Tuesday of next week, after the reading of the Whereas it is alleged in responsible public journals incurred, or which may hereafter be incurred. in aid Journal, and making it the special order for and elsewhere that in the enforcement of the revenue

of insurrection or of war against the United States, that day, and from day to day until disposed of; laws at the custom-houses in Boston and New York,

or any claim for compensation for loss of involunand the adjustment of claims for the violation thereof,

and it was agreed to. tary service or labor. frauds have been committed upon the United States, Sec. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce

Thejoint resolution was ordered to be printed. and parties involved in said alleged violations; and

by appropriate legislation the provisions of this Mr. STEVENS. I am also instructed by whereas it is in like manneralleged that similar frauds

article. have been committed in the enforcement of the in

the joint committee on reconstruction to report ternal revenue laws, and in the adjustment of claims Mr. STEVENS. I move that this joint res. a bill to provide for restoring the States lately for the violation thereof in said cities: Therefore, Resolved, That the Committee on Public Expendi

olution be postponed until Tuesday of next in insurrection to their full political rights. tures be instructed to investigate all such alleged week after the reading of the Journal, and be The bill was read a first and second time. frauds, and that for that purpose they be authorized made the special order for that day, and from It is as follows: sit during the recess of Congress, at such place as they | day to day until disposed of, and that it be

A bill to provide for restoring the States lately in shall dcem most economical and cfficiept, and by such printed.

insurrection to their full political rights. number, not exceeding three, of said Committee, as Mr. NIBLACK. I desire to inquire whether Whereas it is expedient that the States lately in they may doem advisable.

this report of the committee on reconstruction insurrection should, at the earliest day consistent The previous question was seconded and the

with the future peace and safety of the Union, bo is intended to supersede the special report lately

restored to full participation in all political rights; main question ordered ; and under the opera made in reference to the State of Tennessee; and whereas the Congress did, by joint resolution, tion thereof the resolution was agreed to. or whether that special report is to be first con propose for ratification to the Legislatures of the Mr. HIGBY moved to reconsider the vote

several Statos, as an amendinent to the Constitution sidered and disposed of before this shall be

of the United States, an article in the following by which the resolution was adopted; and also reached.

words, to wit: moved that the motion to reconsider be laid Mr. STEVENS. This does not supersede

ARTICLE upon the table.

that ; if the House shall choose, that special Sec. 1. No State shall make or enforce any law The latter motion was agreed to.

which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of report can be taken up at any time. I move

citizens of the United States; nor shall any State CLAIMS AGAINST VENEZUELA.

that the joint resolution just reported be made deprive any person of life, liberty, or property withMr. DRIGGS submitted the following res.

the special order for Tuesday of next week out due process of law; nor deny to any person within after the reading of the Journal, and that it be

its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws. olution; which was read, considered, and

SEC. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among printed.

the several states which may be included within this agreed to:

Mr. ROSS. I have no objection to this being | Union, according to their respective numbers, countResolved, That the Secretary of Stato be requested

ing the whole number of persons in each State, exto furnish this House with a list of the claims of citimade the special order at the time indicated,

cluding Indians not. tased. But whenever, in any zens of the United States now pending in the United

subject to the prior consideration of the tariff State, the elective franchise shall be denied to any States legation at Caracas against the United States and revenue bills, if they come up previously.

portion of its malo citizens not less than twenty-one of Venezuela with a brief indication of the causes of The SPEAKER. This must be made a

ycars of age, or in any way abridged except for parcomplaint, and the reasons why payments have not

ticipation in rebellion or other crime, the basis of been enforced during a long series of years, and what

special order or not; it cannot depend upon a representation in such State shall be reduced in the measures are necessary to bring theso long-deferred contingency.

proportion which the number of such male citizeus claims to a speedy close.

Mr. ROSS. Then I object.

shall bear to the whole number of male citizens

not less than twenty-one years of age. Mr. DRIGGS moved to reconsider the vote Mr. STEVENS. I more to suspend the SEC. 3. Until the 4th day of July, in the year 1870, by which the resolution was adopted; and also rules for the purpose I have named.

all persons who voluntarily adhered to the lato insurmoved that the motion to reconsider be laid

rection, giving it aid and comfort, shall be excluded

The question was taken; and upon a divis from the right to vote for Representatives in Conupon the table. ion there were-ayes 89, noes 20.

gress, and for electors for President and Vice PresiThe latter motion was agreed to.

Before the result of the vote was announced,

dent of the United States. Mr. ANCONA called for the yeas and nays.

SEC. 4. Neither the United States por any Stato ST. JOSEPII MISSOURI.

shall assume or pay any debt or obligation already Mr. LOAN introduced a bill declaring St.

The yeas and nays were ordered.

incurred, or which may hereafter be incurred, in aid Joseph, in the State of Missouri, a port of

The question was taken; and it was decided

of insurrection or of war against the United States, in the athrmative-yeas 107, nays 20, not vot

or any claim for compensation for loss of involuntary delivery; which was read a first and second

service or labor. time, and referred to the Committee on Coming 56; as follows:

Skc. 5. The Congress shall have power to enforce, merce.

YEAS-Messrs. Alley, Allison, Ames, Anderson,

by appropriato legislation, the provisions of this

Delos R. Ashley, Baker, Banks, Baxter, Beaman, Ben-

Now, therefore,

jamin, Bidwell, Bingham, Blaine, Blow, Boutwell, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of PepresentaMr. BLOW introduced a bill to allow the Brandegee, Bromwell, Buckland. Reader W. Clarke,

tives of the Cariteit States of America in Congress assenSidney Clarke, Cobb, Conkling. Cook, Cullom, Dar

bled, "That whenever the abovc-rccited amendinent extension of the wharf at St. Louis, Missouri; ling, Dawes, Defrees, Delano, Deming, Dodge. Don shall have become part of the Constitution or the which was read a first and second time, and nelly, Driggs, Eliot, Farnsworth, Ferry.Garfield, Grin

United States, and any State lately in insurrection nell. Griswold, Abner C. Harding, Henderson, Higby, referred to the Committee on Military Affairs. Holmes, liotchkiss, Asahel W. Hubbard, Chester D.

shall have ratified the same, and shall have modified

its constitution and laws in conformity therewith, The SPEAKER. The morning hour has Hubbard, John H. Hlubbard, James R. Hubbell, Hul

the Senators and Representatives from such State, expired. þurd, Ingersoll, Jenckes, Julian, Kelley, Kelso, Kuy

if found duly elected and qualified, may, after having kendall, Lalin, George V. Lawrence, William LarRECONSTRUCTION.

taken the required oaths of cflice, be adınitted into rence, loan, Longycar, Lynch, Marston, Marvin, Mc

Congress as such.
Mr. STEVENS. I am instructed by the
Clurg, Mekee, Moluer, Miller, Moorhead, Morrill,

SEC. 2. And be it further enacted, That when any Morris, Moulton, Orth, Paine, Perham, Phelps, Pike, State lately in insurrection shall have ratified the joint committee on reconstruction to report a Plants, William II. Randall, Alexander H. Rice, Rol

foregoing amendinent to the Constitution, any part joint resolution proposing an amendment to lins, Rousseau, Sawyer, Schenck, Shanklin, Shella

of the direct tax under the act of August 5, isol, the Constitution of the United States. barger, Smith, Spalding. Stevens, Stilwell, Thayer,

which may remain duo and unpaid in such Stato Francis Thomas, John L. Thomas, Trowbridge, Upson, The joint resolution was read a first and

may be assumed and paid by such State; and the Burt Van Horn, Ward, Warner, Llibu B. Washburne, second time.

payment thereof, upon proper assurances from such It is as follows:

Henry D. Washburn. William B. Washburn, Went-
worth, Whaley, Williams, James F. Wilson, Stephen

State to be given to the Secretary of tho Treasury of A joint resolution proposing an amendment to the F. Wilson, Windom, and Woodbridge-107.

the United States, may be postponed for a period Constitution of the United States. NAYS-Messrs. Ancona, Bergen, Boyer, Coffroth,

not exceeding ten years from and after the passage

of this act. Be it resolved by the Senate and House of Represent

Dawson, Eldridge, Finck, Grider. Aaron Harding, atives of the United States of America in Congress James M. Humphrey, Latham, Marshall, Niblack,

Mr. STEVENS. I move that the further assembled, (two thirds of both Houses concurring.)

Nicholson, Ritter, Ross, Strouso, Taylor, Thornton, consideration of this bill be postponed till That the following article be proposed to the Legis

and Winfield-20. latures of the several States as an amendment to the

NOT VOTING -- Messrs. James M. Ashley, Bald

Wednesday of next week, after the reading of Constitution of the United States, which, when rati

win, Barker, Broomall, Bundy, Chanler, Culver, Da the Journal, and be made the special order for fied by three fourths of said Legislatures, shall be

vis, Denison, Dixon, Dumont, Eckley, Eggleston, Far that day, and from day to day until disposed of, valid as part of the Constitution, namely:

quhar, Glossbrenner, Goodyear, Hale, Harris, Hart,
Hayes. IIill, llogan, liooper, Demas Hubbard, Edwin

and be printed.
N. Hubbell, James Ilumphrey, Johnson, Jones, Kas-

Mr. ELDRIDGE. I object.
SEC. 1. No State shall make or enforce any law

son, Kerr, Ketchain, Le Biond, McCullough, McIndoe, Mr. STEVENS. I move that the rules be which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of

Mercur, Myers, Newell, Noell, O'Neill, Patterson, citizens of the United States; por shall any State Pomeroy, Price, Radford, Samuel J. Randall, Ray

suspended for that purpose. deprive any person of life, liberty, or property with

mond, John H. Rice, Rogers, Scofield, Sitgreaves, The question was taken; and two thirds votout due process of law; nor deny to any person

Sloan, Starr, Taber, Trimble. Van Aernam, Robert T. || ing in the affirmative, the motion was agreed to. within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the

Van lorn, Welker, and Wriglit--56. laws.

The bill was accordingly postponed until Sec. 2. Representatives shall be apportioned among

So the motion to suspend the rules was Wednesday of next week, after the reading the several States which may be included within this agreed to, two thirds voting in the affirmative.

of the Journal, and made the special order for Union according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, ex

During the roll-call,

that day, and from day to day until disposed of, cluding Indiang not taxed. But whenever in any

Mr. THAYER said: My colleague, Mr. and was ordered to be printed. State the elective franchise shall be denied to any O'Neill, is detained from the House in con Mr. STEVENS. I am further instructed by

the same committee to report a bill ds claring his earliest convenience to communicate said infor they believe, for the promotion of the common certain persons ineligible to oflice under the mation, as it is needed for tho purposes of legislation. welfare. The Constitution of the United States Government of the United States.

Mr. ROSS. I object.

empowers it, the people demand it, and the The bill was read a first and second time.


necessities of the public require it. We ask It is as follows:

Mr. GRINNELL. Mr. Speaker, my col.

for the expenditure of money and we believe A bill declaring certain persons ineligible to office

that it can be shown that every dollar of apunder the Governinent of the United States.

league, (Mr. Price,] who has been called away, Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representadesired I should move, which I do, that he le propriation asked for will, it judiciously applied,

return thirty-fold into the Treasury of the Unitiver of the United States of America in Congress assi excused from further service on the committee

ted States. The time has come when loyal bled, That no person shall be eligible to any office of conference in reference to the sale of liquor people look to Congress for help in the direc. under the Government of the United States ivho is included in any of the following classes, namely:

in the Capitol. 1. The president and vice president of the confed

The motion was agreed to; and the Speaker mittee on Commerce have persistently refused

tion of this bill. During all the war the Comerate States of America, so called, and the heads of appointed Mr. GRINNELL to fill the vacancy. departments thereof.

to report any bill on this subject although pe. 2. Those who in other countrics acted as agents of

Mr. WENTWORTH. Dr. RANDALI, of titions have been before them time and again. the confederate States of Americal, so called.

Pennsylvania, stated to me that he would be 3. Heads of Departments of the United States, ofi

And the people have been content; they have absent to-day, and I move that he be excused cers of the Army and Navy of the United States, and all persons educated at the Military or Naval Acadfrom further service on the same committee.

been expending life and treasnre to save the

life of the nation. The work of war has called emy of the United States, judges of the courts of the The motion was agreed to; and the Speaker

them from their homes. That work has been United States, and members of cither House of the Thirty-Sixth Congress of the United States who gavo

appointed Mr. Dawson to fill the vacancy. well accomplished and thoroughly. And now aid or comfort to the late rebellion.


from every loyal section of the land petitions 4. Those who acted as officers of the confederate States of America, so called, above the grade of col On inotion of Mr. BERGEN, leave of ab have come up demanding the action of Cononel in the army or master in the navy, and any one who, as Governor of either of the so-called confedsence was granted to Mr. Taber for one week.

gress in behalf of works where the highest inerate States, gave aid or comfort to the rebellion.

On motion of Mr. NICHOLSON, leave of

dustrial interests of the country are involved. 5. Those who have treated officers or soldiers or absence was granted to him for ten days.

Mr. Speaker, I do not propose at this time sailors of the Army or Navy of the United States, On motion of Mr. THAYER, leave of ab

to discuss the rightful power of Congress uncaptured during the late war, otherwise than lawfully as prisoners of war, sence was granted to him for one week.

der the Constitution to legislate in this manner.

It would seem as though that question ought

A PAIR. Mr. STEVENS. I move that the further

to be deemed settled. It has been discussed consideration of this bill be postponed until

Mr. ELDRIDGE stated that he understood for many years by the ablest men who have Thursday of next week, after the reading of Mr. Rogers was paired with Mr. HULBURD. represented their various constituencies upon the Journal, and be made the special order for

this floor and in the Senate. Whatever theo

RIVER AND HARBOR BILL. that day, and from day to day until disposed

rists may say, I believe that it is certain that of, and that it be printed.

Mr. ELIOT moved that the Committee of

the practical common sense of this country Mr. E!DRIDGE. I object. the Whole on the state of the Union be dis

demands and will receive but one solution. Mr. STEVENS. I move that the rules be charged from the further consideration of the

Perhaps, however, I may say, in reporting suspended for the purpose of making it a speriver and harbor bill.

this bill, that the Committee on Commerce have cial order for Thursday weck next.

Objection was made.

been guided somewhat by the principles of a Mr. ELDRIDGE demanded the yeas and

Mr. ELIOT. I move to suspend the rules resolution which obtained the sanction of this nays, and tellers on the yeas and nays. for that purpose.

House nearly twenty years ago, to which I will Tellers were not ordered, and the yeas and

The question was taken; and there were, refer. On the 21st, of December, 1847, the nays were not ordered. upon a division-ayes 72, noes 28.

gentleman from Illinois (Mr. Wentwortu] The rules were then suspended.

So the rules were suspended, two thirds offered the following resolution : The bill was ordered to be printed, and made voting in the affirmative, and the Committee

Resolved, That the General Government has the the special order for Thursday week next, after of the Whole was discharged from the further

power to construct such harbors and inprove such the morni hour.

consideration of House bill No. 492, being the rivers as are necessary and proper for the protection river and harbor bill.

of our Navy and of our commerce, and also for the Mr. STEVENS. I am directed by the com

defenses of our country.” mittee to say that it is designed, as soon as the

The House proceeded to consider the bill, which was read in full.

The principle of that resolution covers the testimony is printed, that a short report will be

appropriations called for in this bill, and I find made by the committee in furtherance of the


while on the vote taken on the resolution the objects now reported.

Mr. BRANDEGEE, by unanimous consent, names of Jacob Thompson and others of that APPROPRIATIONS FOR FREEDMEN'S BUREAU.

obtained leave to withdraw from the files of the class are recorded in the negative, that besides

House the papers in the case of Marchant & the names of several gentlemen who are here Mr. STEVENS. I ask the unanimous con Co., and P. Rosecrans, leaving copies of the upon the floor who are recorded in the affirmasent of the House to report from the Commit

tive, there were three not here who gave to that tee on Appropriations à bill making appropri


resolution, and to the principle of the resoluations for the uses of the Bureau of Refugees,

Mr. BLAINE. Will the gentleman from

tion, the authority of their distinguished names. Freedmen, and Abandoned Lands, for ihe fiscal Massachusetts [Mr. Eliot] yield to me a

I refer to John Quincy Adams, Abraham Linyear commencing January 1, 1866, and that it moment?

coln, and Andrew Johnson, all of whom susbe referred to the Committee of the Whole on

Mr. ELIOT. Yes, sir.

tained the resolution in the terms which I have the state of the Union, and made the special

Mr. BLAINE. I hold in my hand a letter

read. order for to-morrow after the morning hour. Mr. ROSS. Is that report in order ?

from Provost Marshal General Fry, which I Nearly forty years ago Mr. Webster emphatThe SPEAKER. The committee have a

ask to have read at the Clerk's desk for the || ically gave his opinion, which he said had been

double right to report for commitment, but not for

purpose of vindicating myself from the expressed some twenty years before that time, action.

charge of having stated in debate last week in favor of the general power of Congress, and The bill was read a first and second time, what was false, and also for the purpose, which

of the policy of its exercise by the Government. I am sure will commend itself to the House,

I hold in my hand an extråct from Mr. Web. referred to the Committee of the Whole on the of allowing fair play to an honorable man in

ster, which I will read. It is as follows: state of the Union, ordered to be printed, and

the same forum in which he has been assailed. "Congress has power to regulate commerce, both made the special order for to-morrow after the

The SPEAKER. It requires unanimous

internal and external, and whatever might havo morning hour.

been thought to be the literal interpretation of these consent to have it read. Is there objection? terms we know the construction to have been, from CONFISCATION.

Mr. CONKLING. I infer that this has some the very first assembling of Congress, and by the very Mr. STEVENS. I present a substitute for reference to me. I shall make no objection

men who framed the Constitution, that the regula

tion of commerce comprehended such measures as House bill No. 63, to double the pensions of provided I may have an opportunity to reply were necessary for its support, its improvement, its those who were pensioners by the casualties to whatever the letter may call for hereafter. advancement, and justified such expenditures as of the late war, and to pay the damages done Mr. STEVENS. I hope this will be post.

piers, beacons, and light-houses, and the cleaning

out of harbors required. Instances of this sort in tho to loyal men by the rebel government and rebel | poned until we get through this bill. I object || application of thegeneral revenue have been frequent raiders, and to enforce the confiscation laws so to interrupting it in this way.

from the commencement of the Government. As the as to pay the same out of the confiscated prop Mr. BLAINE. I move to suspend the rules

same form, precisely, exists in relation to internal as

well as external trade it was not easy to see why liko erty of the enemy, and move that it be printed. to allow it to be read.

expenditures might not be justified when made on T'here was no objection, and the substitute The SPEAKER. The House is now en internal objects. The vast regions of the West are was received and ordered to be printed. gaged in the consideration of a bill brought up | penetrated by rivers to which those of Europe aro

Mr. STEVENS. I ask unanimous consent under a suspension of the rules; it cannot, noble streams, washing as they do the margin of one to submit the following resolution calling for therefore, suspend the rules to consider another

third of the States of the Union, was obstructed by information: matter.

obstacles capable of being removed, and

yet not likely

to be removed but by the power of the General Gov. Whereas the House did, by resolution dated March


ernment. Was this a justifiable object of expendi5. 1866, request the President to inform them how

ture froin the national Treasury? Without hesita. many pardons had been granted by bim, to whom, Mr. ELIOT. The Committee on Commerce tion I have thought it was. A vast chain of lakes, and for what offenses, and how much forfeited prop have deemed it to be their duty to offer this if it be not more proper to call them a succession of erty had been restored to rebel owners, and to whom, to which no answer has yet been returned: Therefore, bill at this time for the consideration of the

inland seas, stretches into the decp interior of this

northern part of the continent, as if kindly placed Be it resolved, That the President be requested at House and for their favorable action, and, as there by Providence to break the continuity of the


« PreviousContinue »