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remitter to a right, for which the party has no remedy by action k: as if the issue in tail be barred by the fine or warranty of his ancestor, and the freehold is afterwards cast upon him; he shall not be remitted to his estate tail': for the operation of the remitter is exactly the same, after the union of the two rights, as that of a real action would have been before it. As therefore the issue in tail could not by any action have recovered his antient estate, he shall not recover it by remitter.

And thus much for these extrajudicial remedies, as well for real as personal injuries, which are furnished or permitted by the law, where the parties are so peculiarly circumstanced, as not to make it eligible, or in some cases even possible, to apply for redress in the usual and ordinary methods to the courts of public justice. | x Có Litt 349.

" Moor. 115. i Ann, 236.



T HE next, and principal, object of our enquiries is the

| redress of injuries by fuit in courts: wherein the act of the parties and the act of law co-operate; the act of the parties being necessary to set the law in motion, and the process of the law being in general the only instrument, by which the parties are enabled to procure a certain and adequate redress.

. And here it will not be improper to observe, that although, in the several cases of redress by the act of the parties mentioned in a former chapter", the law allows an extrajudicial remedy, yet that does not exclude the ordinary course of jurtice: but it is only an additional weapon put into the hands. of certain persons in particular instances, where natural equity or the peculiar circumstances of their situation required a more expeditious remedy, than the formal process of any court of judicature can furnish. Therefore, though I may defend myself, or relations, from external violence, I yet am afterwards entitled to an action of assault and battery: though I may retake my goods, if I have a fair and peaceable opportunity, this power of recaption does not debar me from my action of trover or detinue: I may either enter on the lands, on which I have a right of entry, or may demand possession by a real action: I may either abate a nusance by my own authority, or call upon the law to do it for me: 1 may distrein for sent, or have an action of debt, at my own

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option: If I do not distrein my neighbour's cattle damagefcafant, I may compel him by action of trespass to make me a fair satisfaction: if a heriot, or a deodand, be withheld from me by fraud or force, I may recover it though I never seised it. And with regard to accords and arbitrations, these, in their nature being merely an agreement or compromise, most indisputably suppose a previous right of obtaining res dress some other way, which is given up by such agreement, But as to remedies by the mere operation of law, those are indeed given, because no remedy can be ministred by suit or action, without running into the palpable abfurdity of a man's bringing an action against himself: the two cases wherein they happen being such, wherein the only possible legal remedy would be directed against the very person himself who seeks relief.

In all other cases it is a general and indisputable rule, that where there is a legal right, there is also a legal remedy, by suit or action at law, whenever that right is invaded. And, in treating of these remedies by fuit in courts, I shall pursue the following method : first, I shall consider the nature and several species of courts of justice: and, secondly, I shall point out in which of these courts, and in what manner, the proper remedy may be had for any private injury; or, in other words, what injuries are cognizable, and how redressed, in each respective species of courts.

First then, of courts of justice. And herein we will consider, first, their nature and incidents in general; and, then, the several species of them, erected and acknowleged by the laws of England.

A court is defined to be a place wherein justice is judicially administered b. And, as by our excellent constitution the sole executive power of the laws is vested in the person of the king, it will follow that all courts of justice, which are

Co. Litt. 58.


the medium by which he administers the laws, are derived from the power of the crown. For whether created by act of parliament, or letters patent, or subsisting by prescrip. rion, (the only methods by which any court of judicature d can exift) the king's consent in the two former is expressly, and in the latter impliedly, given. In all these courts the king is supposed in contemplation of law to be always prefent; but as that is in fact impossible, he is there represented by his judges, whose power is only an emanation of the royal prerogative.

For the more speedy, universal, and impartial adminiAtration of justice between subject and subject, the law hath appointed a prodigious variety of courts, fome with a more limited, others with a more extensive jurisdiction; some constituted to inquire only, others to hear and determine: folue to determine in the first instance, others upon appeal and by way of review. All these in their turns will be taken notice of in their respective places : and I shall therefore here only mention one distinction, that runs throughout them all ; viz. that some of them are courts of record, others not of record. A court of record is that where the acts and judicial proceedings are enrolled in parchment for a perpetual memoțial and testimony: which rolls are called the records of the court, and are of such high and supereminent authority, that their truth is not to be called in question. For it is a settled rule and maxim that nothing shall be averred against a record, nor shall any plea, or even proof, be admitted to the contrary. And if the existence of a record be denied, it shall be tried by nothing but itself; that is, upon bare inspection whether there be any sạch record or no ; else there would be no end of disputes. But, if there appear any mistake of the clerk in making up such record, the court will direct him to amend it. All courts of record are the king's courts, in right of his crown and royal dignity, and therefore no other court

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hath authority to fine or imprison; so that the very erection [ 25 ] of a new jurisdiction with power of fine or imprisonment

makes it instantly a court of records. A court not of record is the court of a private man ; whom the law will not intrust with any discretionary power over the fortune or liberty of his fellow-subjects. Such are the courts-baron incident to every manor, and other inferior jurisdictions: where the proceedings are not enrolled or recorded ; but as well their existence as the truth of the matters therein contained shall, if disputed, be tried and determined by a jury. These courts can hold no plea of matters cognizable by the common law, unless under the value 405. nor of any forcible injury whatsoever, not having any process to arrest the person of the defendant".

Ix cvery court there must be at least three constituent parts, the actor, reus, and judex : the actor, or plaintiff, who complaints of an injury done; the reus, or defendant, who is called upon to make satisfaction for it; and the judex, or judicial power, which is to examine the truth of the fact, to determine the law arising upon that fact, and, if any injury appears to have been done, to ascertain and by it's officers to apply the remedy. It is also usual in the superior courts to have attorneys, and advocates or counsel, as assistants. i.

An attorney at law answers to the procurator, or proctor, of the civilians and canonistsi. And he is one who is put in the place, stead, or turn of another, to manage his matters of law. Formerly every suitor was obliged to appear in perfon, to prosecute or defend his fuit, (according to the old Gothic constitution ",) unless by special licence under the king's letters patent'. This is still the law in criminal cases. Ard an idiot cannot to this day appear by attorney, but in perfon "; for he hath not discretion to enable him to appoint

2 Salk. 200. 12 Moj. 333. A 2 Joft. 311.

i Pope Boniface VIII, in 6 Decretal. {?.1. 16. $ 3. speaks of “ procurato. "*:ibus, qui in aliquibus f artit us at urnari

* Stiernhook de jur. Gotb. 1. 1.6.6.

F. N. B. 25.
m Ibid. 27.

a proper

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