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The bill was read.

Mr. SPALDING. I demand the regular Mr.SPALDING. I only desire that the House The committee reported sundry amendments order of business.

shall act understandingly upon this subject. to the bill of a verbal character, which were

Mr. CONKLING. With the permission of


the gentlaman from Maine, [Mr. PERHAM,] I The bill was then ordered to be engrossed

Mr. STEVENS, from the Committee on Ap desire to say that I voted yesterday in the first and read a third time; and being engrossed, || propriations, reported a bill making appropri instance against this bill. I did it, I confess, it was accordingly read the third time and ations to supply deficiencies in the appropria without much knowledge of the bill, for I happassed.

tions for the public printing for the fiscal year pened to be out of the House and unavoidably Mr. MORRIS moved to reconsider the vote | ending June 30, 1866; which was read a first

occupied otherwise when the explanation of by which the bill was passed; and also moved and second time, referred to the Committee of

the bill was made. I voted against the bill that the motion to reconsider be laid upon the

the Whole on the state of the Union, and table. ordered to be printed.

from my general opposition to the increase of

salaries. For one, I have great respect for The latter motion was agreed to.

Mr. STEVENS. I move that the bill be

the officer whose salary is in question here. I made the special order for to-morrow. This believe him to be a very pure man and a very TESTIMONY OF A. II. STEPHIEXS. money is needed for the payment of the hands

excellent officer: but if the gentleman from Mr. BOYER, by unanimous consent, sub during this month.

Maine will take the trouble I will thank him to mitted the following resolution; which was Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I would

state, for iny benefit and for the benefit of read, and referred, under the law, to the Com ask the gentleman how the business of the others similarly situated who did not hear his mittee on Printing:

House stands in regard to the ordinary appro explanation, what is the particular reason for Resolved. That there be printed for tho use of the priation bills.

raising the salary of this officer. If it is really members of the House of Representatives for dis Mr. STEVENS. With the exception of the tribution fifty thousand copies of the testimony of

a case of hardship, my inclination would be to Hon. Alexander H. Stephens before the committee on

Indian appropriation bill, all the general appro- go with himn although I am generally opposed reconstruction.

priation bills have been passed and sent to the to raising salaries. Mr. ROGERS. I move to amend that reso Senate, and only one or two of them have come Mr. PERHAM. On the first day this ques. lution so as to make the number seventy-five || back. We have, besides the ordinary defi

tion came up. I presented, as fully as I could thousand.

ciency bill, which is always kept to the end of in the very brief period I occupied the reasons The SPEAKER. The resolution has gone, the session, only the miscellaneous appropria which governed the committee in making this under the law, to the Committee on Printing.

tion bill back. All the other general appro recommendation. I stated the fact of the very Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I object to priation bills have been reported to the House large amount of business now before that buthe introduction of the resolution.

and they have all been passed with the excep reau; that it had increased perhaps tenfold The SPEAKER. The objection comes too tion of the Indian appropriation bill, which has since the commencement of the late war. I late. The resolution has already been referred been kept back in order that provision may be also stated that the salaries of these bureau offto the Committee on Printing. made for several new treaties.

cers were formerly fixed at half the salaries of Mr. ROSS. I object to the bill being made DEPOT FOR IRON-CLADS,

the Cabinet officers. The salaries of the Caba special order.

inet officers have now been raised to $8,000 a Mr. LYNCH, by unanimous consent, intro

The SPEAKER. A majority vote can make duced a joint resolution authorizing the appoint- | the bill the special order for to-morrow, it being

year, and we propose by this bill to increase ment of examiners to examine a site for a fresh

the salary of this officer so that it shall correan appropriation day. The Chair will put the spond to the salaries of Cabinet officers, as it did water basin for iron-clad vessels of the United States Navy; which was read a first and second question to the House.

before those salaries were raised.

The motion to make the bill a special order I also stated the further fact that many other time, and referred to the Committee on Naval was agreed to.

officers of the Government, heads of bureaus Affairs,


having much less work to do and much less INSTRUCTION IN AGRICULTURAL COLLEGES.

Mr. McRUER asked and obtained leave of

responsibility, are receiving salaries equal to Mr. LYNCH, also, by unanimous consent, absence for one week for his colleague, Mr.

and in some instances greater than that which introduced a bill to provide military instruction Higby.

the committee propose to give to this officer. in agricultural colleges established under the

Those arguments are set forth more fully in the

ORGANIZATION OF THE PENSION BUREAU. act of July 2, 1862 ; which was read a first and

columns of the Globe than I feel willing to take second time, referred to the Committee on

Mr. SPALDING. I call for the regular up the time of the House in now stating. Military Affairs, and ordered to be printed. order of business.

Mr. WASHBURNE, of Mlinois. I would The SPEAKER. The regular order of busi ask the gentleman from Maine if the duties of PERSONAL EXPLANATION.

ness during the morning hour is the call of the Second Auditor have not increased within Mr. WHALEY. I ask the unanimous con committees for reports. At the close of the a few years in a greater proportion than those sent of the House to make a personal explana- | morning hour of yesterday the House had re of the Commissioner of Pensions. And the tion.

considered the rejection of House bill No. 278, duties of the Third Auditor have also been Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I demand || reported from the Committee on Inralid Pen increased. And I know that the duties of the the regular order of business.

sions, in amendment of the several acts relating Commissioner of Indian Affairs have been Mr. ROGERS. Oh, no; let us hear the to the organization of the Pension Office. The increased nearly twofold, in consequence of gentleman's explanation. question now is, Shall the bill pass ?

troubles among the Indians of late. The same Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. Well, I Mr. PERHAM. This bill has been pretty fully reasons which operate in favor of increasing will not object.

discussed, and I desire that it shall be put upon this salary will operate with equal force in favor Mr. WHALEY. I learn that yesterday, its passage now. I call the previous question. of increasing the salary of every bureau officer during my absence, the gentleman from Ohio Nr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I hope the of the Government. And if we increase the (Mr. EGGLESTON] asked to have a letter read gentleman from Maine [Mr. PERHAM) will not salary of the Commissioner of Pensions, I do from a gentleman in the reporters' gallery, but do that. He himself proposed yesterday to not see how we can refuse to increase the salathe reading was objected to.

have this bill recommitted to the Committee ries of other officers. As the gentleman from hand a letter from the same gentleman which on Pensions. I hope he will have the letter Ohio (Mr. SPALDING] has very well said, this I am informed by his friends he desires to have

of the Secretary of the Interior upon this sub is merely a stepping-stone to a general increase read to the House. That is my excuse for ject of salaries read to the House. I think the of salaries. offering it, and I ask that it be read.

gentleman did not state to the House what Mr. RICE, of Maine. I understand that the The Clerk read the letter, as follows: that letter was.

Secretary of the Interior has written a letter REPORTERS' GALLERY,

Mr. PERHAM. I have seen no letter of explaining his views upon the question of raisHOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES, April 16, 1864. SIR: I sincerely regret that I was not present to

the Secretary of the Interior upon the subject ing this salary as well as other salaries in his

of this Pension Bureau. hear your eloqucnt, severe, and well-merited rebuke

Department. of some anonymous correspondent, who had the ill Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. Well, I No man in this House feels better disposed manners to intimate that you did not know the ele hope the House will understand that this is but toward the Commissioner of Pensions than I ments of the Latin language; and that what all now know you intended as a joko was in any sense con

a stepping-stone to raising the salaries of all do; and I have seldom given a vote with so sidered as in earnest by yourself. these officers.

much reluctance as that which I gave yesterWill you do me the justice to state that I did not Mr. PERHAM. I think this House is as day against the increase of the salary of this write the article you caused to be read, or procure its writing, or even know that it had been written, until

well prepared to-act upon this subject as it officer, because I am fully aware of his great the Gazette, in which it appeared as a selection, ever will be.

merit and the immense labor he has to perreached Washington?

Mr. SPALDING. I hope the gentleman form. I only voted as I did for the reason You will at once perceive that the force of your remarks against the real offender will in no degree will allow me to say a word.

that I believed the increase of this salary would be broken by the correction which your own keen

Mr. PERHAM. Very well.

be a precedent for the increase of other salasense of justice and appreciation of the ridiculous Mr. SPALDING. I would as soon vote to ries." If a letter from the Secretary of the will prompt you to make. Very respectfully, your obedient servant,

raise the salary of the Commissioner of Pen Interior on this subject is before the commit

H. V. N. BOYNTON. sions as to raise the salary of any other offi tee, I believe it due to the House that the letHon. KELLIAN V. WHALEY.

cer; but I want to know if this is to be a step ter should be read. I have just this moment Mr. WASHBURNE, of Illinois. I suppose ping-stone to raising the salaries of all those understood that there is such a letter. I ask the gentleman from West Virginia is satisfied, officers. If it is, let us know it.

my colleague [Mr. PERHAM] whether such is as I have no doubt the House is, of the good Mr. PERHAM. That question was asked the fact. faith in which that letter was written.

yesterday and answered as fully as it could be. Mr. PERHAM. , I will state, in reply to my

I hold in my

colleague, that no original letter from the Secretary of the Interior has come before the committee. There is before the Senate a proposition for the reorganization of the whole Interior Department, and in connection with that proposition a letter from the Secretary of the Interior has been communicated to the Senate. I believe that that proposition provides for a similar reorganization of the pension department to that originally proposed by this bill; in other words, it provides for an increase of the salaries of the higher grades of clerks in that department. A copy of that communication from the Secretary of the Interior was sent to me as chairman of the Committee on Invalid Pensions.

I now demand the previous question.

The previous question was seconded and the main question ordered, which was upon the passage of the bill.

Mr. SPALDING called for the yeas and nays.
The yeas and nays were ordered.

Mr. KASSON. I desire to inquire whether the bill as it now stands makes any change touching the salary of the chief clerk of the Pension Bureau.

The SPEAKER. It does not.

The question was taken; and it was decided in the affirmative-yeas 61, nays 51, not voting 71 ; as follows:

YEAS- Messrs, Ancona, Anderson, Baldwin, Banks, Barker, Benjamin, Blaine, Boyer, Buckland, Reader W. Clarke, Dixon, Dodge, Donnelly, Driggs, Eckley. Eggleston, Farquhar, Glossbrenner, Hale, Hayes, Holmes, Chester D. Hubbard, Hulburd, James M. Humphrey. Ingersoll, Jenckes, Kelley, Kulso, George V. Lawrence, Lynch, Marvin, McRuer, Mercur, Moorhead, Morrill, Morris, Newell, Nicholson, O'Neill, Patterson, Perham, Plants, William H. Randall, Rogers, Rollins, Smith, Stevens, Strouse, Taber, Taylor, Thayer, John L. Thomas, Van Aernam, Burt Van Horn, Warner, William B. Washburn, Wolker, Whaley, Williams, Stephen F. Wilson, and Woodbridge-61.

NÄYS-Messrs. Allison, Ames, Baker, Bcaman, Boutwell, Bromwell, Broomall, Chanler, Conkling, Cook, Deming, Eldridge, Farnsworth, Ferry, Finck, Goodyear, Grider, soner C. Harding, Henderson, Edwin N. Hubbell, Julian, Kasson, Kuykendall, Latham, Loan, Longyear, Marshall, McClurg, McKee, Moulton, Orth, Paine, Phelps, Price, John H. Rice, Ritter, Ross, Schenck, Shellabarger, Sitgreaves, Spalding. Thornton, Trowbridge, Upson, Ward, Elihu B. Washburne, Henry D. Washburn, Wentworth, James F. Wilson, Windom, and Wright-51.

NOT VOTING--Messrs. Alley, Delos R. Ashley, James M. Ashley, Baxter, Bergen, Bidwell, Bingham, Blow, Brandegee, Bundy, Sidney Clarke, Cobb, Coffroth, Callom, Culver, Darling, Davis, Dawes, Dawson, Defrees, Delano, Denison, Dumont, Eliot, Garfield, Grinnell, Griswold, Aaron Harding, Ilarris, Hart, Higby, Hill, Hogan, Hooper, Hotchkiss, Asahci W. Hubbard, Demas Hubbard, John H. Hubbard, James R. Qubbell, James Humphrey, Johnson, Jones, Kerr, Ketcham, Laflin, Williain Lawrence, Le Blond, Marston, McCullough, McIndoe, Miller, Myers, Niblack, Noell, Pike, Pomeroy, Radford. Samuel J. Randall, Raymond, Alexander H. Rice, Rousseau, Sawyer, Scofield, Shanklin,

Sloan, Starr, Stilwell, Francis Thomas, Trimble, Robert T. Van Horn, and Winfield-71.

So the bill was passed.
During the roll-call,

Mr. VAN AERNAM stated that Mr. Hub-
BARD, of Connecticut, was confined to his room
by sickness.
The result was announced as above stated.

the remainder of my hour to several gentlemen || desirable for the construction of this canal.
who desire to be heard upon this subject. The The President is to locate the route after these
bill is reported by the committee with several surveys which will best secure the greatest
amendments which I propose the House shall benefit to the commercial interests of the
act upon hereafter; and I reserve the right to country, and at the same time the greatest
conclude what I have to say when the previous | naval and military advantages.
question shall have been ordered, if the House It provides further for a commission which
shall see fit to order it.

shall take into consideration the advantages Mr. Speaker, this is a measure of great || derived from such a work and adjust the damnational importance, and I propose to enter ages. The commissioners are to hear all cases upon the discussion of the question in that that arise and settle them upon their merits. light. This project has received the favorable After the route is thus selected the Presi. action of the Government on several occasions dent is authorized to contract with any comin the past. Surveys for such a work have on pany that may be incorporated by any State, or several occasions been made under the direc- | organized in any State-in New York no more tion of the Government by competent engi than any other State-for the construction of neers. Reports of those surveys have been || this work on the plan prescribed in the bill. made, and are on file for the examination of It further provides that this company shall all gentlemen who are interested.

proceed at a certain time with this work, and Several years ago Captain Williams, one of shall complete it within a given time, and that the niost distinguished of our engineers, made the Government shall loan bonds to the amount a survey under the direction of the Govern of $6,000,000 in aid of the construction of ment for the construction of this work. He this work. The company is, however, to pay surveyed several routes and made his report. all the expense for survey and damages asThat survey and report were made in a time sessed up to the beginning of this work; but of peace. He said in that report it was a work as fast as the company expends $300,000, of great military necessity, and that the Gor. upon the certificate of the engineers the Gov. ernment should enter upon the construction of ernment is to issue $200,000 of bonds, and so the canal as a military work. Of course we on for every additional $300,000 expended, all admit it is a work of great commercial im until the whole $6,000,000 of bonds are exportance and benefit to the country. It is the hausted. only link wanted in the communication between It further provides that ten per cent. of all the great lakes and rivers as it proposes to the tolls received from this canal after paying connect Lake Erie with Lake Oritario. Then the expenses and keeping up the repairs, is to we shall have a continuous line of communi be paid into the Treasury of the United States, cation from Lake Superior to Lake Ontario on the 1st of January in each year, to reimand the river St. Lawrence.

burse the Government for the money thus Now, sir, I am sorry to say that the chief loaned. opposition to this project comes from my own And I may say here that the Government, in State. During the last few days some docu consideration of this, is to have control, so far ments have been circulated and laid upon the as its own use is concerned, in all time to come, desks of members, issuing from the canal au of this canal. It is to have the supervision also thorities of the State of New York, urging upon with reference to its being kept in good condithe Representatives from that State to oppose tion during the whole time it may be in possesthe

passage of this measure as being against || sion of the company. the interests of New York. I say I am sorry It further provides that the Government may the opposition to this great national project at any time purchase this canal by paying to should come from my State. I have no sym the company what it has expended in its conpathy with such opposition, and I take no part || struction, and in addition thereto ten per cent. in it whatever, because I believe this is a meas on the actual cost of the canal, and take posure of national importance and utility, and as session of it itself. a member of Congress legislating for the whole This is what the bill proposes. As I said country, I am not disposed to throw obstacles before, this is a work of great national imporin the way of such a measure although it may

tance. There is now already a canal upon the seem to some small extent to interfere with the Canada side, called the Welland canal, coninterests of New York. Being a measure of necting the lakes. But three fourths of all the great national importance and utility to all sec shipping of the upper lakes is American shiptions of the country, I think I should make no ping. It is American enterprise which has opposition to it.

built the Welland canal, and which keeps it What has been the position of New York in up; and if we do not have a canal of our own regard to the measure heretofore? On four or on onr own side there will soon be an enlargefive occasions New York has gone in favor of ment of that canal, for measures are already this proposition. As early as 1798 a company taken to secure it, so as to accommodate the was incorporated called the Niagara Canal || largest vessels that float on our lakes. Company, which looked directly to the con It is therefore a question whether we are to struction of a ship-canal like that proposed by have the benefit of this great work, or whether this bill. Again in 1823 the Legislature of the Canada shall have it. State of New York took similar action and Mr. TAYLOR. I would like to ask the genagain incorporated a company for the construc tleman a question right here. tion of this work. In 1858 similar action was Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. Very well. taken; only recently, within the last two weeks, Mr. TAYLOR. I would like to know what the popular branch of my State has passed a

benefit this canal will be to the American combill providing for the incorporation of a com merce after this large expenditure, so long as pany to construct this work, by the large vote the control of the St. Lawrence river is with of 85 to 30. I am aware that measure failed the English Government. in the Senate, or will doubtless be lost. I am Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. It will be not certain whether it has been lost in the Sen the same benefit to our commerce that the Welate, but I understand it has been loaded with land canal now is. amendments to such an extent that its friends Mr. TAYLOR. What benefit will that be do not desire it to pass. Nevertheless, the şince the abrogation of the reciprocity treaty ? popular branch of the Legislature, represent Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I do not ing immediately the people of my State, has understand that the abrogation of that treaty acted on the proposition, and passed the bill || deprives us of the use of that canal. In the to which I have referred.

year 1862 I understand that over thirty millions What does this bill propose? In the first of commerce passed through the Welland canal place, it provides that the President shall ap: into Lake Ontario, and more than three fourths point engineers who shall go upon the ground of it went into American ports and did not go and make surveys and report their views, and into the river St. Lawrence. We want a comupon those surveys and facts so reported he. munication for the benefit of our commerce, shall locate the route of this ship-canal. I and if we do not furnish this communication may say there are several routes spoken of as Canada will do it.


Mr. VAN HORN, of New York, from the Committee on Roads and Canals, reported back, with amendments, the bill (H. R. No. 344) entitled "An act to construct a ship-canal around the falls of Niagara.

Mr. PAINE. The gentleman from New York yields to me; and I offer an amendment in the nature of a substitute for the bill, and ask that it may be printed.

The SPEAKER. The Chair hears no objection, and the substitute will be ordered to be printed.

Mr. JENCKES. I ask the gentleman from New York (Mr. Van Horn) to yield to me that I may offer a substitute for the amendment.

Mr. VAN HORN, of New York. I cannot yield any further at present.

Mr. Speaker, owing to quite severe indis. position I will not this morning occupy the time of the House at any great length in discussing this measure; but after a few remarks, stating the objects and features of the bill, I will yield


I repeat, that it is a question whether we appropriations have been constantly made for transported without breaking bulk at all, or shall control this commerce or whether Can- | the purpose of aiding in the construction of more than once, to the eastern sea-board. It ada shall do it. The records of the past show works of this character down to the very pres overcomes an artificial travel of one hundred very clearly that more than three fourths of all ent time.

and fifty miles, thus saving from seventy to the commerce that has gone through that canal Now, sir, I hold it to be the duty of the Gov seventy five cents upon every ton of produce has gone into our ports, and not down the St. ernment to afford reasonable facilities for com transported. And that amount is saved as well Lawrence' river; and so it will be hereafter. merce between the States. How is it with ref to the consumer in the East as the producer in And if such the fact, while that canal is erence to the western States to-day? may the West. It will develop all the interest of under the control of a foreign Government and say of those States that they are in their infancy | the West, increase the value of all kinds of while our commerce between the lakes is not as regards development. In the State of Illi

property, encourage immigration, and stimulate under our own control fully, it becomes a very nois, not one tenth part of her area has yet || industry of every kind. important question whether we shall not have been developed and cultivated; and the com Another objection to this canal is, that it a canal of our own on our own side over which plaint of the great West to-day is that there are appropriates a considerable amount of money we shall have entire control, and thus direct no sufficient facilities afforded to that section from the Treasury of the United States. The the trade through our own ports and to the of country whereby the immense surplus prod sum to be appropriated by this bill is only benefit of our own citizens.

ucts there raised can reach a market at reason $6,000,000; a very small suun, indeed, when As I stated at the opening of my remarks, hable expense,

compared with the great advantages that are there are several gentlemen who wish to speak It is conceded upon all hands, I think, that to be received from this expenditure. And this morning; and, as I am very much indis the Erie canal and the railroads connected besides, it is provided in the bill that this apposed and propose to discuss this measure therewith afford no adequate facilities for the propriation shall be reimbursed to the Governhereafter, I yield to gentlemen who desire to transportation of the products of the West. ment by reserving ten per cent. of the tolls as speak. Í yield now for fifteen minutes to the The value of the products of the West an they shall subsequently accrue. But, sir, withgentleman from Illinois, [Mr. Moulton.] nually seeking a market in the East is more out the means for transportation the interest Mr. MOULTON. Mr. Speaker, in common than five hundred million dollars.

of the West will be paralyzed and its prosperity with the people of the great West, I, as well There are over three thousand steam and | greatly retarded. as my State, feel a very great interest in this sail vessels upon our western lakes, and all The gentleman from New York (Mr. Tayproject; indeed I may say that for more than this immense commerce has to be crowded LOR] has asked what advantage it will be to twenty years the people of the great States bor- through a single channel to market, and we of American commerce to construct a canal of dering upon the lakes have looked forward to the West are at the mercy of an overgrown cor this character. It seems to me that the advanthe time when this great national work shall be poration and monopoly.

tages are so obvious that that question need not completed, and have regarded it as absolutely Now, sir, the objections that are made to this be asked. It enables us, as I have already necessary for their prosperity and the develop- work, as I understand the gentleman from New | remarked, to overcoine at least one hundred ment of the States bordering upon those waters. York, [Mr. Van Horn,] come principally from and fifty miles of artificial travel, at a saving And I will say here that there is no single ques the State of New York. Now, what are those of at least seventy-five cents on each ton of tion to-day in which the people of that part of objections? Let us look at them for a moment. produce transported. The gentleman says, the country which I have the honor in part to It is said that this canal would deprive the State however, that since the expiration of the recirepresent feel so great an interest as in the of New York of a portion of its tolls and ruin | procity treaty between the United States and the question now under consideration.

and destroy the business of the Erie canal. British Provinces we will not have the use of Mr. Speaker, I will not occupy the few mo. Now, I do not admit that fact. And even if the St. Lawrence river. It is true that we would ments allotted' to me in a discussion of the the completion of this canal should deprive not, independent of some arrangement with the details of this bill. I believe they are sub- that State of a portion of its tolls, is that any Canadas, have the use of the St. Lawrence river stantially what are desired by our people, with reason why this great national work should not below the town of Ogdensburg. We certainly a single exception, and that is that the bill be completed? The answers to this objection have the right to the use of the river to Ogdensprovides that the depth of the canal shall be

burg, for it is American waters that far. twelve feet. I think that the interests of the 1. The present canal and railroad connected Now, I assume that it will be for the interest commerce of the West require that that canal with it cannot now do the business required by of Canada to provide means and facilities of shall at least be of the depth of fourteen feet, | the growing interest of the West.

commerce to the great West through their so that we can load a vessel at Chicago of 2. The West has been enormously taxed by canals. We pay tolls on the passage of our twelve hundred tons and without breaking bulk these monopolies in New York, and has an vessels through the various canals constructed convey the products of the West either to the nually paid tolls to that State the sum of for the purpose of overcoming the obstacles and eastern sea-board or to Europe. $10,000,000.

obstructions in the St. Lawrence river. If we Now, sir, the Government has contemplated 3. It saves to the West one hundred and fifty | desire to ship to Europe the products which we this work almost ever since its foundation. It miles of artificial travel and about seventy-five load at Chicago, what objection would Canada has been looked upon as an absolute necessity, cents on each ton of freight.

have to allowing our vessels to pass through at least in a military point of view. I shall Besides, New York is estopped from setting her canals, paying reasonable tolls, as they have make no remarks at this time as to its impor up the plea that the completion of this great done heretofore ? Indeed, I am informed that tance in that point of view. But no one who work will injure her canals and railroads, be. Canada will afford every facility in her power is acquainted with the topography of the west cause, as has already been stated here to-day, for this purpose. She desires us to pass ern States, and the important connection that | the Legislature of that State has on two or through her canals for reasonable toll. this work will accomplish, can doubt its great three occasions, and also very recently, granted But it is said that if that is done the State importance in that regard. It is to its com to a company the right to construct this very of New York would lose the benefit of those mercial importance that I wish particularly to work, thereby yielding up that entire question tolls. It is true she would to that extent. But call the attention of the House at this time. so far as it may affect ber existing railroads I assume that in the future development of the Before I do that, however, allow me to say and canals.

productions of the West, there will be suffia single word with reference to the power of This action of the people of New York con cient commerce from west to east to tax to the the Government to construct works of this cedes the fact that the construction of the ship utmost every means of communication that can character. There was a time when the power canal would not injure the other canals and possibly be established between the West and of the Government to make appropriations for || railroads of New York. I would ask, what the eastern sea-board for the next fifty years. works of this character was disputed, but that right has the State of New York to place her | To-day not more than one tenth part of the time has long since passed by. The distinc self in the highway of commerce and monop- l productions of the West can be taken to market tion is that whenever a work is national in im olize the tolls upon all the products raised in for want of transportation. Thousands of bush. portance and has reference to more than one the West?

els of corn have been used in the West for fuel State, connecting important navigable waters, It is further said that the canals and rail. || during the past year, because it was worth less as does this work, it may be regarded as en: roads of the State of New York will be ruined than other fuel and it would cost more than it tirely competent, and within the power of Con and destroyed if this work is completed. Now, was worth to transport it to market. What ingress under the Constitution, to make appro if in the infancy of the development of the ducement is there for the western farmer to priations for the work. And such has been West, so far as its productions are concerned, exert himself to raise productions that are of the practice of the Government upon this sub with hardly one fifteenth of the whole western no value to him? The West to-day is overject. Let me quote the language of President country developed, these canals and railroads Aowing with surplus productions of every kind Monroe, touching the authority of Congress are insufficient to transport the products of which are comparatively valueless for want of upon this point. Mr. Monroe said in refer to-day, how much more so would they be when means and facilities for market. ence to a work of a similar character to this: the West shall be inore extensively developed. Now, sir, this canal will permit us to reach

"That Congress have unlimited power to raise Sir, what are the benefits to the West to be the city of New York almost without breaking money, and that in its appropriation they have a discretionary power, restricted only by the duty to

derived from the construction of this canal? bulk. We load at Chicago or at Detroit, and appropriate it to purposes of common defense, and

What is the great want of the West to-day? It we take our vessels without breaking bulk to of general, not local, national, not State, benefit. is the want of facilities for transporting their | Ogdensburg at least, connecting at Syracuse

This construction of the Constitution was products to market. In the first place, this with the Erie canal and thus reaching New adopted by General Jackson, and I believe it || ship-canal will enable us to load our products | York. It seems to me that it is the interest has been the settled rule from that time to this on vessels at the southern ports of Lake Michi of New York to encourage this very work, with reference to works of this kind.

gan, in fact all around Lake Michigan, and whereby New York and the other eastern seaFrom the earliest period of our Government ll upon Lake Erie, and from there to have them ports may control the commerce of the West.

If you shut us out, and defeat this ship-canal, ing about our interests in the West. I say it ferred with the gentleman from New York in what will be the consequence ? Either the would astonish them to know the amount of relation to his amendment, and considering it West will be greatly retarded in prosperity or the exports and imports of the city of Cleve is general in its character, relating to all arms we must have the means to get our products to land, which does not pretend to compare with of the service; he agrees to withdraw it'now market; and if you do not afford us sufficient the mighty city of Chicago, away beyond us on and to offer it as a new section hereafter. facilities for transportation through the State Lake Michigan. The imports into the city of Mr. CHANLER. I do not feel disposed to of New York by a canal of this sort, or by other Cleveland for the last year were $117,582,984. obstruct the action of the House, but I should proper means, you will compel to seek trans The total of their exports was $96,572,137. like to understand the reason for this sudden portation through the Canadas, whereby the Now, when you take into this account Detroit, || change. benefits of the transportation of our commerce Milwaukee, Chicago, with all the intermediate Mr. SCHENCK. I ask unanimous consent would be entirely lost to the State of New York || points on that long chain of lakes, what would that the gentleman from New York [Mr. Davis] and the citizens of the country and given to the you say to the imports and exports of the whole shall be permitted to withdraw his amendment. Canadas. Northwest bordering on these lakes?

The section relates entirely to infantry regiIf we cannot reach a market through New It is a confessed fact that the Erie canal, ments, and the amendment to all arms of the York on reasonable terms, we will provide the Erie railroad, the Pennsylvania Central, service. It is deemed improper lo attach to other means, leaving New York out in the all these great lines of communication now a section applying to one particular arm of cold. The West can and should take care of established leading from the Northwest to the the service general legislation in reference to her own interests. The best interests of the sea-board, are not enough to take off our sur all arms. I prefer the amendment should be whole country demand the most unrestricted plus products.

withdrawn now and moved as an additional facilities and cheapest transportation for its The SPEAKER stated that the morning section hereafter. productions. hour had expired.

As to debate, there will be ample oppor When this is furnished no interest is de Mr. SPALDING. I am in favor of the || tunity on each section. I do not propose to stroyed or crippled, but the interest of all is passage of the bill.

stifle side debate at all. promoted. The East and West by that canal


Mr. CHANLER. The gentlemen on the Adwill be more firmly united, and both parts of the

ministration side seem to wish that this matter country equally benefited and nobody injured.

Mr. TROWBRIDGE, from the Committee

should pass without debate. I will withdraw. on Enrolled Bills, reported that they had The SPEAKER. The fifteen minutes of

the objection. the gentleman from Illinois have expired. examined and found truly enrolled joint res

The amendment of Mr. Davis was accordMr. VAN HORN, of New York. I yield olutions of the following titles; when the

ingly withdrawn. the remainder of my time to the gentleman Speaker signed the same:

Mr. TAYLOR. Will it be in order to offer from Ohio, [Mr. SPALDING.]

*Joint resolution (H. R. No. 108) appoint

an additional section here to come in immediMr. SPALDING. Mr. Speaker, this measing managers for the National Asylum for Dis.

ately after this? abled Volunteer Soldiers; and ure was very fully discussed during the last Joint resolution (H. R. No. 88)expressive it after the sixth section, not after this. An

The SPEAKER. The gentleman can move Congress; and I am happy to have it in my

of the thanks of Congress to Major General power to say that this House, by a very decided

additional amendment incorporated in the bill Winfield S. Hancock. majority, passed a bill similar in its features

is an amendment to the section immediately

REORGANIZATION OF THE ARMY. to that now before us, though for some reason

preceding. the measure failed to receive the concurrence The House resumed the consideration of the

Mr. TAYLOR. The amendment that I wish of the Senate.

bill (H. R. No. 361) entitled "An act to reor to offer comes in properly after the fifth section. Sir, I regard this measure as I have always ganize and establish the Army of the United

The SPEAKER.' The Chair rules that it done heretofore, as simply one of time; for I States."

would be an amendment to the fifth section, am satisfied that the imperious necessities of The fifth section was under consideration,

and not in order, as that section has been passed the great and growing West demand and will having been amended so as to read as follows:

from under the previous question. ultimately secure the construction of this Sec. 5. And be it further enacted, That the officers

Mr. TAYLOR. The object of it is to concanal around the falls of Niagara. There can of the thirty-seven regiments of infantry, first pro tinue the pensions of all these officers and sols be no doubt about that fact. No man repre

vided for in the foregoing section, shall consist of diers during the time they are in this service,

those now commissioned and serving therewith, subsenting here a district in the Northwest can at

and it therefore properly comes in here. ject to such examination as the condition of their this moment venture to vote against this great being retained in the service as is hereinafter pro

Mr. SCHENCK. I for one have no objecmeasure, however much the intelligent mem

vided for; and in making appointments to fill the tion to its being offered here, but I do not give

original vacancies in the thirty-seven regiments thus bers from the State of New York may insist provided for, and for a period of three years after the

it my assent. upon their own policy of extending the capaci.

passage of this act, allfirst and second lieutenants and Mr. STEVENS. I think we had better go ties of the Erie canal.,

two thirds of the officers of each of the grades above on to the next section.

that of first lieutenant shall be selected from among I understand that the only objection offered the officers and soldiers of volunteers who have served

The Clerk read section six, as follows: by members from the State of New York is that in the Army of the United States in the late war for Sec. 6. And be it further enacted, That the appointthis measure will interfere with the interests of

the suppression of the rebellion, and who have been ments to be made from among volunteer officers, un

distinguished for capacity, good conduct, and efficient der the provisions of this act, shall be distributed, as the State along the line of the

Erie canal from service; but graduates of the United States Military far as may be consistent with the interests of the pubBuffaloto Albany. But, sir, the Erie canal cannot Academy and enlisted men shall be eligible to ap lic service, among the States, Territories, and District

pointment as second lieutenants in those regiments, of Columbia, in proportion to the number of troops be made of sufficient capacity to accommodate as in the new regiments of cavalry, under the pro furnished by them respectively to the service of the the wants of the great West. We already trans visions of the third section of this act, and not other United States during the late war. port from the upper lakes to the tide-waters of wise; the Veteran Reserve corps shall be officered by Mr. STEVENS. I move to strike out the the East one hundred million bushels of wheat

appointment from any officers or soldiers of volun-
teers or of the regular Army who have been wounded

words “ so far as may be consistent with the and corn. This quantity can easily be made in the line of their duty while serving in the Army interests of the public service.'' I think there one thousand millions if you will give us facil

of the United States in the late war, or have been will be no difficulty in any State in finding

disabled by disease contracted in such servico, and ities for transportation. Growing as the West

may yet be compctent for garrison or other duty, to enough to fill their quota, and therefore I would is in wealth and population, and hence in im which that corps has heretofore been assigned. not leave it optional with anybody to make disportance, how long can you successfully resist

The officers selected to fill original vacancies in the crimination against particular States. a measure of such vital importance to that sec

regiments of colored troops shall be taken from among
those who have served as officers of colored troops in

Mr. SCHENCK obtained the floor. tion of the United States ?

the Army of the United States in the late war. And Mr. NIBLACK. I rise to a question of I put out of view at the present moment the

all appointments of officers in the Veteran Reserve order. There is not a quorum present. question of the importance of this great work corps and in regiments of colored troops shall be

Mr. BROMWELL. I move that the House made on examination, as hereinafter provided, hayas a military necessity as a channel, in a time ing reference to capacity, good conduct, and efficient || adjourn. of difficulty with a neighboring Power, for the

service in every case: Provided, That all officers of The SPEAKER. The gentleman from Ohio

the existing Veteran Reserve corps, except those now transportation of armed vessels from tide-water actually detailed for duty in the Freedmen's Bureau

[Mr. SCHENCK) is on the floor. to the lakes, where we have so many flour orotherwise actually and necessarily employed, shall, Mr. SCHENCK. I would like to get through ishing cities, where we have such a growing upon the passage of this act, be mustered out of ser

this section. vice and put upon the same footing with other discommerce, and where we are now without any abled officers not now in service.

The SPEAKER. The gentleman from In. protection except a single gun upon a single

The pending question was upon the follow

diana (Mr. NIBLACK] can demand a division vessel. Sir, at this moment we have upon the ing amendment, submitted by Mr. Davis:

whenever a vote is required. upper lakes—I speak now of the lakes above

Mr. SCHENCK. The language proposed

Add to the section the following: the Niagara falls--a fleet of water-craft con And it shall be lawful to appoint and commission

to be stricken out was put in by the committee nected with commercial operations equal to as officers in any of the organizations authorized by simply because it might not be practicable to four thousand sail of vessels altogether. My

this act any persons who havo been distinguished for
gallant and meritorious service in the Army of the

divide the proportion precisely by arithmetical own little city which within my own recollec United States during the late rebellion, and have calculation. If you should undertake to do so, tion had but fifteen hundred inhabitants, has at been wounded or partially disabled therein wbile in you might have for one State or Territory an this momenta population of sixty-five thousand,

the line of their duty:Provided, Thedisability arising
therefrom shall be such only as if incurred in the

officer and a half or two thirds. If the gentleand it has between three and four hundred ves regular service under officers' commissions would not

man will insert some words which will obviate sels employed in this lake commerce. Our incapacitate them from duty therein.

the requirement for an exact division, so that imports and exports within the last year would The previous question had been seconded one of our gallant men shall not be cut in two, astonish gentlemen living in the East, if they and the main question ordered upon the sec I will assent to it. I have no objection, for do not know more than my friends from that tion and pending amendment.

instance, to distributing these appointments in quarter generally express themselves as know Mr. SCHENCK. Mr. Speaker, I have con the proportion stated as far as practicable.

Mr. STEVENS. I will modify my amend shall for a long time be in such a condition master who, during the war, has done this ment accordingly. I move to strike out the that we shall not require ambulance men. duty and done it.well. This bill proposes, at words as before, and to insert in lieu thereof Mr. KASSON. I would ask the gentleman | the enormous expense of $95,000 a year, to the words “so far as practicable."

from Ohio [Mr. SCHEXCK) what reason there add another officer to each regiment. Instead Mr. CHANLER. I would ask for infor. is for the last clause of this section? That of reducing the expenses of the Army, we are mation from the gentleman who offered this clause is :

proposing to add an oflicer to each regiment amendment, or the chairman of the Commit

The adjutant, quartermaster, and commissary of at an expense of $95,000. I am opposed to tee on Military Affairs, what bearing this sec a regiment shall each be an extra first lieutenant, any such motion unless there can be some tion will have upon the forces raised by the appointed for their respective duties.

good reason shown for the increase. so-called loyal States from the States in rebel. I am not sufficient of a military man to be Mr. SCHENCK. I think that the only lion. As I understand it, no States which, an authority, but I suppose we have not hith motive that the committee had in adopting this under the operation of the Freedmen's Bureau, erto bad any extra officers for the purpose of provision was this: it has been thought by and under the regulations of the service during | doing these duties.

many, both in time of peace and in time of the war, fitted out regiments which were called Mr. SCHENCK. I suppose we better dispose | war, an imperfection in the system that one by the name of States in rebellion, will be en. of one amendment before another is offered. officer should combine in himself two charactitled to the proportion under this section of Mr. VAN AERNAM. I desire to move to ters, and thus mix his accounts, being responollicers for the troops which were actually amend this section by striking out the wordssible to two different departments, the Quarterraised for themselves, though nominally raised "regimental commissaries.''

master General's department on the one side in the southern States.

The SPEAKER. That would not be in and the commissary department on the other. For instance, during the occupation of Port | order, pending the amendment of the gentle. Therefore, in following the recommendation Royal regiments of colored troops were raised man from Indiana, (Mr. WASHBURN.)

made by the principal ollicers of the Army, who there, and called the first, the second, &c., Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I will with sat in council upon all these subjects, the comSouth Carolina regiments. Now, do I under draw my amendment for the purpose of allow mittee assented to an arrangement by which stund the effect of this section to be to give to ing the gentleman from New York [Mr. Van the two distinct offices should be created in the the State of South Carolina a proportion of AERNAM] to offer his amendment.

infantry as in the other arms of the service. the officers to be appointed from officers of Mr. VAN AERNAM. I move to strike out The difficulty is obviated to some extent by the colored regiments in this reorganization of this seventh section the words “regimental | having a commissary and a quartermaster serof the Army? I understand that to be the commissaries." I do so because I deem the geant. I am not disposed to insist, myself, effect, and it may be the intention of the office of regimental commissary entirely unne. very strongly upon this provision for an addisection.

cessary and useless. In the history of this tional officer. I am willing that the House I now yield to the gentleman from Pennsyl- | country, ever since the first organization of shall decide the question. vania, (Mr. Ancoxa.] armies, there is to be found no instance of such

Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. Will the Mr. ANCONA. As our friends on the other an officer being employed as the commissary | gentleman tell me how it happens that in only side of the House may be a little delicate about of an infantry regiment. There has been de one branch of the service an officer of this kind making a motion to adjourn on this occasion, |veloped in time of peace no necessity for any has been found necessary ? I will do so for them. I move that the House such officer; por in time of war, during the Mr. SCHENCK. Well, I think it is as do now adjourn.

war of the Revolution, the war of 1812, the necessary in one as in the other. It is ques. The motion to adjourn was not agreed to. war with Mexico, and the great war of the tionable whether the office is necessary in one The question recurred upon the amendment rebellion through which we have just passed. arm of the service or in the other. I trust the of Mr. STEVENS to strike out the words as And now,

when we are organizing our Army | House will come to a vote. far as may be consistent with the interests of upon a peace establishment, I can see no ne The question was taken on Mr. Vax AERthe public service and substitute the words cessity for creating officers to do no service | xam's amendment, and it was agreed to. "so far as practicable.” whatever that cannot be done by those we

Mr. SCHENCK. I now-move to strike out, The amendment was agreed to. now have.

in lines four and five, the words " ten captains, Section seven was then read, as follows: There are to be fifty-five regiments of inSec. 7. And be it further enacted, That cach regi fantry, according to the organization proposed

ten first lieutenants, ten second lieutenants."

The section already provides, in regard to ment of infantry provided for by this act shall have by this bill, cach regiment to have a commisone colonel, ono lieutenant colonel, one major, one

these regimental officers, that each company sary with the pay of a first lieutenant. Accordadjutant, ono regimental quartermaster, ono regimental commissary, ten captains, ten first lieuten ing to the bill proposed to establish the pay of

shall have one captain, and one first, and one ants, ten second lieutenants, one sergeant major, one the Army, a first lieutenant is to receive $1,500 These officers are provided for in the regimental

second lieutenant. This is only a repetition. quartermaster sergeant, one commissary sergeant, one hospital steward, two principal musicians, and a year as pay proper. In addition to that, this

organization. ten companies, and each company shall have one commissary is to receive $120 a year for re

The amendment was agreed to. captain, one first lieutenant and one socond lieuten sponsibility money. In addition to that, if you ant, one first sergeant, four sergeants, eight corporals, two artificers, two musicians, one wagoner, and fifty look at the next section of the bill, he is to be

Mr. HALE. In order to perfect the section, privates, and the number of privates may be ina mounted officer; that means nothing more

I move to strike out the word “commissary' creased to one hundred, at the discretion of the Pres nor less than that the Government shall fur.

in the fourteenth line. ident, whenever the exigencies of the service require nish forage and shoe his horse, which will be

The amendment was agreed to. such increase. The adjutant, quartermaster, and commissary of a regiment shall be an extra first lieuten an additional expense of at least ten dollars a Mr. VAN AERNAM. I move to strike out, ant, appointed for their respective duties.

month to the Government. That will make in line eleven, the words ' fifty privates" and Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I move to the cost of one of these officers $1,740 a year. to insert in lieu thereof " one hundred pristrike out the words two artificers' in the When multiplied by the number of regiments | vates." clause relating to the organization of the com provided for, it makes the expense levied on The object of creating an army is to have panies. I make the motion more for the pur. the over-taxed energies of the people $95,700 one that will be of some practical use. I have pose of asking the members of the Military a year for no purpose whatever, because this no hesitation in iudorsing the letter which was Committee what are the duties of these artifi same service has been performed through peace | presented from Generals Grant and Sherman, cers, especially in the infantry regiments. and through war by commissary sergeants, who and other general officers in the field, asserting

Mr. SCHENCK. This provision has been have twenty-one dollars a month. The bill the fact that there are always in field operations made in accordance with suggestions by the does not do away with the commissary sergeant || thirty per cent. of the men sick. I think those military council that assembled here, compris at all, but continues him and makes this an military men have understated the fact. My ing Generals Meade, Sherman, and others. It || additional office.

experience as a medical oflicer in the Army was urged that at least two men in each com As I said before, the whole expense in these would lead me to believe that fifty per cent. pany should be skilled artificers. That would || infantry regiments will amount to $95,700 a of men are disqualified by physical disability, constitute for each regiment what might be year. And not only that, but we are creating whether during actual campaigns, or on orditermed a corps of pioneers to aid in building a tax on the labor of the country to continue nary duty. In October, 1862, I landed here bridges, and doing all other duties appropriate for all time. I hope the amendment will pre with a regiment of five hundred and sixty-two to such service. And we thought it not inap vail.

enlisted men. We were sent to the army of propriate to allow that number to each com Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. I believe | the Potomac; we were engaged in no active pany, according to that suggestion. I think that in time of peace the number of the officers || campaign, in no battle; the regiment suffered myself it is a good provision.

of the Army should be reduced as low as pos from no epidemic disease, no disease of a conMr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. Would not | sible, and that all useless officers should be || tagious character. Yet just seven months from the same propriety require ambulance men? dispensed with. In this case, during the war, the day when we arrived here at Washington

Mr. SCHENCK. It might or might not be. when we have had marches of extreme length, we went into the battle of Chancellorsville with They are connected with the surgical depart it has sometimes been necessary to detail an four hundred and thirty-eight enlisted men. ment, and can be detailed for that service. officer to act as regimental commissary, but it | The regiment had been depleted to that extent

Mr. WASHBURN, of Indiana. And these was only in extreme cases that such was the || during those seven months, though we had no artificers are connected with the quartermas

active campaining, and were not subjected to ter's department, and can be detailed as well Now, you will hardly find a single regiment || the casualties of battle or to contagious or as the others.

stationed as an entirety at one post, and the epidemic disease. Mr. SCHENCK. There is always some post commissary distributes rations to the com My observation leads me to the belief that thing for artificers and pioneers to do in time pany at the post. I can see no use of a regi what was true of that regiment was true of all of peace, about forts, &c. And I trust we mental commissary when you have a quarter: the new troops that entered the Army in 1862.


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