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Assistant-clerk of the council, - 1,000 per annum.
2,000 Master armourer, - 1,000, Assistant armourer, .
1,000 Clerk to the manufactory, . 500 Commissary and store-keeper, .. 500 Keeper of the penitentiary house, 1,200 Clerk,
- 625 Turnkey,
266 Door-keeper of the Capitol, - 300 Keeper of the keys,
200 Keeper of the public seal, - 300 The speaker of the senate, including his daily pay as a senator, has 3 dollars 34 cents per day. The members of the general assembly, 3 dollars per day, and milage, or an allowance for travelling charges. The speaker of the house of delegates, 6 dollars 67 cents
Price of provisions and wages of workmen.--In 1815, at Rich. mond, beef, mutton, and pork, were 12 cents per pound; in remote parts of the interior, about one half of that price. In towns of considerable trade and population, the price of boarding was from 2 to 21 dollars per week. In the best taverns of Richmond, from 10 to 15 dollars. Boarding of workmen, 34 to 5 dollars. Wages of mechanics, per day, from 1 to 3 dollars. A negro man, fed and clothed, from 50 to 100 dollars per year; a negro woman, from 25 to 50. The whole amount of the land-tax, including the war-tax, does not exceed three cents an acre. In the year 1700 the usual price of beef and pork was twopence a pound, a large fowl sixpence, a capon eightpence or ninepence, chickens three or four shillings the dozen, a duck eightpence or ninepence, a goose ten. pence or twelvepence, a turkey from fifteen to eighteenpence, a deer from eight to twelve shillings, according to the size, wild fowl and oysters very cheap.—Histoire de la Virginie, p. 379. French translation from the London edition of 1705, said to be written by a native inhabitant. (Beverley.)
Military Force.-Every able bodied freeman, from eighteen to forty-five years of age, is enrolled in the militia, * receives his arms from the state armoury, and performs duty eight days in the year. In the counties, they are distributed into regiments and battalions, brigades and divisions. The officers are ap. pointed by the joint ballot of both houses of the general assembly, consisting of an adjutant-general, a major-general for each division, a brigadier-general to each brigade, residing within the limits of their respective command. In case of invasion or insurrection, the militia may be called forth, and ordered out by the commanding officer in a county; and during service, it is governed by the articles of war of the United States. The adjutant-general has a salary of 400 dollars a-year ; the brigade inspector, 150. Rifles are generally used on the western side of the mountains. The militia, in 1815, according to the official return laid before congress, amounted to 83,847. · Forts.-Fort-Neilson, opposite Norfolk, is garrisoned by a company; Fort Norfolk, lower down, on Elizabeth river, with nearly the same force, and from twenty-five to thirty cannon. A battery at Crany Island, three miles below Norfolk. A battery at Hood's, on James river, below City Point.
Religion.-Before the revolution, ecclesiastical af. fairs were under the inspection of a commissary, authorized by the Bishop of London. The revenue of
* Except the chief officers of state, ministers, teachers, students, and also Quakers, and Menonists.
the minister was fixed at 16,000 lbs. of tobacco, besides fees and presents arising from marriages, interments, and funeral discourses. * All acts of Parliament, concerning religious worship and belief, were repealed by the convention of 1776. The laws which secured the payment of regular salaries to clergymen were afterwards abolished ; they are now supported, as in other states, by voluntary contributions. The different Christian denominations are, Presbyterians, Episcopalians, Roman Catholics, Baptists, and Methodists. The first, who occupy the western parts, are the most numerous. The number of regular ministers is about sixty. According to the report of the general convention of Baptists, held at Philadelphia, in May 1817, the number of their churches was 314; that of members, 11,838; and the members of 142 churches were not reported.
Education.-Colleges. The college of William and Mary, established at Williamsburg by voluntary subscription, and placed under the direction of James Blair, † a Scotch clergyman, was endowed, in 1692, by the king and queen, whose name it bears. It has five professorships, viz. of, l. Law and Police. 2. Anatomy and Medicine. 8. Natural Philosophy and Mathematics. 4. Moral Philosophy, the Law of Na
* As the tobacco was then about ten shillings the quintal, this amounted to nearly eighty pounds sterling. The price of a funeral discourse was 400 lbs. of tobacco, or forty shillings ; a marriage, · 50 lbs. or five shillings. .'+ The first president, who continued in that situation nearly fifty years.
ture and Nations, and the Fine Arts. 5. Modern Languages.
Twenty thousand acres of land were granted for the support of this college, by its founders, with 2000 pounds in money, and a duty of one penny per pound in tobacco, skins, and furs, amounting in all to nearly 3000 pounds a-year. * A large donation was also made by the honourable Mr Boyle, for the education of Indian children, but on leaving the seminary, they generally returned to the wild habits of their fathers. The college is under the direction of twenty governors or visitors, who make statutes, or ordinances, and appoint the president and profeseors. The number of students, of late years, has been from fifty to sixty. The whole annual expence, including washing, is about 200 dollars. Few live in the college, The edifice is of brick, and is large enough for the accommodation of 100 students. Hampden and Sydney college, in Prince Edward county, has been lately established. Washington college, or Liberty Hall academy, was endowed by General Washington, with 100 shares in the James river company, estimated at from 6000 to 8000 pounds currency. It has also received donations from other persons. The present building will accommodate sixty students. There is a library and philosophical apparatus. There are academies at Lexington, Alexandria, Norfolk, and Hanover. The Potomae academy at Hampstead, in King George's county. The Rappahanoc academy, the chief master of which
* Jefferson, Query 15.
has 700 dollars a-year. Less attention has been paid to common schools in this than in the other states, owing, partly, to the great inequality of fortune, and the employment of private tutors, but the legislature; in their session of 1815-16, appropriated nearly 1,000,000 of dollars for the support of schools. A school on the Lancasterlani plan has been endowed at Richmond, by the common council of that city; 600 dollars have been granted for ground lots, and 5000 for buildings; and since the act was passed, 3500 dollars have been subscribed by the citizens.
The police is under the direction of the magistrates. Paupers, who are unable to work, and without the means of support, are boarded in farmers' houses, who are indemnified by an annual sum, from the proceeds of a parish assessment, levied by twelve vestry-men. Few paupers, however, are seen in the country. Va. gabonds are sent to work-houses.
Marriage is solemnized, 1. By a special licence from the first magistrate of the county, which, if the person is under age, is not granted without the consent of the parent or guardian. 2. By publication three Sundays in succession, at some religious place of worship in the parish where the parties reside. 3. By a minister licensed for this purpose by the court of the county. Quakers and Menonists are not subject to these rules.
Naturalization. Any foreigner, who is not from the country of an enemy, may acquire naturalization, by a declaration of intended residence, and an oath of fidelity; he is furnished with a certificate to this ef