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place of tens, it becomes so many tens, or ten times its simple value, and in the third place, or place of hundreds, it becomes a hundred times its simple value, and so on, as in the following
3 2 1 - Three hundred twenty-one.
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 - 87 million 654 thousand 321. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 - 987 inillion 654 thousand 321. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 - 123 million 456 thousand 789. 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 4 8 - 987 million 654 thousand 348.
To know the value of any number of figures.
1. Numerate from the right to the left hand, each figure in its proper place, by saying, units, tens, hundreds, &c. as in the Numeration Table..
2. To the simple value of each figure, join the name of its place, beginning at the left hand, and reading to the right.
EXAMPLES. Read the following numbers. 365, Three hundred and sixty-five. 5461, Five thousand four hundred and sixty-one. 1234, One thousand two hundred and thirty-four; 54026, Fifty-four thousand and twenty-six.
123461, One hundred and twenty-three thousand four
hundred and sixty-one. 4666240, Four millions, six hundred and sixty-six thou
sand two hundred and forty. Nore.-For convenience in reading large numbers, they may be divided into periods of three figures each, as follows :
987, Nine hundred and eighty-seven. 987 000, Nine hundred and eighty-seven thousand. 987 000 000, Nine hundred and eighty-seven million. 987 654 321, Nine hundred and eighty-seven million, six
hundred and fifty-four thousand, three hun dred and twenty-one.
To write numbers.
Begin on the right hand, write units in the units place, tens in the tens place, hundreds in the hundreds place, and 30 on, towards the left hand, writing each figure according to its proper value in numeration ; taking care to supply those places of the natural order with ciphers which are omitted in the question.
Write down in proper figures the following numbers ;
Eight hundred millions, forty-four thousand and fiftyfiye.
SIMPLE ADDITION, Is putting together several smaller numbers, of the same d aomination, into one larger, equal to the whole or sum total; as 4 dollars and six dollars in one sun is 10 dollars.
Having placed units under units, tens under tens, &c. draw a line underneath, and begin with the units; after adding up every figure in that column, consider how many tens are contained in their sum ; set down the remainder under the units, and carry so many as you have tens, to the next column of tens ; proceed in the same manner through every column, or row, and set down the whole amount of the last row.
To prove Addition, begin at the top of the sum, and reckon the figures downwards in the same manner as they were added upwards, and if it be right, this sum total will be equal to the first: Or cut off the upper line of figures, and find the amount of the rest ; then if the amount and upper line, when added, be equal to the total, the work is supposed to be right.
Excess of 9's.
2. There is another method of proof, as follows:
Reject or cast out the nines in each EXAMPLE. row or sum of figures, and set down the 3 7 8 2 remainders, each directly even with the 5 7 6 6 figures in its row; 'find the sum of these 8 y 5 5 remainders ; then if the excess of nines in the sum found as before, is equal to the 18 3 0 3 excess of nines in the sum total, the work is supposed to be right.
15. Add 8635, 2194, 7421, 5063, 2196, and 1245 together.
Ans. 26754. 16. Find the sum of 3482,783645, 318, 7530, -and 9678045.
Ans. 10473020. 17. Find the sum total of 604, 4680, 98, 64, and 54.
Ans. Fifty-five hundred. 18. What is the sum total of 24674, 16742, 34678, 10467, and 13439 ? Ans. One hundred thousand. 19. Add 1921, 3489, 28763, 289, and 6438, together
Ans. Forty thousand. 20. What is the sum to of the following numbers, viz. 2340, 1066, 5700, and 40 5?
Ans. 11111. 21. What is the sum tot l of the following numbers, viz. Nine hundred and forty-seven, Seven thousand six hundred and five, Forty-five thousand six hundred, Three hundred and eleven thousand, Nine millions, and twenty-five, Fifty-two millions, and nine thousand ?
22. Required the sum of the following numbers, viz.
Five hundred and sixty-eight,