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the ellipsis, they may be reduced to the fol- this series will be more simple : for if lowing propositions. 1. If from any point

a Sat M in an ellipsis, two right lines, MF, Mf, «=2r, then M B =a+

2048 posto (fig. 1.) be drawn to the foci F, J, the sum 113 a? 3419 a' of these two lines will be equal to the trans- 458752 a' verse axis A B. This is evident from the ries will serve for an hyperbola, by making manner of describing an ellipsis. 2. The

the even parts of all the terms affirmative, square of half the lesser axis is equal to the and the third, fifth, seventh, &c. terms nerectangle under the segments of the greater gative. axis, contained between the foci and its

The periphery of an ellipsis, according to vertices; that is, DC=AF X FB=Af Mr. Simpson, is to that of a circle, whose XfB. 3. Every diameter is bisected in

diameter is cqual to the transverse axis the centre C. 4. The transverse axis is the


8 3 d greatest, and the conjugate axis the least, of the ellipsis, as 1

2.2 of all diameters. 5. Two diameters, one

3.3.5 d d of which is parallel to the tangent in the, vertex of the other, are conjugate diameters; &c. is to 1, where d is equal to the differand vice versa, a right line drawn through

ence of the squares of the axis applied to the vertex of any diameter parallel to its

the square of the transverse axis. conjugate diameter, touches the ellipsis in

Ellipsis, in grammar, a figure of synthat vertex. 6. If four tangents be drawn tax, wherein one

or more words are not exthrough the vertices of two conjugate dia pressed; and from this deficiency it has got meters, the parallelogram contained under

the name ellipsis. them will be equal to the parallelogram

Ellipsis, in rhetoric, a figure nearly alcontained under tangents drawn through the

lied to preterition, when the orator, through vertices of any other two conjugate dia

transport of passion, passes over many meters. 7. If a right line, touching an el

things : which, liad he been cool, ought to lipsis, meet two conjugate diameters pro- have been mentioned. In preterition, the duced, the rectangle under the segments of omission is designed ; which, in the ellipsis, the tangent, between the point of contact is owing to the vehemence of the speaker's and these diameters, will be equal to the passion, and his tongue not being able to sqnare of the semi-diameter, which is con. jugate to that passing through the point of keep pace with the emotion of his mind.

ELLIPTIC, or ELLIPTICAL, something contact. 8. In every ellipsis, the sum of the squares of any two conjugate diameters with elliptical compasses, elliptic conoid,

belonging to an ellipsis. Thus we meet is equal to the sum of the squares of the two elliptic space, elliptic stairs, &c. The ellip

axes. 9. In every ellipsis, the angles FGI, tic space is the area contained within the fGH, (fig. 1), made by the tangent HI,

curve of the ellipsis, which is to that of a and the lines FG, f'G, drawn from the foci

circle described on the transverse axis, as to the point of contact, are equal to each other. 10. The area of an ellipsis is to the axis ; or it is a mean proportional between

the conjugate diameter is to the transverse area of a circumscribed circle, as the lesser

two circles, described on the conjugate and axis is to the greater, and rice versa with

transverse axis. respect to an inscribed circle ; so that it is

ELLIPTOIDES, in geometry, a name a mean proportional between two circles,

used by soine to denote infinite ellipses, having the transverse and conjugate axes for their diameters. This holds equally defined by the equation ay

mtn true of all the other corresponding parts

(a - r)" belonging to an ellipsis.

Of these there are several sorts: thus, The curve of any ellipsis may be obtain- if a y' =bx (a — 1) it is a cubical elliped by the following series. Suppose the toid; and if a y* = bx (a -- x), it de. semi-transverse axis CB=r, the semi-conjugate axis CD=c, and the semi-ordi ellipsis of the third order in respect of the

notes a biquadratic elliptoid, which is an nate = a; then the length of the curve

appollonian ellipsis. pred a 4 pas ca a-ra' MB = at


ELLISIA, in botany, so called in me40

mory of John Ellis, F. R, S. a genus of 8 c* mè a' t mba? 4 c po' a'

&c. And, if

the Pentandria Monogynia class and order. 112 cl

Natural order of Luridæ. Borragineæ, the species of the ellipsis be determined, Jussieu. Essential character : corolla fun


= bx






EMA nel-form, narrow; berry dry, two-celled, differences may be neglected in astronomy. two-valved ; seeds two, dotted, one placed The greatest elongation of Venus is found over the other. There is only one species, by observation to be about forty-eight deviz. E. nyctelea, cut-leaved ellisia, a native grees, and the greatest elongatio of Merof Virginia.

cury about twenty-eight degrees, upon ELM. See ULMUS. The elm is very which account this planet is rarely to be serviceable in places where it may lie conti

seen with the naked eye. nually dry, or wet in extremes. Accord- ELONGATION, angle of, is an angle coningly, it is proper for water-works, mills, the tained under lines drawn from the centre of ladles and soles of the wheel-pipes, pumps, the sun and planet to the centre of the aqueducts, pales, and ship-planks beneath earth. the water-lines. It is also of use for wheel. ELOPEMENT, is, when a married wrights, handles for single saws, axle-trees, woman of her own accord departs from her and the like. The clearness of the grain husband, and dwells with an adulterer ; for makes it also fit for all kinds of carved which, without voluntary reconciliation to works, and most ornaments relating to ar- the husband, she shall lose her dower by · chitecture.

the statute of Westminster, 2. c. 34. ExELOCUTION, in rhetoric, the adapting cept that her husband willingly, and withwords and sentences to the things or senti. out coercion of the cliurch, reconcile her, ments to be expressed. It consists of ele- and suffer her to dwell with him, in which gance, composition, and dignity. The first, case, she shall be restored to her action. comprehending the purity and perspicuity 13 Ed. I. st. 1, c. 34. By eloping in this of a language, is the foundation of elocu

or living in adultery apart from tion. The second ranges the words in pro- the husband, he is discharged of her fuper order; and the last adds the ornaments ture debts, and no longer liable to support of tropes and figures to give strength and her. dignity to the whole.

ELOQUENCE, the art of speaking well, ELOGY, a praise or panegyric be- so as to affect and persuade. Cicero destowed on any person or thing, in consi

fines it, the art of speaking with copiousderation of its merit. The beauty of elo

ness and embellishment. Eloquence and gy consists in an expressive brevity. Elogi

rhetoric differ from each other, as the theums should not have so much as one epithet

ory from the practice; rhetoric being the properly so called, nor two words synoni- art which describes the rules of eloquence, mous. They should strictly adhere to and eloquence that art which uses them to truth ; for extravagant and improbable advantage. See RHETORIC. elogies rather lessen the character of the ELOPS, in natural history, a genus of person or thing they would extol.

fishes of the order Abdominales. GeneELONGATION, in astronomy, the di- ric character: head smooth, edges of the gression or recess of a planet from the sun, jaws and palate rough, with teeth ; gill memwith respect to an eye placed on our earth. brane with thirty rays, and armed on the The term is chiefly used in speaking of Ve- outside in the middle with five teeth. The nus and Mercury, the arch of a great circle saury elops, the only species, bears a consiintercepted between either of these planets derable resemblance to a salmon, from and the Sun, being called the elongation of which it differs principally in wanting the that planet from the Sun.

fleshy back fin. It inhabits the shores But here it is to be observed, that it is of Carolina and the West Indies ; in Jaonly a circle which has the sun for its cen- maica it passes by the name of the sun-fish. tre; that the greatest elongation is in a line It is in general about fourteen' inches long. touching the planet's orbit. For in an ELYMUS, in botany, lymegrass, a geelliptic orbit it may be, that the elongation nus of the Triandria Digynia class and from the sun may grow still greater, even order. Natural order of Gramina, or after it has left the place where the line Grasses. Essential character : calyx late. joining the earth and planet touches the or- ral, two-valved, aggregate, many-flowered. bit. For after that, the true distance of There are eleven species. the planet from the Sun may increase, EMARGINATED, among botanists, an whilst the distance of the Sun and planet appellation given to such leaves as have a from the Earth does not increase, but ra- little indenting on their summits : when this ther decrease. But, because the orbits of indenting is terminated on each side by obthe planets are nearly circular, such small tuse points, they are said to be obtusely

emarginated; whereas when these points some sweet-scented water or liqnid perare acute, they are called acuteiy emargi- fume, though Maillet uses only the term nated.

moistened; this they cover with another EMBALMING, is the opening a dead cloth of unmixed cotton, to which they add body, taking out the intestines, and filling one of the richest suits of clothes of the dethe place with odoriferous and desiccative ceased. The expence, he says, on these ocdrugs and spices, to prevent its putrefying. casions, is very great, though nothing like The Egyptians excelled all other nations in what the genuine embalming cost in tormer the art of preserving bodies from corrup- times. tion, for some that they have embalmed EMBARGO, in commerce, an arrest on upwards of 2000 years ago, remain whole ships, or merchandize, by public authority ; to this day, and are often brought into other or a prolibition of state, commonly on countries as great curiosities. Their man- foreign slips, in time of war, to prevent ver of embalming was thus: they scooped their going out of port; sometimes to prethe brains with an iron scoop out at the vent their coming in ; and sometimes both nostrils, and threw in medicaments to fill for a limited time. The King may lay emup the vacuum : they also took out the en- bargoes on slips, or employ those of his trails, and having filled the body with myrrh, subjects, in time of danger, for service and cassia, and other spices, except frånkin- defence of the nation ; but they must not cepse, proper to dry up the humours, they be for the private advantage of a particular pickled it in nitre, where it lay soaking for trader, or company; and therefore a war. seventy days. The body was then wrapped rant to stay a single ship is no legal emup in bandages of fine linen and gums, to baryo. No inference can be made from inake it stick like glue ; and so was deli- embargoes which are only in war time; and vered to the kindred of the deceased, entire

are a prohibition by advice of council, and in all its features, the very hairs of the eye. not at prosecution of parties. If goods be lids being preserved. They used to keep laden on board, and after an embargo, or the bodies of their ancestors, thus em- restraint from the prince or state comes • balmed, in little houses magnificently adorn- forth, and then the master of the ship ed, aud took great pleasure in beholding breaks ground, or endeavonrs to sail, if any them alive, as it were, without any change damage accrues, le must be responsible in their size, features, or complexion. The for the same : the reason is, because his Egyptians also embalmed birds, &c. The freight is due, and must be paid, nay though prices for embalming were different; the the goods be seized as contraband. Emhighest was a talent, the next 20 minæ, and bargo differs from quarantine, insomuch as so decreasing to a very small matter ; but this last is always for the term of forty those who liad not wherewithal to answer days, in which persons from foreign parts this expence, contented themselves with infected with the plague are not permitted infusing, by means of a syringe, through the to come on shore. See QUARANTINE. fundament, a certain liquor extracted from . EMBASSADOR, or AMBASSADOR, a the cedar; and leaving it there, wrapped public minister sent from one sovereign up the body in salt of nitre : the oil thus prince, as a representative of his person, to preyed upon the intestines, so that when anoller. they took it out, the intestines came away Embassadors are either ordinary or exwith it, dried, and not in the least putrified: traordinary. Embassador in ordinary is he the body being inclosed in nitre, grew dry, who constantly resides in the court of anand nothing remained besides the skin other priuce, to maintain a good underglued upon the bones.

standing, and look to the interest of his The method of embalming used by the master. Till about two hundred years ago, modern Egyptians, according to Maillet, is embassadors in ordinary were not heard of; to wash the body several times with rose- all, till then, were embassadors extraordiwater, which be elsewhere observes, is nary, that is, such as are sent on some parmore fragrant in that country than with us. ticular occasion, and who retire as soon as They afterwards perfume it with incense, the affair is dispatched. aloes, and a quantity of other odours, of By the law of nations, none under the which they are by no means sparing; and quality of a sovereign prince can send or then they bury the body in a winding- receive an embassador. At Athens, emsheet, made partly of silk and partly of cot- bassadors mounted the pulpit to the public ton, and moistened, as is supposed, with orators, and there opened their commissioni,


arqirainting the people with their errand. vened by Charlemagne, mentions the emAt Rome they were introduced to the Se. ber-weeks as a new establishment. nate, and delivered their commissions to

EMBERIZA, the bunting, in natural them.

history, a genus of birds of the order PasEmbassadors should never attend auy

Generic character: bill conic; manpublic solemnities, as marriages, funerals, dibles receding from each other, from the &c. unless their masters have some interest base downwards; the lower with the sides therein: nor must they go into mourning narrowed in; the upper containing a large on any occasions of their own, becanse they knob of use to break hard seeds. There represent the persons of their prince. By are, according to Gmelin, seventy-seven the civil law, the moveable goods of an species. Latham enumerates sixty-three, embassador, which are accounted an ac, of whieh the most important are the folcession to bis person, cannot be seized on, lowing: E. nivalis, the snow bunting. These peither as a pledge, nor for payment of a birds are about the size of a chaffinch, and debt, nor by order or execution of judg- have been found in the most northern latiment, nor by the King's or state's leave, tudes to which navigators have penetrated. where he resides, as some conceive; for They are found, not merely on the land all actions ought to be far from an embas- about Spitzbergen, but upon the ice contisador, as well that which toucheth his ne


guous to it, though merely graminiyorous cessaries, as his person: if, therefore, he birds, of whieh genus they are the sole liath contracted any debt, he is to be called species found in that climate. In the north upon kindly, and if he refuses, then letters of Great Britain they sometimes appear in of request are to go to his master. Nor vast flocks, anu are considered as the barcan any of the embassador's domestic ser- bingers of a severe winter. They are vants, that are registered in the Secretaries known in Scotland by the name of snowof State's Office, be arrested in person or fake, E. hortulana, the ortolan, is somegoods : if they are, the process shall be what less than the yellow-liammer, is comvoid, and the parties suing out and execut- mon in France and Italy, in Germany and ing it shall suffer and be liable to such pe- Sweden. These birds are migratory, and in nalties and corporal punishment as the their passage, are caught in vast multitudes Lord Chancellor, or cither of the chief to be fed for the table, being considered justices, shall think fit to inflict. Yet em- as extremely delicate and luxurious food. bassadors cannot be defended when they They are inclosed by professional feeders commit any thing against that state, or the in dark rooms, where oats, and other grains, pe! son of the prince with whom they re- and seeds are provided for them in the fulside ; and if they are guilty of treason, fe- lest abundance.' On these articles they lony, &c, or any other crime against the feed with such voracity, that in a short law of nations, they lose the privilege of an time they attain that size, which it is imembassador, and may be subject to punish- possible for them to exceed, and constitute, ment as private aliens.

it may almost be said, one mass of exquiEMBER weeks, or days, in the Cliristian sitely flavoured and luscious fat. From Church, are certain seasons of the year, set this state they would soon sink in lethargy, apart for the imploring God's blessing, by but they are now killed by their owners prayer and fasting, upon the ordinations for the market. A full-fed ortolan weighs performed in the church at such times. about tluee ounces. It rarely passes farThese ordination-fasts are observed fourther north than Russia, and is not to be times in the year, viz. the Wednesday, Fri- found in England. By many its notes are day, and Saturday after the first Sunday in particularly admired. It sometimes builds Lent, after Whit-sunday, after the four- on low hedges, and occasionally on the teenth of September, and the thirteenth of ground, and generally breeds twice a year. December; it being enjoined, by a canon E. citrinelia, or the yellow hammer, is exof the church, that deacons and ministers tremely commou iu Great Britain, where Le ordained, or made, only upon the Sun- it lays its eggs on the ground, or in some days immediately following these ember- low bush, constructing it with little art; it fasts. The ember-weeks were formerly possesses no interesting musical tones, and observed in different churches with some is tame and stupid in its character; it feeds variety, but were at last settled as they are ou grain and insects, and is to be found in now observed, by the council of Placentia, almost every country in Europe; its flesh anno 1093. The council of Mentz, con: bere is generally bitter, but in Italy the

yellow hammer is fattened like the ortolan or abetter, being thereof lawfully confor the table, and is in considerable estima- victed or attainted, shall be liable to be tion. E. miliaria, the common bupting. transported beyond seas. These birds are also particularly common EMBLEM, a kind of painted enigma, or in England, and appear frequently in vast certain figures painted or cut metaphoriflocks, especially in the winter, during cally, expressing some action, with reflecwhich they are caught in nets, or shot in tions underneath, which, in some measure, vast numbers, and sold to many under the explain the sense of the device, and at the successful pretence of their being a species same time, instruct us in some moral truth, of larks. They are stationary in England,

or other matter of knowledge. The embut on the Continent are birds of passage. blem is somewhat plainer than the enigma, During the incubation of the female, the and the invention is more modern, it being male is observed frequently on the bare entirely unknown to the ancients. and prominent branch of some neighbour. EMBLEMENTS, in law, signify the proing tree, exerting himself to cheer her fits of land sown; but the word is someconfinement by his song, which, however, times used more largely, for any profits is harsh and monotouous in the extreme; at that arise and grow naturally from the short intervals he utters a sort of trembling ground, as grass, fruit, hemp, fax, &c. shriek, several times repeated. E. oryzi- EMBOLISMIC, or intercalary, a term pora, or the rice bird, is peculiar to Ame- used by chronologists in speaking of the rica, where its depredations on the rice and additional months and years

, which they maize, subject it to the peculiar aversion insert to bring the lunar to the solar year. of the farmer. These birds often mingle Since the common lunar year consists of with birds of other species, as the red twelve synodic months, or 354 days nearly, winged oriole, and the blue jay. They are, and the solar consists of 365 days (throwing occasionally, kept for the sake of their away the odd hours and minutes) it is plain music. In the autumn they return from that the solar year will exceed the lunar by Carolina farther south, for the winter ; and about 11 days; and consequently in the it is observed, by Latham, that the males space of about 33 years, the beginning of and females arrive at different times, the

the lunar year will be carried through all latter always appearing first. For the cirl

the seasons, and hence it is called the mo. bunting, see Aves, Plate VI. fig. 4. For

veable lunar year. This form of the year the blackhead bunting, see Aves, Plate VI. is used at this time by the Turks and Ara. fig. 5.

and because in three years' time the EMBEZZLEMENT, in law, by stat. 39 solar year exceeds the lunar by 33 days, G. 3. c. 35. for protecting masters against therefore, to keep the lunar months in the embezzlements by their clerks and servants; same seasons and times of the solar year, servants or clerks, or persons employed for or near it, chronologists added a whole the purpose, or in the capacity of servants month to the lunar year every third year, or clerks, who shall, by virtue of such em

and so made it consist of 13 months ; this ployment receive, or take into their pos. year they called the embolismic year, and session, any money, goods, bond, bill, note, the additional month the embolismic, or banker's draft, or other valuable security embolimean, or intercalary month. This or effects, for or in the name, or on the ac- form of the year is called the fixed lunar count of their master or employer ; or who year, and it was used by the Greeks and shall fraudulently embezzle, secrete, or make Romans till the time of Julius Cæsar. away with the same, or any part thereof; EMBOSSING, or (MBOSSING, in archievery such offender, shall be deemed to

tecture and sculpture, the forming or fahave felonionsly stolen the same from his shioning works in relievo, whether cut with master or employer, for whosc use, or on a chissel or otherwise. Embossing is a kind whose account the same was delivered to, of sculpture, wherein the figures stick out or taken into the possession of such ser- from the plane whereon it is cut; and acvant, clerk, or other person so employed, cording as the figures are more or less proalthough euch money, goods, bond, bill, minent, they are said to be in alto, mezzo, or note, banker's draft, or other valuable secu- basso relievo; or high, mean, or low relief. rity, was or were no otherwise received into

EMBOTHRIUM, in botany, a genus of the possession of his or their servants, clerk, the Tetrandria Monogynia class and order, or other person so employed; and every Natural order of Proteæ, Jussieu. Esseusach offender, his adviser, procurer, aider, țial character: corolla four-petal!cd; an.

bians ;

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