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INTRODUCTORY.

tul. The art of finding thoughts and of giving them suitable expression is Composition.

The science that discusses the principles which guide us in composition is Rhetoric.

In practice Composition and Rhetoric are inseparably connected.

Composition has two distinct parts: the one deals with thoughts, the other with forms of expression. The former is usually called Invention; the latter, Style.

LESSON 1.

THE SENTENCE. - GRAMMATICAL CLASSIFICATION.

Kinds of Sentences. Sentences are classified, according to their form, into Simple, Complex, and Compound.

SIMPLE SENTENCES. The Simple Sentence. - The essential parts of the simple

sentence are the subject and predicate. In the most elementary form neither of these has any qualification; as, “Time flies.”

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Qualifiers. — The subject and predicate may each have a vast variety of modifications. 1. The subject is always a substantive — that is, a noun, or

pronoun, or an adjective, adverb, infinitive, or other

part of speech — used as a noun. 1. The subject, when a noun or pronoun, may be modified

by :(1) An adjective or an adjective phrase, used either attri

butively or appositively; as, — a. The good citizens, fearing a revolt, fled. b. The days of man's life are few. 6. His father's estate was sold. d. The husband, with his wife and children, has

departed. e. That new world, blessed with plenty, was my hope.

f. The desire to please was too strong. (2) A noun in apposition; as, “ There, too, sat she, the

beautiful mother of a beautiful race, the Saint

Cecilia." 2. When the subject is a verbal, simple, or phrasal, it may

have the modifiers of a verb, as well as some of

those of a substantive; as, – a. To buy (or buying) and sell (or selling) goods for

cash is a safe business. b. To be sad and gloomy all through life argues a mis

conception of its object. 6. His running violently down the street had a fatal result.

d. Being kept here week after week is a great annoyance. 3. When the subject is a word commonly used as an adjec

tive or as an adverb, it may have the modifiers of those parts of speech, as well as some of the modifiers of nouns ; as, The very good of all ages are often ridi

culed.” This eternal now rang in his ears." The subject may consist of two or more nouns or pronouns, each with modifiers.

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