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Maxims of justice]

{and equity.

12 He that is void of wisdom de CHAP. XI.

spiseth his neighbour: but a man of A

FALSE balance is abomination understanding holdeth his peace.

to the Lord: but a just weight 13 A talebearer revealeth secrets: is hie delight.

but he that is of a faithful spirit con2 When pride cometh, then cometh cealeth the matter. shame : but with the lowly is wisdom. 14 Where no counsel is, the people

3. The integrity of the upright shall fall: but in the multitude of counselguide them: but the perverseness of lors there is safety. transgressors shall destroy them.

15 He that is surety for a stranger 4 Riches profit not in the day of shall smart for it: and he that hateth wrath: but righteousness delivereth suretyship is sure. from death.

16 A gracious woman retaineth ho5 The righteousness of the perfect nour: and strong men retain riches, sball direct his way: but the wicked 17 The merciful man doeth good to shall fall by his own wickedness. his own soul: but he that is cruel

6 The righteousness of the upright troubleth his own fesh. shall deliver them: but transgressors i 18 The wicked worketh a deceitful shall be taken in their own naughtiness. work: but to him that soweth righte

7 When a wicked man dieth, his ousness shall be a sure reward. expectation shall perish : and the hope 19 As righteousness tendeth to life: of unjust men perisheth.

80 he that pursueth evil pursueth it 8 The righteous is delivered out of to his own death. trouble, and the wicked cometh in his 20 They that are of a froward heart stead.

are abomination to the LORD: but 9 An hypocrite with his mouth de such as are upright in their way are stroyeth his neighbour : but through his delight. knowledge shall the just be delivered. 21 Though hand join in hand, the

10 When it goeth well with the wicked shall not be unpunished : bat righteous, the city rejoiceth: and when the seed of the righteous shall be delithe wicked perish, there is shouting. vered.

11 By the blessing of the upright 22 As a jewel of gold in a swine's the city is exalted: but it is overthrown snout, so is a fair woman which is by the mouth of the wicked.

without discretion.

EXPOSITION—Chap. X. Continued. dom and folly, virtue and vice; and point yet the hopes of helievers were not confiueil ont the preference of the former, both to the present life, for “the righteous hath in itself and in its consequences. As these an everlasting foundation," (verse 25.) I roverbs are mostly detached from each to which it is very difficult to attach any

her, it will be impossible for us to notice meaning without admitting " the hope of jem individually. We can only offer a everlasting life.” The days of the wicked, brief remark on some of the most striking, in the present life, are often shortened by and remove difiiculties in our Nutes. their vices, and of " another and better

Long life and prosperity were the sanc. world" they have no prospect. (Comp. tions of the Old Testament dispensation ; chap. xi. 7.)

NOTES. CHAP. XI. Ver. 1. A false balance-Heh. “Ba. Ver. 13. A tale bearer revealeth, &c.—Heb. " He lances of deceit."--Ajust weight-Heb." A perfect that walleihi, being a laie-bearer;" or rather, as Dr. sione;' stones were undoubtedly used origiual.y as Hodgson renders it, “ A tale-bearer, walking about, weights.

revealeth secrets." Ver. 4. Righteottsness delirereth. See chap. x. 2. Ver. 15. Shall smart for it-Heh. " Shall be sore • Ver. 6. Shall direct (Heb. " rectify ") his wry. broken, or a Olietrd. -Suretuship-Heb. " Thuse

Ver. 7. When a wickedi man, &c. - This assertion that strike hands.” See chap. vi. I, &c. strongly implies that the righteous hath hope in his : Ver. 16. A gracious woman--that is, a benevolent, drath," ns in chap. xiv. 39.

hird hearted woman. Compare next verse. Ver. 12. Void of wisdom - Heb. “ Destitnte of Ver. 21. Though hard join in hau, – that is heart,"

though wicked mea combine their power and werel.

Farther miscellaneous] CHAP, XII.

(proverbs. 23 The desire of the righteous is

CHAP. XII. only good : but the expectation of the wicked is wrath.


HOSO loveth instruction loveth 24 There is that scattereth, and knowledge : but he that hateth yet increaseth; and there is that reproof is brutish. withholdeth more than is meet, but it 2 A good man obtaineth favour of tendeth to poverty.

the Lord: but a man of wicked de25 The liberal soul shall be made vices will he condemn.. fat: and he that watereth shall be 3 A man shall not be established by watered also himself.

wickedness : but the root of the righte26 He that withholdeth corn, the ous shall not be moved. people shall curse him : but blessing 4 A virtuous woman is a crown to

shall be upon the head of him that her husband: but she that maketh 7 selleth it.

ashamed is as rottenness in bis bones. 27 He that diligently seeketh good 5 The thoughts of the righteous are procureth favour : but he that seeketh right: but the counsels of the wicked mischief, it shall come unto him.

are deceit. 28 He that trusteth in his riches 6 The words of the wicked are to shall fall : but the righteous shall flou- lie in wait for blood : but the mouth of rish as a branch.

the upright shall deliver them. 29 He that troubleth his own house 7 T'he wicked are overtbrown, and shall inherit the wind : and the fool are not : but the house of the righteshall be servant to the wise of heart. ous shall stand.

30 The fruit of the righteous is a 8 A man shall be commended actree of life; and he that winneth souls cording to his wisdom: but he that is is wise.

of a perverse heart shall be despised. 31 Behold, the righteous shall be 9 He that is despised, and hath a recompensed in the earth : much more servant, is better than he that honourthe wicked and the sinner. (L) eth himself, and laeketh bread.


charity, and represents the vast difference (L) Maxims of justice and equity.—This there is between virine and vice, both in chapter coutains many general observa- order to men's private safety, and to the tions on these topics, and on the means of public security. After which follow many happiness. It begins with an admonition wise and pithy observations, with such reconcerning justice in our dealings with marks on suudry virtues and vices, as are each other, without which society cannot calculated to invite to the one, and deter be preserved. In the next place, the wise from the other. Among the most striking mao gives a caution against pride, as a is, (ver. 22.) “ A fair woman who has certain forerunner of ruin: this, showing departed from discretion (or virtue) is comitself in forgetfulness of God, confidence pared to a ring of gold in'a swine's snout.” in themselves, and despising others, natu- That is, beauty sunk into licentiousness is rally leads men to destruction.

perverted from its just end, as a golden Solomon next commends sincerity and ring routing in the filth of a pigstye.


NOTES, Ver. 2. The liberal soul (Heb.“ the soul of bless- than another; but as the just shall be rewarded or ing ") shalt be made fal--that is, enriched with chastened sccording to luis conduct, so assuredly the

wicked shall not go unpunished! Su the LXX, “ If Ver.29. He that troubleth his own house (pro- the righteous scarcely be savedl," that is not with bably by bis penariousness) shall inherit the wind-- out chastistinent for his sins," where shall the unthat is, he shall get nothing by it. See ver. 24. godly and sjuner appear?” And this appears to be

Ver. 30. The fruit of the righteous. — 'This we quoted by an apostle, I Pet. iv. 18.
apprehend to be an elliptical expression, “the fruit
of the righteous is like the fruit of the tree of life."
See ekap. iii. 18. He that winneth-calcheth, or

CHAP. XII. Ver. 4. A virtuous wife is a crown. taketh; an alinsion to hunters.

This alludes to the ancient custom of wearing chapVer. 3I. Behold, the righteous shall be recom- leis, and nuptial erowlis. See Sol. Song, iii. 11. pensed in the earth; much more-This does not Ver. 9. He that is despised and hath a serrantimply that the Almighty is more just to pne class Heb. "Is servant to himself," or "his own servant."

Färther miscellaneous) PROVERBS.

(proverbs. 10 A righteous man regardeth the blished for ever: but a lying tongue is life of his beast : but the tender mercies but for a moment. of the wicked are cruel.

20 Deceit is in the heart of them 11 He that tilleth his land shall be that imagine evil: but to the counselsatisfied with bread: but he that fol- lors of peace is joy. loweth vain persons is void of under- 21 There shall no evil happen to standing

the just: but the wicked shall be 12 'The wicked desireth the net of filled with mischief. evil men : but the root of the righteous 22 Lying lips are abomination to yieldeth fruit.

the Lord: but they that deal truly 13 The wicked is snared by the are his delight. transgression of his lips : but the just 23 A prudent man concealeth shall come out of trouble.:

knowledge : but the heart of fools 14 A man shall be satisfied with proclaimeth foolishness. good by the fruit of his mouth : and 24 The hand of the diligent shall the recompence of a man's hands bear rule: but the slothful shall be 11 shall be rendered unto him.

under tribute. 15 The way of a fool is right in his 25 Heaviness in the heart of man own eyes : but he that hearkeneth maketh it stoop: but a good word unto counsel is wise.

maketh it glad. 16 A fool's wrath is presently 26 The righteous is more excellent known: but a prudent man covereth than his neighbour : but the way of shame.

the wicked seduceth them. . 17. He that speaketh truth sheweth 27 The slothful man roasteth not forth righteousness : but a false witness that which he took in hunting : but deceit.

the substance of a diligent man is 18 There is that speaketh like the precious. piercings of a sword: but the tongue 28 In the: way of righteousness is of the wise is health,

life ; and in the pathway thereof there 19 The lip of truth shall be esta- is no death. (M)


those who seek their destruction ; which (M) Farther miscellaneous proverbs.- are notably expressed in ver. 5-7, where “ This chapter (says Bishop Patrick) be- be observes how the wicked, labouring to gins with an admonition, often inculcatel compass their ends, by cozenage, or by in this book, concerning the affectiou violence, even by blood, not only miscarry wherewith a man that would be wise and in their designs, but are unexpectedly over-good, ought to receive charitable reproof's.' turned and subverted out of their places, And there are several things repeated cou- wherein they behaved with such injustice cerving the providence of Almighty God,

aud cruelty. in punishing (bad) men according to their " There are divers instructions also rewickedness, and delivering good meu froin peated about several virtues and vices,

NOTES-Chap. XII. Con. Ver. 10. Tender mercies-Heb. “ bowels."

Ver. 16. Presently known-Heb. “ In the same Ver. 12. Desirelh the nel - Marg. “ Fortress." day;"' intimating that wise man will pause before The Hebrew bears both senses, but we prefer the he shows his anger. former, is meaning that thor wicked man desires a Ver. 18. There is that speaketh, &c. -See Ps, lvii. 4. dishonest (or unlawful) net, that be may take ad. Ver. 19. But for a moment that is, he is soon convantage of his neighbours.

futed. Ibid. The root of the righteous - Meaning, their Ver. 21. No evil.... to the just that is, evento. riches have a root in their industry. A Spanish Am- ally all shall be overruled for good. bassador being show n, in the treasury of Venice, a Ver. 20. The righteous is

more crerllent great quantity of gold, iurned up some from the bola Marg. " abundant;" i.e. “ more successful;"' be. tam: and on being asked why he did so, he replied, cause " the way," i, e. the course of life adopted by * To see if it bad any root; for his master's riches the wicked, “ seduceth them into extravagance had a rout in his gold mines.”

and crime. Ver. 13. The wicked is suared, &c.--Heb. " The Ver. 27. The slothful roastelh nol-thal is, eren snare of the wicked is the transgression of his lips," when he gets food gratis, he is too idle to dress it. See chap: svin. 7,


More general maxims] CHAP. XIII.

[on various subjects.

9 The light of the righteous reCHAP. XIII

joiceth: but the lamp of the wicked

shall be put out. WISE son heareth his father's 10 Only by pride cometh conten

instruction : but a scorner heareth tion: but with the well advised is not rebuke.

wisdom. 2 A man shall eat good by the fruit 11 Wealth gotten by vanity shall of his mouth : but the soul of the be diminished : but he that gathereth transgressors shall eat violence. by labour shall increase.

3 He that keepeth his mouth keep- 12 Hope deferred maketh the heart eth his life : but he that openeth wide sick : but when the desire cometh, it is his lips shall have destruction.

a tree of life. 4 The soul of the sluggard desireth, 13 Whoso despiseth the word shall and hath nothing : but the soul of the be destroyed : but he that feareth the diligent shall be made fat.

commandment shall be rewarded. 5 A righteous man hateth lying : 14 The law of the wise is a founbut a wicked man is loathsome, and tain of life, to depart from the snares cometh to shame.

of death, 6 Righteousness keepeth him that 15 Good understanding giveth fais upright in the way: but wickedness vour: but the way of transgressors is overthroweth the sinner.

hard. 7 There is that maketh himself rich, 16 Every prudent man dealeth with yet hath nothing: there is that maketh knowledge : but a fool layeth open his himself poor, yet hath great riches.

8 The ransom of a man's life are 17 A wicked messenger falleth into his riches : but the poor heareth not mischief : but a faithful ambassador is rebuke.



EXPOSITION. especially those of the tongue; among sion. For contracted and degenerate which Ajelancthon commends this to the minds, imagine these things appertain not remembrance of the reader, (ver. 22.) to them ; but the mind that looks upon Lying lips are an abomination to the itself as a nobler portion of the universe, Lord,' wbó recommends to us, (says he,) is kivdly affected towards inferior creathe love and care of truth, both in doctrines tures out of the communion there is be. concerning himself, and in arts and in all tween them ; therefore, we see, that under honest covenants and contracts. For truth the old law there were many precepts conbeing among the chief and most conspi- cerning this, which were not so much cere-' etious virtues, the contrary vice is con- nionial, as institutious of mercy.' (See demred by a terrible word-abomination." Exod. xxxiii 5, 19; Deut. v. 4, &c.) Lord Bacon upon another passage in

Without sauctioning every expression of this chapter, (ver. 10.) observes, “That this great man, we may freely admit the there is iinplanted in man's vature, a noble importance of this moral duty of comand excellent affection of pity and compas- passion to the brute creation. sion (called here Mercy,) which extends ieous man regardeth the life of his beast; itself even unto brute creatures, that are but the tender niercies of the wicked,” by divine ordination subject to his coin- even their pretended kindnesses, are, in mand. Nay, further, it is most certain fact, cruel. And if their kindness be that the worthier any soul is, (i.e. the beta' cruel, what, then, can we think of their ter its disposition,) tlie larger is its compas.' severity ?

“ A righ

NOTES. CHAP. XIII. Ver. 2. Eat violence.-This expres. Ver. 14. To depart-Heb. “To turn him.” So sion appears to us elliptical; the latter clause, fully Boothroyd, &c. expressed, would be, " But the soal of transgressors Ver. 17. A wicked messenger falleth into mischief, Als the fruit of beir mouth) shall eat violence." (or evil, and involves others with bim,) but a faithCompare chap. xii. 14.

jul ambassador (the class of messengers here intend. Ver. 11. Gathereth by labour – Heb." With the ed) is health - Holden, “ A healing medicine;" it hand,

being his office to heal differences, and promote Ver. 13. Skall be rewarded-Marg. * Shall be in peace. pesee."

More general]

(observations. 18 Poverty and shame shall be to him that refuseth instruction : but he

CHAP. XIV. that regardeth reproof shall be ho- EVERY wise woman buildeth her

house: but the foolish plucketh 19 The desire accomplished is sweet it down with her hands. to the soul: but it is abomination to 2 He that walketh in his uprightfools to depart from evil.

ness feareth the LORD: but he that is 20 He that walketh with wise men perverse in his ways despiseth him. shall be wise: but a companion of fools 3 In the mouth of the foolish is a shall be destroyed.

rod of pride: but the lips of the wise 21 Evil pursueth sinners: but to the shall preserve them. righteous good shall be repaid.

4 Where no oxen are, the crib is 22 A good man leaveth an inherit- clean: but much increase is by the ance to his children's children: and strength of the ox. the wealth of the sinner is laid up for

5 A faithful witness will not lie: the just.

but a false witness will utter lies. 23 Much food is in the tillage of 6 A scorner seeketh wisdom, and the poor : but there is that is destroy- findeth it not: but knowledge is easy ed for want of judgment.

unto him that understandeth. 24 He that spareth his rod hateth 7 Go from the presence of a foolish his son: but he that loveth him chas-. man, when thou perceivest not in him teneth him betimes.

the lips of knowledye. 25 The righteous eateth to the sa- 8 The wisdom of the prudent is to tisfying of his soul: but the belly of understand his way: but the folly of the wicked shall want. (N)

fools is deceit.


the merchandize to good account, (chap. (N) More general marims on various iii. 14,) but “the fool layeth open (Marg. subjects. We shall notice two or three spreadeth ont) his folly,” as travelling passages that require explanation. Ver. 8. merchants do their goods, but to no effect; we real, “There is [a man) who maketh for who will purchase folly? himself rich," that is, accumulates great Again, ver. 22. We learn that a good wealth, yet liath nothing ;" because, in man “ leaveth an inheritance to his chilarbitrary countries, if this became known, dreu's children," which may, iu the first the prince may, uuder some pretence or place, intimate that he does not forfeit his other, demand the whole, as in the next inheritance, either by extravagance or verse, for “the ransom of their life." On crimc:

: yet this inheritance does not always the other hand, there are benevolent per- consist of lands and tenements; but the sons who spend their property in doing character of a good man is often a portion good, wlio enjoy great riches iu the public to his children; and his blessing and esteein, and are not likely to be called prayers their best inberitauce. Thus upon in the way just mentioned. Their Bishop Hall esteemed the prayers and adcharacter screens them from the suspicion monitions of his pious mother; and the exof ill-gotten wealth, and from the rebuke celleut Mr. Flavel says, “ I bless God for a and restraint which that often calls for religious tender father, who often poured from the government.

out bis soul to God for me, and this stock Ver 16. we read, “ Every prudent man of prayers I esteem above the fairest inhedealeth with (or in) knowledye," and turus ritance on earth."

NOTES. Ver. 23. There is that is destroyed-Or, " There persons, the Hebrews represent a sword, or a rod, (it is) destroyed," or perishes, for want af judg. or branch, as it were, growing out of the month muunt in cultivation. See chap. xii. II.

The former intends spiteful and malicious words; Ver. 24. He that spareth his rod.-See Note on this, probably, vapouring and boasting language. chap. iii, 12.

See Expos. chap. v.

Ver. 6. To him that understandeth - Rather, TAP. XIV. Ver. 3. Is a rod or branch) of “ To hin that bath understanding;" (Holden) i. e. .--According to the language or character of who hath been divinely taught.

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