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Hercules fuit. eas omnes pestes mentibus exegit, familias purgavit, malitiam perdomuit; seminudus et ipse et clava insignis. id. mag. 22 for the resemblance in exterior between the hero and the Cynics. They bear the club Aug. civ. D. XIV 20 we still see Cynic philosophers; hi enim sunt, qui non solum amiciuntur pallio, verum etiam clavam ferunt. id. c. Acad. III § 17 of the braggart Academic de omnium scholis non ferulis, quod esset deformius quam molestius, sed illorum palliatorum clavis et fustibus proicietur. non enim magnum negotium erit contra communem pestem velut Herculea quaedam postulare auxilia Cynicorum. Sidon. ep. Iv 11. Ix 9 p. 579 non caesariem pascere, neque pallio aut clava velut sophisticis insignibus gloriari. Prud. hamart. 401 hinc gerit Herculeam vilis sapientia clavam. The Cynic Alkidamas Lucian conviv. 16 to a bride προπίνω σοι, ὦ Κλεανθί, ̔Ηρακλέους ἀρχηγέτου. And when all laughed, ἐγαλάσατε, ὦ καθάρματα, εἰ τῇ νύμφῃ προὔπιον ἐπὶ τοῦ ἡμετέρου θεοῦ τοῦ ̔Ηρακλέους; he then compares himself to his patron god in indomitable strength, in freedom of mind, in robust body, which he exhibits in order to prove his point; he might have done some mischief with his club, if he had not chanced to espy a large cake. The Cynic asks ib. Cynic. 13 'do you think that Herakles, the bravest of all men, a man divine and justly esteemed a god, roamed abroad because of his unhappiness, with no attire but a skin, and with none of your wants? nay, he was not unhappy, who relieved others also from suffering; nor yet poor, who was master of earth and sea,' etc. id. vit. auct. 8 Diogenes is asked Whom do you emulate?' "Herakles." Why then do you not also don the lion's skin? for as to the club, in that you are like him.' "This threadbare cloak is my lion's skin, like him I wage war upon pleasures, not by order, but of my own free will, making it my vocation to purge life of them." id. Demon. 1 Sostratos of Boeotia, a contemporary called Herakles by the Greeks, for his bodily strength and his labours in suppressing brigandage, making roads through trackless wilds and building bridges. DChrys. or. 4 I 151-2 R 'men of old called by the name of sons of Zeus those who enjoyed virtuous training, and were brave of soul, trained like the famous Herakles.' Iulian or. 6 p. 187 S 'the more generous Cynics aver that the great Herakles also, as he became the author of our other blessings, so also left to mankind the chief pattern of this [Cynic] life too.' Eus. pr. ev. xv 4 797b those Herakleian and divine doctrines, that virtue is a thing strong and exquisitely fair, never lacking anything for happiness, never parted from it, but though poverty, disease, disgrace, torments, burning pitch and the cross, and all sufferings of tragedy should pour upon him at once, still the just man is happy and blessed.' The Christian fathers have an easy task in accepting the challenge Quis vituperavit? [Iust. mart.] or. ad gent. 3. Theodoret. gr. aff. cur. vIII p. 113 27 ἄνδρα οὐ σώφρονα οὐδὲ φιλοσοφίαν ἠγαπηκότα, ἀλλ ̓ ἀκολασίᾳ καὶ λαγνείᾳ ξυνεζηκότα. Clem. Al. protr. 2 § 33. Arnob. IV 26. (Partly from Brucker. I have not seen G. C. Mezger de Hercule sapientis stoici exemplo. Aug. Vind. 1829. 4to).


362 PLUMA I 159 n. Tibull. 1 2 77. Sen. de prov. 3 § 10 of Maecenas tam vigilabit in pluma, quam ille [Regulus] in cruce etc. Mart. Ix 92 3 4 dat tibi securos vilis tegeticula somnos, | pervigil in pluma Gaïus ecce iacet. Cypr. ad Donat. 12 of the rich man cum epulis marcidum corpus torus mollior alto sinu condidit, vigilat in pluma nec intellegit miser, speciosa sibi esse supplicia, auro se alligatum teneri, et possideri magis quam possidere. Cic. Att. x 8 § 7 nisi forte me Sardanapalli



vicem in meo lectulo mori malle censueris quam in exsilio Themistocles. Max. Tyr. 10 § 9. SARDANAPALLI schol. S. rex Assyriorum luxuriosus. de quo Tullius in tertio de republica sic ait: S. ille vitiis multo quam nomine ipso deformior. Contrasted with Hercules also by Kleomedes meteor. II § 91 εἴ τις τὸν Σ. ἐπινοήσειε περὶ καρτὲ· ρίας τῷ Ηρακλεῖ συγκρίνεσθαι ἐπιχειροῦντα. His effeminacy proverbial paroem. gr. II 207 Leutsch Zapd. ẻπì тŵv ȧßрodiaíтwv. ib. 600 πάναβρος Σ. ἐπὶ τῶν τρυφώντων καὶ πολυόλβων. ib. I 449. Epiktet. diss. III 22 § 30 Happiness is not in royalty. Else Nero would have been happy and Sard.' See Bähr's Ctesias 424-436. DS. II 21-28. Iust. 13 S. the last king of Assyria, vir muliere corruptior. Arbactus, general of the Medes, having with difficulty gained admission to his presence, found him inter scortorum greges purpuras colo nentem et muliebri habitu, cum mollitia corporis et oculorum lascivia omnes feminas anteiret, pensa inter virgines partientem. quibus visis indignatus tali feminae tantum virorum subiectum tractantesque ferrum et arma habentes parere, progressus ad socios quid viderit refert: negat se ei parere posse, qui se feminam malit esse quam virum. The plot is successful; Sard. burns himself with his treasures. cf. Oros. I 19. Plut. de Alex. fort. 1 2 p. 326f Fortune placed the royal diadem on the head of S. Tоρpúρav žαívovтɩ. ib. 2 3 p. 336 anyone seeing the life or tomb (for they are the same thing) of S. would say that it was a trophy constructed of Fortune's blessings. id. comm. notit. 13 § 4 p. 1065. [Plut.] pro nobil. 10 § 2 in Stob. fl. LXXXVIII 12 Sokrates more noble than S. Lucian dial. mort. 2 § 1 S. in the lower world laments, remembering rs TOXXŶS Tрʊons. ib. 20 § 2 Menippos wishes to cuff, or to spit upon S. ¿vdpoyúvw Ye ŎvтI. cf. necyom. 18. rhet. praec. 11 rávаßpóv Tivα 2. Iupp. conf. 16 2. Onλus v. Iupp. trag. 48 think of the poverty of Sokrates, Aristeides, Phokion, ἐν ὅσοις δὲ ἀγαθοῖς Καλλίας καὶ Μειδίας καὶ Σ. ὑπερτρυpwvTes. DChrys. 1 1 1 12 D. not even Marsyas or Olympos could have roused S. EK TOû laλáμov πaρà Tŵv yuvalkŵv. ib. 2 1 27 20 his jewels. ib. 3 1 51 27 proverbial for his softness. ib. 62 11 202 full account of his effeminate dress, attitude, complexion, dv ouк ŵy diayvŵvai tŵV TA\\аKŵv. ib. 64 11 207 28. 78 II 280 8 'thinking S. to be envied, who said that he spent his life in feasting and wantonness with eunuchs and women.' Tert. de pallio 4 p. 938 Oehler. Mart. x1 11 5 6 te potare decet gemma, qui Mentora frangis | in scaphium moechae, Sardanapalle, tuae. Athen, 294. 412d. 528-530. Aug. civ. Dei 11 20 fin. DCass. LXXVIII 22 § 5. LXXIX 1 § 1. 2 § 4. 10 § 2. 11 § 3. 13 (in this book a nickname of Avitus or Pseudantoninus). Clem. Al. str. 1 § 159. paed. I § 70. Opposed to Cyrus Max. Tyr. 21 § 8. ib. 1 § 5. §§ 3. 9. 13 § 7. The authorities for two epitaphs of S. are collected in Näke's Choerilus 196-256; the one in Assyrian characters at Anchiale Strabo 672 (cf. Arr. anab. 11 5 § 4. Ath. 530b) S. son of Anakyndaraxes built Anchiale and Tarsus in one day eat, drink, and be merry, eodie, nîve, maîje, for all else is not worth this' (a snap of the fingers, cf. 1 Cor. 15 32): the other a Chaldean inscription on the tomb of Sard. at Nineveh, translated by Choerilus (Ath. 529f) into Greek. DChrys. 4 1 89 20 Dind. Ath. 335o seq. 412d. Clem. Al. str. II § 118. DS. I 23 ταῦτ' ἔχω ὅσσ ̓ ἔφαγον καὶ ἐφύβρισα καὶ μετ ̓ ἔρωτος | τέρπν ̓ ἔπαθον, τὰ δὲ πολλὰ καὶ ὄλβια κεῖνα λέλειπται, an epitaph, as Aristotle (Cic. Tusc. v § 101 Dav. finn. II § 106. cf. Ath. 335) says, fitter for an ox than a king. On S. the conqueror, the mighty hunter, his stately palaces, and rich library of brick books, of which fragments are preserved in the British Museum, see Rawlinson's five great monarchies

c. 9, Brandis 'Assyria' in Pauly 12, and Georgii art. Sard. ib. with the authorities cited. Modern writers place him (or them, for some make as many as four of the name) at dates varying from the 10th to the 7th cent. B.C. In classical antiquity he is the typical voluptuary, and the last king of Assyria. Moderns (O. Müller, Movers etc.) find in him the Asiatic Hercules. W. C. Koopmans de Sard. Amst. 1819.

363 MONSTRO XIV 256. Gronovius on Sen, de ben. IV 28 shews that the word is technically used of physicians' prescriptions.

QUOD IPSE TIBI POSSIS DARE Cic. n. d. 111 §§ 86-8 hoc quidem omnes mortales sic habent, externas commoditates, vineta, segetes, oliveta, ubertatem frugum et fructuum, omnem denique commoditatem prosperitatemque vitae a dis se habere; virtutem autem nemo umquam acceptam deo rettulit. nimirum recte; propter virtutem enim iure laudamur et in virtute recte gloriamur: quod non contingeret, si id donum a deo, non a nobis haberemus......iudicium hoc omnium mortalium est, fortunam a deo petendam, a se ipso sumendam esse sapientiam. id. Cat. mai. § 4. Hor. ep. 1 18 111-2 sed satis est orare Iovem, qui ponit et aufert, | det vitam, det opes; aequum mi animum ipse parabo. Obbar ib. cites many parallels. cf. the distinction in Epikt. man. 1 between the things which are and the things which are not ed quiv. It is the Stoic auтáρketa Sen. ep. 9 § 19. 27 § 3 aliquod potius bonum mansurum circumspice. nullum autem est, nisi quod animus ex se sibi invenit. 31 § 3 unum bonum est......sibi fidere. 41 § 1 bonam mentem, quam stultum est optare, cum possis a te inpetrare. 80 §§ 3-5. Lasaulx Studien 146 adds Isokr. ad Demon. § 34. Liv. XXXVII 45 § 11; but also passages from Bias, Pindar, Simonides, Kallimachos, which agree with Christian principle 1 Cor. 4 7. Markland cites in contrast 2 Cor. 3 5. Phil. 2 13.

SEMITA properly a narrow track Phaedr. I prol. 38 ego illius pro semita feci viam. Mart. vII 61 4 et modo quae fuerat semita, facta via est. Often used metaphorically Hor. ep. 1 18 103 fallentis semita vitae. Obbar on Hor. ib. 17 26.

365 366 the same verses XIV 315 316 n.

NULLUM NUMEN HABES OV. f. vI 241 Mens quoque numen habet. amor. III 9 18 sunt etiam, qui nos (poets) numen habere putent. [Sen.] Oct. 933 nullum pietas nunc numen habet, Mart. vIII 80 6 et casa tam culto sub Iove numen habet. HABES, SI SIT 339 n. PRUDENTIA Sen. ep. 85 e. g. § 2 prudens

beatus est et prudentia ad beatam vitam satis est. §§ 36-8.

366 XIII 18 n. 20. Preller röm. Myth.1 552-64. Philem. in Clem. Al. str. v § 129 ouк čσT ǹμîv ovdeμía túxn Ocós. Sen. n. q. III! pr. §§ 11-15. ep. 74. 98 e. g. § 2 errant,......qui aut boni aliquid nobis aut mali iudicant tribuere fortunam. de prov. 6 § 6. de const. sap. 15 §3 vincit nos fortuna, nisi tota vincitur. cf. Haase's ind. s. v. fortuna. Plin. 1 § 22 invenit......sibi ipsa mortalitas numen......toto quippe mundo et omnibus locis omnibusque horis omnium vocibus Fortuna sola invocatur ac nominatur,......adeoque obnoxiae sumus sortis, ut sors ipsa pro deo sit, qua deus probatur incertus. Lact. III 29 § 1 fortuna ergo per se nihil est. § 7 is plane vulgi et imperitorum opinionibus credit, qui Fortunam putant esse, quae hominibus tribuat bona et mala. nam simulacrum eius cить copia et gubernaculo fingunt, tamquam haec et opes tribuat et humanarum rerum regimen obtineat. § 17 Fortunae vocabulum sibi inane finxerunt: quod quam longe a sapientia sit remotum, declarat Iuvenalis

his versibus NULLUM......LOCAMUS. § 18 stultitia igitur et error et caecitas et, ut Cicero [Acad. 1 § 29] ait, ignoratio rerum atque causarum Naturae ac Fortunae nomina induxit. Aug. civ. Dei IV 18 19.


30 Greg. Νaz. or. 4 72 τὴν Ἡρακλείτου κατήφειαν. 36 four white horses Serv. Aen. Iv 543. cf. DH. 11 34.

50 VERVECUM Synes. 51' εἰ γὰρ ἐπέλθοι φιλοσοφεῖν τοῖς κριοῖς. In the schools Odysseus and Demokritos were the stock examples of the topic though he came of a little birthplace, he won renown • Theon progymn. in Spengel rhet. Ir 111 23.


55 GENUA Serv. Aen. 111 607 physici dicunt esse consecratas numinibus singulas corporis partes......genua Misericordiae: unde haec tangunt rogantes.

71 EPISTULA Tac. III 44 many blamed Tiberius, because in tanto rerum motu libellis accusatorum insumeret operam. an Sacrovirum maiestatis crimine reum in senatu fore? extitisse tandem viros, qui cruentas epistulas armis cohiberent.

117 CUSTOS ad Herenn. Iv § 65 pedisequo puerorum. App. b. c. II 30.

271 272 CANINO RICTU Serv. Aen. ïïï 6.

274 R. Schubert de Croeso et Solone fabula. Reg. 1868.

277 Ov. Pont. IV 3 45-47 ille Iugurthino__ clarus Cimbroque triumpho, quo victrix totiens consule Roma fuit, in caeno Marius iacuit cannaque palustri. ib. 37 38 Croesus (Iuv. 274 275). 41-43 Pompeius (Iuv. 283-6).

314 LAQUEOS Sen. Hippol. 124 125 Venus | per nos catenas vindicat Martis sui.

325 HIPPOLYTO Welcker gr. Trag. 394-402.


At the time of the Megalesian games (193), early in April, Iuv. invites his friend Persicus to a frugal dinner.

THE rich epicure is admired; the poor, derided: our housekeeping and our whole plan of life should be in just proportion to our means (1-38). Many, it is true, neglect this golden rule; they riot for a while at Rome, and then retire to Baiae, to avoid their creditors (38-55).

To-day, my friend, you may judge whether I practise the frugality which I preach; whether I live like the worthies of those good old times when heaven itself guarded our city (56-119), or, like their pampered descendants, can relish no meal but such as is served on the costliest tables, by the most expert and elegant slaves (120-161). Let richer men enliven their feasts by voluptuous songs and dances: here you may listen, if you will, to Homer or his rival Virgil (162-182).

Leave then all care behind you; leave to younger men the dissipation of the Circus, and spend the festival with me in enjoyments better suited to our years (183-208).

Whether Persicus is a real or fictitious character does not appear; it is not certain that Iuvenal would have hesitated to address a living friend in such verses as 186 seq.

Cf. Hor. s. II 2. ep. 1 5. Mart. v 78. x 48. xI 52. Plin. ep. 1 15; on luxurious furniture Clem. Al. paed. II c. 3; and on the frugal life of the old Romans VM. Iv 4.

1-23 the cost of our table must be proportioned to our means; what is due state in Atticus, is stark madness in Rutilus. Many men waste their estate in dainty living, till at last they are fain to enlist as swordplayers, and put up with the hodge-podge of the trainer's barrack.

1 21 22. 171-8. cf. vIII 182 n. ATTICUS Ti. Claudius Atticus (father of Herodes Atticus), who discovered an immense treasure, the entire enjoyment of which was allowed him by Nerva (Philostr. soph. II 1 § 3. Zonar. x1 20). He was twice consul (Philostr. § 1. Suid. 'Hpwdns), 'the first time before 859 u. c., for he must have been the Atticus consular legate of Syria in the tenth year of Trajan (Eus. h.e. III 32 §§ 3. 6).' BORGHESI œuvres v 532-3. LAUTUS I 67 n. Varro in Gell. XIII 11 § 5. poor noble.


3 APICIUS IV 23 n. Apion the grammarian wrote a mono


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