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Essex 1345, Topsfield 1011, Lynn 6138, Saugus 960, Middleton 607, Marblehead 5150, Salem 13886, Lynnfield 617, Gloucester 7513, Beverly 4079, Hamilton 743, Wenham 612, Salisbury 2519, Manchester 1238, and Amesbury 2445.

Ans. 82869. 20. Of how many members does the British House of Commons consist? England sending county members, 143 ; Isle of Wight, 1 ; universities, 4; cities, boroughs, and cinque ports, 323 ; Wales, county members, 15; boroughs, 14; Scotland, county members, 30; cities and boroughs, 23 ; Ireland, county members, 64; university, 2; cities and boroughs, 30?

Ans. 649. 21. How many are the members of Congress? There being 2 Senators from each State ; and New Hampshire sending 5 Representatives ; Massachusetts 12, Maine 8, Connecticut 6, Rhode Island 2, Vermont 5, New York 40, New Jersey 6, Pennsylvania 28, Delaware 1, Maryland 8, North Carolina 13, South Carolina 9, Georgia 9, Kentucky 13, Tennessee 13, Ohio 19, Alabama 5, Mississippi 2, Missouri 2, Illinois 3, Virginia 21, Louisiana 3, Indiana 7.

Ans. 288. 22. According to the census of 1830, Maine had 399437 inhabitants, New Hampshire 269367 ; Massachusetts 610014; Connecticut 297513; Rhode Island 97210; Vermont 280679; New York 1913508 ; New Jersey 320779; Pennsylvania 1347672 ; Delaware 76739; Maryland 446913; Virginia 1211272; North Carolina 738470, South Carolina 581458 ; Georgia 516567 ; Ohio 937679; Kentucky_688844; Indiana 341532 ; Illinois 157575; Missouri 140192 ; Tennessee 684833; Louisiana 215762 ; Alabama 308997; Mississippi 136806 ; Florida Territory 34723 ; Michigan Territory 31260; Arkansas Territory 30383; District of Columbia 39858. What is the whole number of inhabitants ?

Ans. 12,856,092.

SECTION III.

MENTAL OPERATIONS IN SUBTRACTION.

1. If 3 be taken from 4, how many will be left? If 2 be taken from 5, how many will be left? If 5 be taken from 9, how many will be left? What will remain, if 7 be taken from 10? 8 from 13? 7 from 11? 13 from 16? 3 from 20? 5 from 15? 10 from 19? 7 from 15? 7 from 14? 3 from 10? 4 from 12? 5 from 19? 19 from 21? 7 from 16? 7 from 19? 4 from 20? 13 from 17 ? 18 from 28? 3 from 27? 7 from 18? 6 from 16? 13 froin 21? 16 from 19? 16 from 23? 16 from 26? 11 from 19? 13 from 19? 13 from 14? 27 from 29? 21 from 23? 12 from 17 ? 12 from 19? 12 from 21? 13 from 17? 14 from 19? 14 from 15? 14 from 21 ?

2. Sold an apple for 6 cents, and a knife for 13 cents. How much more did I receive for my knife, than for the apple?

3. Gave 7 dollars for an umbrella, and 10 dollars for a coat. How much more did the coat cost than the umbrella?

4. Bought a horse for 21 dollars, and sold it for 30 dollars. How much did I gain?

5. Bought a book for 35 cents and sold it for 25 cents. How much did I lose?

6. Bought a bunch of quills for 26 cents and sold it for 30 cents. How much did I gain?

7. Bought a chaise for 90 dollars, and a horse for 80 dollars ; how much more did the chaise cost than the horse?

8. Received 25 dollars from one man and 15 dollars from another ; how much more did I receive from the first than the last?

9. James has 17 nuts, he gave 6 to Benjamin ; how many has he left?

10. A boy went to market with 50 cents, he gave 20 cents for butter, and 15 cents for cheese; how much has he left?

11. Fifteen black birds are on a tree, a man fired and killed 12 of them ; how many were left on the tree?

12. Samuel had 20 cents, he spent 3 for raisins, and 4 for apples; how many has he left?

13. John has 15 apples, he gave 4 to Thomas, and 7 to Dick ; how many has he left? and how many more has Dick than Thomas?

14. William is 17 years old, and Enoch is 9; how much older is William than Enoch? and what is the sum of their ages?

15. Mary lost 12 cents, and Jane 15 cents; how many did Jane lose more than Mary? and what did they both lose?

16. Seth has 25 nuts, he gave 4 to Abel, 5 to John, and 6 to Samuel ; how many has he left?

17. If a barrel of pork is worth 15 dollars, and a barrel of beef is worth 12 dollars; how much is the pork worth more than the beef?

18. The distance from Haverhill to Boston is 30 miles, to Salem is 22 ; how much farther is it to Boston than Salem?

19. I have a book of 75 pages, I have read 60 of them ; how many remain to be read?

20. I have a field of 48 rows of corn, I have hoed 30 of them; how many remain?

21. Benjamin has a basket of quinces, 41 in number; he gave 7 to James, 8 to Moses, and 5 to his sister ; how many has he left?

22. A farmer has 18 turkeys; 3 the foxes killed, and 7 he carried to market; how many has he left?

23. Bought a whip for 50 cents, and sold it for 75 cents; what did I gain?

24. Bought a load of hay for 25 dollars, and sold it for 17 dollars; what did I lose ?

25. Found 63 dollars, and lost 5 at one time, and 10 at another; how many have I left? 26. James has 43 cents, and Thomas 20; James gave

Thomas 3 of his; how many more has James than Thomas?

27. I wish to pay a debt of 50 dollars; John gave me 12 dollars, and Samuel gave 15; how much do I lack of having enough?

28. I have 80 cents ; I wish to give 20 to Peter, 8 to John, and 5 to Luke; how many shall I have left?

29. John had 30 marbles; he lost half of them, and then gave away 5; how many had he left?

30. A farmer had 46 sheep, the wolves killed 15, and the dogs 20; how many had he left?

Let the pupil perform the last 12 questions on the slate, and hence notice, that

SUBTRACTION teaches to take one number from another to find the difference.

RULE.

Place the less number under the greater; units under units, and tens under tens. Begin with the units, and take the lower figure from the upper figure, and place the difference between them immediately under the units; but, if the upper figure be less than the lower figure, add ten to the upper one, and place the difference between them under the units as before, and carry one to the next number at the bottom, and droceed thus till all the numbers are subtracted.

Note. — The upper line is called the Minuend, and the lower one the Subtrahend. The result of the question is called the Remainder.

PROOF.

Add the Remainder to the Subtrahend, and if their sum be like the Minuend, the work is right.

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7. Gallons. 10203400 5617851

8.

Bushels. 100200300400500 90807060504039

9. Minutes. 600700800900 191818917185

10. Hourg. 61567101

91678

11. Dollars. 100000

1

12. Yards. 1000000 999999

13. From
14. From
15. From
16. From
17. From
18. From
19. From
20. From
21. From
22. From
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24. From
25. From

6767851 take

81715 761619161 take

916781 31671675 take

361784 16781321 take

100716 1002007000 take

5971621 91611237 take

6718538 4637561 take

4171135 88895651 take

3147618 1111111 take

99999 7163878 take

11001 8887771 take

81106 1379156 take

76716 3671652 take

36 Sum of the remainders, 2004466259.

26. Sir Isaac Newton was born in the year 1642, and he died in 1727 ; how old was he at the time of his decease?

Ans. 85 years. 27. Gunpowder was invented in the year 1930; how long was this before the invention of printing, which was in 1441 ?

Ans. 111 years. 28. The mariners' compass was invented in Europe in the year 1302 ; how long was this before the discovery of America by Columbus, which happened in 1492 ?

Ans. 190 years. 29. What number is that, to which if 6956 be added, the sum will be one million ?

Ans. 993044. 30. A man bought an estate for seventeen thousand five hundred and sixty-five dollars, and sold it for twenty-nine thousand three hundred and seventy-five dollars. Did he gain or lose, and how much ?

Ans. $11810. 31. Bought a pair of oxen for 85 dollars, a horse for 126 dollars, three cows at 25 dollars apiece ; and sold the whole for three hundred dollars; how much did I gain ? Ans. $14.

32. Bonaparte was declared emperor in 1804; how many years is it since ?

Ans. 32 years. 33. The union of the government of England and Scotland was in the year 1603 ; how long was it from this period to the time of the declaration of the independence of the United States ?

Ans. 173 years. 34. Jerusalem was taken and destroyed by Titus in the year 70; how long was it from this period to the time of the first Crusade, which was in the year 1096.

Ans. 1026 years.

SECTION IV.

MENTAL OPERATIONS IN MULTIPLICATION.

1. What will 2 oranges cost at 3 cents a piece ? 2. What will 3 apples cost at 2 cents a piece ? 3. What will 7 bushels of wheat cost at 2 dollars a bushel ? 4. At 6 cents a quart, what will 5 quarts of cherries cost? 5. At 4 cents a pound, what will 3 pounds of raisins cost ? 6. At 9 dollars per acre, what will 8 acres of land cost ? 7. At 3 shillings a bushel, what will 9 bushels of oats cost ? 8. At 5 shillings a bushel, what will 9 bushels of corn cost ? 9. At 8 cents per yard, what will 5 yards of cloth cost ? 10. What will 10 loads of hay cost at 9 dollars a load ? 11. At S dollars per ton, what will 12 tons of lead cost ? 12. At 7 dollars per box, what will 9 boxes of lemons cost ? 13. What will 12 pounds of rice cost at 7 cents per pound ? 14. What will 11 pounds of sugar cost at 9 cents a pound ? 15. What will 6 pounds of pepper cost at 12 cents a pound ? 16. What will 9 pounds of coffee cost at 11 cents a pound? 17. What will 10 pounds of mace cost at 11 cents a pound ? 18. What will 8 yards of ribbon cost at 8 cents per yard ? 19. What will 8 ounces of peppermint cost at 6 cents per oz.? 20. What will 7 pair of hose cost at 3 shillings a pair ? 21. What will 6 papers of pins cost at 12 cents a paper ?

22. What will 11 cwt. of sugar cost at 9 dollars per hundred weight?

23. What will 7 yards of buckram cost at 12 cents per yard ? 24. What will 10 oranges cost at 9 cents a piece ? 25. What will 9 pair of boots cost at 4 dollars a pair ? 26. What will 6 dozen of hoes cost at 11 dollars a dozen ? 27. What will 15 doz. of penknives cost at 8 dollars a dozen ? 28. What will 7 sheep cost at 5 dollars a piece ? 29. What will 6 cwt. of copperas cost at 6 dollars a cwt. ? 30. What will 25 oxen cost at 50 dollars each ? 31. What will 15 calves cost at 3 dollars each : 32. What cost 13 shad at 13 cents each ? 33. At 20 dollars each, what cost 20 cows ? 34. At 15 dollars each, what cost 14 bales of cloth ? 35. At 25 dollars each, what cost 10 bureaus ? 36. At 15 cents per pound, what cost 9 lbs. of starch? 37. At 11 cents per oz., what cost 11 oz. of cloves ? 38. What cost 6 lbs. of logwood at 9 cents per

lb. ? 39. What cost 7 cwt. of iron at 8 dollars per cwt. ?

40. If one peck of meal weigh 15 lbs., what will 12 pecks weigh?

41. If a man travel 7 miles in one hour, how far will he travel in 5 hours ? In 6 ? In 7 ? In 8! In 9? In 10 ? In 11 ?

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