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large cnough to hold a bed, a table, and chairs for four persons.

560. Literature. Some learning was introduced into Russia with christianity, but it was not till the last century that Russia began to be distinguished for the cultivation of letters. Peter the Great gave great encouragement to learning, and succeeding monarchs have imitated his example. There are in Russia three universities, one at Petersburg, one at Moscow, and a third at Kiew. There is also at Petersburg an academy of sciences, an academy of arts, and an academy for cultivating the Russian language. There are some inferior schools, but the body of the people have no instruction in letters.

561. Chief Towns. Petersburg. Petersburg, now the seat of government in this great empire, was founded in 1703, by Peter the Great, on a marshy island in the Neva, near its entrance into the gulf of Finland, in the 60th degree of north latitude. No less than 300,000 workmen were employed, and in less than two years, a large town was built, and people were compelled to leave other parts of the country, for the purpose of taking their residence in the new city. At the same time, the emperor issued an order to draw the commerce of Archan, gel to this place. The fortress of Cronstadt defends the city on the side of the sea, and this is the port for the Russian navy. This city contains about 170,000 inhabitants.

562. Description of Petersburg. Petersburg extends about six miles in length and bredth ; the streets are broad, and most of them paved ; some, however, are only covered with plank. Tho raised above the natural earth, the city is subject to be overflowed by the waters of the Neva, when driven back by violentwesterly winds. The houses are of brick and wood, the brick being con vered with stucco. In some parts of the city, the most elegant structures are intermixed with mean wooden houses. The houses of the nobility are magnificent, and the city contains buildings for every public purpose. On the banks of the Neva is a palace built by the em. press, of hewn granit, ornamented with marble columns.

563. Statue of Peter I. In Petersburg stands a magnificent equestrian statue of Peter I. in bronze, cast at the expence of Catharine II. It represents the monarch in the attitude of mounting a precipice. He appears in a loose Asiatic dress, crowned with laurel, and setting on a housing of bear-skin. This statue stands on a ped. estal consisting of a stupendous rock of granit, of 1500 tuns weight, which was moved by engines four miles on land, and then floated on rafts to the city. It is 42 feet long, and 17 feet high. The statue was erected on this pedestal in August, 1782, with ceremonies of great solemnity.

564. Moscow. The largest and most ancient city in Russia is Moscow, so called from the river on which it stands. It is in the 56th degree of latitude, about 550 miles south easterly from Petersburg. Its circumference is 26 miles, but the whole extent of ground is not covered with buildings. That part of the city which is inclosed with walls contains by estimate 250,000 souls, and the suburbs about 50,000. The streets are long and broad, most of them are paved, others are floored with plank ; the city contains many gardens, and in the suburbs are cornfields and pastures.

565, Buildings in Moscow. In Moscow are seen the most wretched cottages and hovels, by the side of magnificent palaces, exhibiting a singular contrast of poverty and riches. Some of the brick houses have wooden tops, and some wooden houses have iron doors and roofs. The churches and chapels are computed at 1000 ; of these 484 are public ; some of them of brick, others of wood ; some have domes of copper, others of tin gilt or painted green. In some of these churches are bells of a stupendous size, one of which weighs more than 60 tuns. This city was the seat of the Russian government till the beginning of the last century, when Peter transferred the royal residence to Petersburg. In 1771, about 70,000 of its people were swept away by the plague.

566. Trade and Institutions of Moscow. As Moscow is the center of the inland trade of Russia, which, by means of the Volga, is carried on to China and Persia, the buildings for this purpose are constructed in the Asiatic manner. In one quarter of the city is the Khitaigorod, or Chinese town, where are placed all the merchants shops, amounting to 5 or 6000. Here is also the university, a printing office, and a building which contains the public papers. There are also two seminaries in which youth are taught the learned languages, and the arts and sciences. In Moscow is also a foundling hospital, where several thousand unfortunate children are nursed and educated.

567. Astracan. Astracan, the capital of a government of that name, is situated upon the Volga, 60 miles from its entrance into the Caspian. It is a place of considerable trade, and contains about 70,000 inhabitants, chiefly Armenians and Tartars. It is surrounded by an old brick wall, and garrisoned by Russian troops. The houses are mostly of wood, but the elevated part of the city commands a fine prospect of the Volga, which is there three miles wide. The earth near this city is ima pregnated with salt, which is formed in pits by the heat of the sun, to the thickness of an inch on the surface of the water. This commodity is conveyed on the Volga to the heart of Russia. .

568. Cronstadt. On an island in the gulf of Finland, near the mouth of the Neva, is Cronstadt, a town containing 60,000 inhabitants. Here is a safe harbor for the Russian navy, and another for merchantmen. The entrance into the harbor is a narrow channel on the south side of the island, on which is a strong fortress, the other side also being defended by batteries. The houses in Cronstadt are chiefly of wood, and scattered over a great extent of ground. Here is a hospital for seamen, an academy for the instruction of officers of the navy, and dry docks for refitting ships of war, capable of containing nine ships upon the stocks. These docks are faced: and paved with stone, and filled with water from a reservoir, by means of pumps worked by a steam engine, whose cylinder is 6 feet in diameter.

569. Riga. Riga is situated on the Dwina, near its entrance into the Baltic, is a strong town, the capital of Liyonia, and a place of extensive trade. The inhabie

tants are estimated at 27,000. Here is a floating bridge over the river of 2600 feet in length, which is removed at the freezing of the river, and replaced in the spring. It formerly belonged to Sweden, but was taken by the Russians in 1710, after a long siege, in which the inhabitants were greatly distressed by the plague.

570. Archangel. Archangel is a populous city on the Dwina, 6 miles from its entrance into the White Sea, in the 65th degree of latitude. It is three miles in length by one in bredth, and a place of extensive trade. It arose from a castle, by means of the English trade, and took its name from a monastery built in honor of the archangel Michael. From the year 1553, when the English discovered the passage to this place, to the building of Petersburg in 1703, Archangel enjoyed great trade and particular immunities, but these have been transferred to Petersburg. The houses are chiefly of wood, and the streets ill paved, but the trade of the place is considerable, and a large edifice, with numerous apartments, furnishes strangers as well as natives with accommodations for selling their merchandize.

571. Canals. The inland navigation of Russia deserves attention. By means of the canal of Vishnei Voloshof and the Volga, a communication by water is opened between Petersburg and Astracan, a distance of 2000 miles, and 4000 vessels are said to pass in a year. The canal of Ladoga, is carried along the margin of that Jake 67 miles, from the river Volkof to the Neva. Another canal leads from Moscow to the Don, opening a communication with the Euxine. In this manner inland navigation is opened from one extremity to the other of this extensive empire.

572, Manufactures. Several manufactures are care ried on in Russia to a considerable extent. Great quantities of isinglass are prepared from the sounds or air bladders of the sturgeon and other fish. The caviar, or salted roes of large fish, are furnished by the inhabi. tants who live on the Volga. There are manufactories of oil, soap, candles, beer, salt-peter, paper, tobacco, linen, silks, lether, coarse cloths and hats. Shagreen is made of the best parts of horse hides, and impressed with

the seeds of certain plants, which are trod in to mark the lether. There are numerous iron founderies, and some fabrics of earthen ware.

573. Commerce. Russia carries on an extensive trade both with the east and the west. By means of the North Sea and the Baltic, her trade is extended to the west of Europe and America, while the great rivers, the Euxine and Caspian Seas, bear her commerce to Persia and China. Her chief exports are pot ashes, flaxseed, hemp, flax, sail cloth, linseed oil, wheat and rye, candles, tallow, lether, soap, hides, wax, furs and timber; with iron, copper, lead, cavear and isinglass, amounting to the value of 30 millions of rubles or dollars. The imports are wine, fruit, coffee, rice, silks, and other commodities of the East and West Indies, to the amount of 20 millions of rubles. The Hindoo merchants and the mines of Siberia furnish gold, silver, and precious stones, and China furnishes tea, silks and nankeens. The current coin of Russia is estimated at 130 millions of rubles, and the paper used as money, at about two thirds of that sum.

574. Russian Islands. In the gulf of Finland, the island of Retusavi is remarkable for being the seat of Cronstadt, and a strong fortress which commands the entrance into the harbor. To Russia also belong Oesel and Dago, in the Baltic, peopled by Estonians. The first contains beautiful marble. Nova Zemlia, or New Land, consists of five islands in the North Sea, inhabited only by seals, walrusses, arctic foxes, the rane, and white bears. There are also some clusters of islands in the Pacific Ocean which belong to Russia.

TURKEY IN EUROPE. 575. History. The Turks, or Turcomans, who have given name to a most extensive empire, it is generally believed, descended from the Altaic mountains in Asia, about the middle of the sixth century, and pursuing their conquests in Armenia, Georgia, and Asia Minor, finally crossed over into Europe in the 14th century. The Eastern or Greek empire resisted the invaders for a long time, but on the 29th of May, 1453, Mahomet II.

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