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bia Theol. Sem.. S. C, from 1855; moderator 0. S. Presb. General Assembly 1847; ed. Southern Quarterly Review 1855-57. Works, 4 vols., 1871-73.

Thornycroft, John Isaac, F.R.S., b.1843. English naval architect and inventor.

Thornycroft, Walter Hamo, R.A., b. 1850. English sculptor.

Thorold, Anthony Wilson, D.D., 1825-1895. Bp. of Rochester 1877, of Winchester 1891. Presence of Christ, 1869.

Thorough. Epithet applied, in his correspondence, to the policy of the Earl of Strafford (q.v.). He aimed to make Charles L an absolute monarch, to deprive the courts of all independent authority, and to put the estates and liberties of the people at the disposal of the crown.

Thoroughbass. See Harmony.

Thoroughbred. 1. Animal descended in all lines from ancestors who were accepted as standard specimens of the breed. The principal standard of improved stock-breeders' associations in the U. S., excepting trotting horses and several breeds of swine, is importation from the home of the breed in Europe. 2. English running horse. See HORSE.

Thorough-Wax. Bupleurum rotundifolium. Herb of the natural order Umbelliferoe, native of Europe, sparingly introduced as a weed into the U. S.

Thorpe, Benjamin, 1782-1870. English editor of many Anglo-Saxon writings. Northern Mythology, 1852.

Thorpe, John, 16th cent. English architect.

Thorpe, Rose Hartwick, b.1850, m.1871. American poet, author of "Curfew must not ring to-night."

Thorpe, Thomas Bangs, 1815-1878. American novelist and painter. Lynde Weiss, 1854; Bee-hunter, 1854; Scenes in Arkansaw, 1858.

Thorpe, Thomas Edward, F.R.S., b.1845. English writer on chemistry; prof, at Glasgow, Leeds, and London. Diet. Applied Chemistry, 1890-93.

Thorpe, William, d. after 1430. English Lollard, imprisoned 1407; celebrated in Foxe's Book of Martyrs.

Thorvald. Norse seaman, brother of Leif; said to have visited New England 1002, and been killed by natives 1004.

Thorcvaldsen, Bertel, 1770-1844. Danish sculptor of

great fame, at Rome from 1796, except 1819-20,1838^1, and 1844. Among his most familiar works are Night, Morning, Mercury and Adonis. His subjects were mostly classical.

Thorwald sen Museum. At Copenhagen; founded by bequest of the sculptor to exhibit his own works.

Thoth. Egyptian deity, corresponding with Hermes; inventor and patron of letters; guide of departed souls; secretary of the gods.

Thothmes I.

Fourth king of 18th Egyptian dynasty; conqueror of Ethiopia.—II. and III., his sons; the latter conquered Syria. — IV. Eighth king of 18th dynasty. Danish translator of Seneca


A Blessing Christ, by Thorwaldsen

Thott, Brioitte. 1610-1662. and Epictetus.

Thou (thuanus), Jacques Auguste De. 1553-1617. French historian of high rank. His work is in Latin and of great length; it extends from 1543 to 1607, appeared 1604-19, and was tr. 1773. He was of the Moderate party, and in favor with Henry IV.

Thought. Active, voluntary, synthetic mental process, based upon data of perception, memory, and imagination; highest form of mental activity, and controlling principle of

mental life. It deals with ideas and their relations, not with the particular objects of sense. There are three stages. ConCept, Judgment, and Reason (q.v.).

Thought Reading. See Mind Reading and Telepathy.

Thought Transference. See Mind Reading and TeLepathy.

Thousand and One Nights. See Arabian Nights Entertainment.

Thousand Islands. In the St. Lawrence, n.e. of Lake Ontario; ab.1.800; sites of many villas and hotels.

Thrace. Region limited by the Danube, the Euxine, the ^Egean Sea, and the Strymon; inhabited by various savage and warlike tribes; said to have been conquered by Sesostris, king of Egypt, and by the Persian Megabazus 510 B.C.; from ab.490 B.C. independent, and for a time united under one king; conquered, most of it, by Philip of Macedon. The Roman province was s. of the Hasmus Mts. and e. of the Nestus.

Thrale, H. L. See Piozzi.

Thrasinieno. See Trasimeno.

Thrasybulus, d.389 B.C. Athenian general, banished 411; overthrowerof the 30Tyrants 403; commander at sea 391 B.C.; accused of treason; slain in s. Asia Minor.

Thread. Fine linen, cotton or silk yarn, made thicker than for weaving. In factory language thread always means two or more yarns twisted one around another, the yarns being: doubled or trebled and then twisted around each other in a direction contrary to the twist of the yarn. It is sometimes bleached or dyed. The stronger kind of silk thread is called twist.

Thread-Cells. See Nettle Cells.
Thread-Worms. See Nematoda.

Threats. To constitute an actionable private wrong, words of menace or intimidation must result in actual damages to another. Without such result, they may constitute a crime, or subject the utterer to being bound to keep the peace.

Three Chapters. Writings of Theodore of Mopsuestia, Theodoret and Ibas; condemned 544 by an edict of Justinian, which caused a fierce controversy, being repudiated in the West, though accepted in the East and by the Pope.

Three Estates. See Tiers Etat.

Three Kings, Feast Of The. Mediaeval festival, identical with Twelfth Night or Epiphany.

Three-Nerved. With three principal veins running longitudinally through the leaf.

Three-Ranked. Arranged in three vertical rows on the stem, as the leaves of Cyperacece.

Three Rivers. Town of Canada, on the St. Lawrence, at the mouth of the St. Maurice, 77 m. w.s.w. from Quebec; founded 1634; scene of an American defeat June 16, 1776. Pop., 1891, 8,334.

Three-Valved. Splitting into three portions at dehiscence.

Three-way Valve. One which may be turned so as to connect a pipe with either of two other pipes, or be shut off altogether.

Thremmatology. Science which treats of heredity and variation, the production of races and breeds; stirpiculture.

Threshing. Separation of grain or seeds of plants from the straw was accomplished in ancient times by beating with sticks or by the flail, consisting of two sticks, loosely tied together at one end; the ancient Egyptians freed the grain by driving cattle over the loosened sheaves. The first practical machine was invented by Andrew Meikie,aScotchman, in 1787. The grain was separated by beat- IS ers attached to a revolving drum. TM Since 1840 the machines have been Three-way Valve for the lifting much improved in the U. S. A br.dge at La V.llette. skeleton iron cylinder, provided with teeth, revolves in a castiron cylinder, provided with slots, through which the grain escapes, the straw being- finally cleaned by a shaker and air blast. Another machine has an externally toothed cylinder

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revolving in a cylinder provided internally with teeth. The machines are driven by horse or steam power.

ThriTt. Armeria vulgaris. Maritime herb of the natural order Plumbaginacece, native of cooler parts of n. hemisphere.

Thring, Edward, 1821-1887. Headmaster from 1853 of Uppingham School, Eng., where his success was eminent.—His brother, GODFREY, b.1823, Prebendary of Wells 1876. is a wellknown hymnist. Ch. of England Hymn-book, 1880-82.

Thrips. See Physopoda.

Throat. In Botany, opening of the tube of a calyx or corolla.

Throat Diseases. Diseases invading the throat are those which attack its mucous membrane, forming varieties of catarrhal affections whose special names depend upon the location and special manifestations of the malady. Or they are diseases affecting special organs located in the parts included by the term. An example of latter class is Tonsillitis (q.v.). The catarrhs are named from the seat of the disease, as pharyngitis, when it is an inflammation of the mucous membrane of the pharynx: laryngitis, when of the larynx, etc. They may be acute or chronic. Clergyman's and Costermonger's sore throat are familiar examples of a chronic pharyngitis. See Diphtheria and Quinsy.

Throckmorton, James Webb, 1825-1894. Gov. of Texas 186(1-67; M.C. 1875-79 and 1883-87.

Throgmorton, Sir Nicholas, 1513-1571. English envoy to Scotland and France; imprisoned 1569.

Thrombosis. Derangement of the circulatory apparatus causing coagulation of some of the contained blood. It may lie simply pressure on a blood-vessel, or an inflammation of a vein. The symptoms are more frequently observed in the veins, where the resulting clot may be large enough to prevent the •flow of blood through the vessel. This condition is sometimes sought, as in the operation of ligation for hemorrhoids. Frequently a part of a clot or a smaller clot is washed away and carried to another part of the body, eventually plugging the lumen of another blood-vessel. This migrating thrombus is called an embolus, and the resulting disease Embolism (q.v.).

Throop, Enos Thompson, 1784-1874. Gov. of N. Y. 182933—His nephew, Montgomery Hunt, b.1827. pub. Revised Statutes of N. Y., 1878, and Code of Civil Procedure, 1880.

Throw. Amount of vertical displacement when rocks are faulted.

Throw of Switch. Distance the movable rail of a switch can be displaced horizontally by reversing the lever.

Thrush. One of the inflammatory diseases of the mouth, characterized by the appearance of a number of small, whitish points, afterward coalescing forming patches that resemble curd-like masses. These may eventually turn brown. It is a <lisease of childhood and lasts from two to three weeks, usually accompanied by some constitutional disturbances. It is due to the presence of a fungus, whence its scientific name, mycotic stomatitis. The precise species is not determined, but it is, probably, the oidium albicans. It is not dangerous unless the patient be otherwise much debilitated.

Thrush. Some members of genus Seiurus. of family Mniotiltidcp. The "wood-warblers" are known as Thrushes, e.g., the

Water Thrush and the Golden Crowned Thrush; but true Thrushes include the family Turdidoe, universally distributed; being found • ■ven on oceanic islands. They are most numerous in the Old World, including Old-World Warblers. Tailor-birds, Nightingales, the Ring Ouzel, Mistletoe Thrush, etc. In England the Song Thrush is famed as the rival of the Nightingale. In America the Thrushes are related to the Flycatchers and Blue-birds. The American Robin (Red-breast) is


Missel Thrush (Turdus viscivorus).

n member of the Thrush family, as is also the Oregon Robin. -See Dentirostres, Wilson's Thrush, and Wood Thrush.

Thrust. 1. Outward push of a rafter or arch against a wall or abutment. It increases as the rise of the rafter or arch decreases. 2. In Mining, movement in the floor of a mine, caused by weight of overlying rock; practically synonymous with Creep (q.v.).

Thrust-Bearing. Form of bearing for the last length of

a propeller shaft close to the stern of a steamship, by which the reaction of the water against the wheel is received and transmitted to the hull for its forward motion; whatever work is necessary to drive the engine forward is in action at this point. It is a box-bearing (see BEARING) in which a number of square grooves are bored out to be the complements of similar rings or collars formed upon the shaft. The sides of the rings bear upon the sides of the grooves, and take the thrust of the screw. The grooves are faced and lined with Babbitt metal, and waterpipes can force circulating water in cored cavities around the bearing to keep it cool. Such bearings will be 4 ft. long for a 14 in. shaft.

Thrust Plane. Almost horizontal plane of movement, along which strata have been driven by tangential pressure developed in the crust of the earth. In some cases the upper strata have been thrust forward for miles over those that underlie them, as in the Highlands of Scotland.

Thuc) dides, ab.471—401 B.C. First of critical and philosophic historians; Athenian, in Thrace from 424 B.C. His Hint.



Pelopomiesian War is in every way of the very highest rank and value.

Thugs. Secret confederacy of professional assassins which infested India from ab. 13th century till stamped out 1828-35. They traveled in gangs of 10 to 200, strangling and plundering wealthy wayfarers, as a religious duty owed to the goddess Devi or Kali. They had a jargon of their own, and signs by which to recognize one another. See Thieves' Jakgon.

Thule. Island alleged to have been visited by Pytheas of Massilia 4th cent. B.C.; six days'sail n. of Britain, with day and night each six months long; variously conjectured to l>.> Iceland, the Shetland Islands, and Lapland. "Ultima Thule" is a synonym for any remote or unattainable goal.

Thuiitc. Rose-red variety of the mineral Zoisite (q.v.i. found in Norway.

Thulium. Tin. At. wt. 170.7, valence III. Element discovered by Cleve, 1879, in gadolinite. Its homogeneity is not established. Its oxide is white, TmaO,.

Thumbscrew. Im plement of torture, emploved especially in Spain by the Inquisition, and in

Scotland upon the Covenanters; last used 1682.

Thitmcn, Felix. Freiherr Von, 1839-1892. German mycologist. Fungi Austriaci, 1871-75; ilycotheca Universalis, 1875-84.

Thummim. Worn with Urim by Jewish High Priests when they solicited the Divine oracles: compared to the sapphire image of Truth worn bv the Chief Judge of Thebes, in Egypt.

Thun, Lake. In Switzerland, above the town of Thun. Interlaken is on its e. shore. Length 10J m., width 2^ m., depth 710 ft., altitude 1,837 ft.

'numbers. Carl Peter, 1743-1822. Prof, of Botanr in Upsala 1781. Resa uti Europa, Africa, Asia, 1770-79; Flora Japonica, 1784; Flora Capensis, 1807-13.


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Til under. See Lightning.

Thunder Bay. In Canada, the inlet at the head of Lake Superior on which Port Arthur stands.

Thunder-Clap. Specially intense, loud, short roll of thunder.

Thundering Legion. Mythical body of Christians serving in the war against the Quadi, 174, whose prayers for rain, when the army was in great straits, were answered by a storm which destroyed numbers of the enemy by hail and lightning, and secured a Roman victory.

Thunder Storms. Brief local rain storms, with much thunder, lightning and wind, frequently changing to hail, and occurring in warm weather. They are very frequent in tropical regions, but rarely occur in temperate zones in winter.

Thunen, Johann Heinrich Von, 1783-1850. German economist, noted for his practical experiments in agriculture and in profit-sharing at Tellow in Mecklenburg. Der Isolierte Staat in Beziehung auf Landtcirthschaft und Nationalokonomie, 1826-63.

Thurible. See Censer.

Thurlfer. In R. C. services, acolyte who attends the priest, carrying the thurible or censer. Thuringerivald. See Thuringia.

Thurlngla. Saxon region between the Werra and the Saale, s. of the Harz Mts. Its forest, Thuringerwald, is a range ab. 60 m. long, and reaches a height of 3,460 ft.

Thurlow, Edward, Baron, 1733-1806. M.P. 1768; Solicitor-gen. 1770, Atty.-gen. 1771; Lord Chancellor 1778-92, except part of 1783; Tory, of low character and offensive manners.

Thurman, Allen Granbery, 1813-1895. M.C. from Ohio 1845—17; Judge of Ohio Supreme Court 1851; Chief-justice 1854-56; U. S. Senator 1869-81; Chairman of Judiciary Committee; Democratic candidate for Vice-President 1888. The "Thurman Act" was designed to compel the Pacific railways to fulfill their obligations to the U. S.

Thurneysen, Eduard Rudolf, b.1857. Swiss philologist, prof. Jena 1882 and Freiburg 1887.

Thurn und Taxis. German family of Italian origin, princes since 1698; founders of posts from 1460; monopolists of mails in the empire from 1595 till recent times.

Thurot, Francois, 1726-1760. French privateer, commander of a squadron 1755 and 1759; killed near Belfast.

Thursby, Emma Cecilia, b.1857. American soprano singer, known since 1875.

Thursday. Fifth dayof the week, named from THOR(q.v.). Thursday is in Latin dies Jovis. or Jupiter's day.

Thurston, Robert Henry, b.1839. Pror. U. S. Naval Academy 1875, Stevens Institute 1871. and Cornell 1885; engineer and inventor. Materials of Engineering, 1882-S6; Steam Engine, 1890-91.

Tbusnelda. Daughter of Segestes, and wife of Hermann or Arminius; made prisoner by Germanicus 15, and led in tri

American antiquarian.

umph at Rome.

Thwaites, Reuben Gold, b.1853. Historic Waterways, 1888.

Thyestes. Son of Pelops; his brother Atreus killed and served up his two sons at a banquet for him, for which the gods cursed Atreus and his house.

Thylne Wood. Mentioned in the Bible, and is probably Sandarach (q.v.) wood. The Turks floor their mosques with it, believing it to be indestructible.

Thylacoleo. Large, extinct, probably carnivorous, Marsupial, with a broad trenchant premolar.

Thyme. Thymus vulgaris. Low aromatic shrub, native of s. Europe; cultivated in gardens. The Wild Thyme is T. serpyllum, a native of Europe, sparingly naturalized in N. America.

Thyme, Oil Of. Volatile oil obtained from Thymus vulgaris and T. serpyllum, of agreeable, strong and penetrating odor, and much used in Europe in culinary seasoning.

ThymelaeaceaB. Natural family of flowering plants, of the class Angiospermoz, subclass Dicotyledons, and series Apetaloz. comprising 38 genera and ab. 400 species, distributed through the temperate and warm regions and the tropics of the whole earth: called the Mezereum family. Thymol. C„H,.CH„C>H,,OH. Mpt. 50° C.j phenol, de


Thyme t Thymus serpyllum).

rived from methylpropylbenzene; prepared from oil of thyme; crystalline solid, with a strong but pleasant odor; used as an antiseptic and disinfectant.

Thymus Gland. Temporary, ductless gland, attaining its full size at the end of the second year, after which it dwindles away. It is located in the chest cavity behind the sternum. It has an uncertain function. In the calf it forms the true sweetbread. It has been claimed that an extract of the thymus gland was curative in cases of exophthalmic goitre, but the results of other observers do not substantiate this claim.

Thyroid Gland. Ductless gland surrounding the upper end of the windpipe in front. Its function is obscure and under discussion. It is of general interest, as the enlargement of the gland causes the condition known as GOITRE (q.v.). That form of imbecility known as Cretinism (q.v.) is associated with a congenital absence of the gland: while a somewhat analogous disease of adult life, myxedema, follows the surgical removal of the gland or is accompanied by its atroph}'. The exhibition o f Group of Gland-vesicles from the Thyroid Gland sheep's thyroids or of of a Child:

the extracts of thyroid a, connective tissue; ^membrane of the veslclest glands has brought

about a cure of this otherwise incurable disease in a number of instances. Thyroid extract also reduces flesh when administered for some time.

Thyrsus. Compound kind of inflorescence, with the primary branching racemose and the ultimate branching cymose.

Thysanoptera. See Physopoda.

Thysanura (including Collembola). Wingless Insecta, having the body covered with hairs or metallic scales, and having rudimentary mouth parts. The abdomen terminate* in seta;, which may serve as a springing apparatus. The development is without metamorphosis. Some forms like the Campodida; have rudimentary legs on the abdomen. The Poduridmor Spring-tails belong in this group. The group is considered as representing degenerated heuroptera.

Tiara. Papal miter, surrounded with three crowns; used chiefly for state, as the Golden Miter for special solemnity.

Tlbbu. People of the Sahara.

Tiber. River famous in Roman history. It rises in the Apennines, and flows 260 m. s. to the Mediterranean at Ostia.

Tiberias. Palestinian city, on w. shore of Gennesaret. After the fall of Jerusalem, it was for several centuries the western, metropolis of Judaism, and a seat of Jewish learning. Saladin defeated the Crusaders here 1187.

Tiberias, Sea Of. See Gennesaret.

Tiberias (claudius Nero), 42 B.C.-37. Stepson and sonin-law of Augustus; heir to the throne 4; Emperor 14. He ruled well at first, but later became a morose and gloomy tyrant, living in retirement at Caprea? from 26, debauched and perhaps insane. Tacitus' account of him may be overdrawn, ana the facts are imperfectly known; but the murder of Germanicus (q.v.) and many other crimes are popularly credited to him. The chief events of the Gospel narrative occurred during his reign: his denarius is called "tributemoney."

Tibet. Region of central Asia. It constitutes a plateau, the highest of great extent upon the globe, having an estimated area of ab. 650,000 sq. m. and a mean altitude of probably 15,000 ft. It is bordered on the s. by the Himalayas, on the n. by the Kuenlun and Nushan Mts., and is intersected by other ranges. It is mainly desert, with little arborescent vegetation. The climate is very severe, and the country imperfectly known. It was conquered ab.1720 by China, and is still nominally subject. Capital Lhasa; pop. variously estimated, probably ab. 5,000,000.

Tibetan. Monosyllabic language of Asia, simple in grammatical structure, the words strongly consonantal. It has a considerable literature, derived mainly from Sanskrit sources.

Tibetans. Turanians of Tibet, more or less admixed with surrounding tribes. They have Chinese features, but are taller. Like some other tribes, they claim descent from an ape, who1524


lost his tail by eating a special heaven-sent grain. The religion is Lamaism. a modified Buddhism, introduced ab.639.



In some parts half the population are priests. Woman holds a high place. All the land belongs to the priests. Tibet Dog. See Mastiff.

Tlbio-Tarsus. Upper leg (crus) of birds, formed by the union of the tibia with the proximal tarsal bones; separated from the pelvis by the more or less concealed femur (thigh bone), and from the toes by the scaly Tarso-metatarsus (q.v.).

Tlbullus, ALBIUS, ab.54-19 B.C. Latin elegiac poet from whom we have many love songs of great tenderness and beauty. The third and fourth books which bear his name are probably not his.

Tic Douloureux. Name given to facial neuralgia in its violent form. Certain parts of the face may be attacked, as the neighborhood of the eye, the cheek with the lips, a portion of tlie jaw, apparently following the distribution of one of the branches of the trifacial nerve. At other times the pain shoots from one region to another, as if the source of irritation were in the nerve trunk.

Ticllborne Case. Tried in London 1871-72. Arthur Orton, alias Thomas Castro, a butcher from Australia, claimed large estates in Hampshire, personating an heir, Roger Charles Ticllborne, b.1829, who had died at sea 1854, and whose mother he had deceived. He was non-suited March 6. 1872, and after another long trial convicted of perjury Feb. 28. 1874, and imprisoned for 14 years. The two trials lasted 103 and 188 days, and cost some £90,000. The claimant confessed his imposture 1895.

Tiehenor, Isaac. LL.D., 1754-1838. Jud<;e of Vt. Supreme Court 1791, Chief-justice 1795-96; U. S. Senator 1796-97 and 1815-21; Gov. of Vt. 1797-1807 and 1808-9.

Ticino, or TESSIN. S.e. canton of Switzerland; mostly Italian and R.C. Area 1,082 sq. m., pop. ab. 130.000.

Tlcinus (now Tessino). River in Cisalpine Gaul, on the bank of which Hannibal gained his first victory over the Romans, 218 B.C.

Tickell, Thomas, 1686-1740. English poet, author of the ballad Colin and Lucy, and an elegy on Addison 1721. Kensington Gardens, 1722.

Ticket of Leave. In England, since 1840, abridgment of a convict's term: previously, in Australia, partial liberty; in either case, the reward of good conduct in prison.

Tickets. See Travelers, Rights Of.

Ticknor, George, 1791-1871. Prof. Harvard 1820-35. His Hist, of Spanish Literature, 1849, is highly valued. Life of Prescott, 1864.

Ticknor. William Davis, 1810-1864. Publisher in Boston from 1832: head of a firm of high literary repute. Ticks. See Ixodid-e. Tickseed. See Coreopsis.

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again by the British 1780; dismantled at the close of the war, and now a picturesque ruin. The township has graphite and iron mines. Pop., 1890, 3,980.

Tidal Evolution. Gradual changes produced in the motions of two bodies composed wholly or in part of fluid, by the mutual tidal action upon each other. G. H. Darwin has shown that this has probably been a powerful factor in the evolution of the earth and moon.

Tidal Showers. Rains (apparently) brought up by the tide, either along the coast or up tidal rivers.

Tidball, John Caldwell, U.S.A.. b.1825. Artillery officer, in Va. 1861-65; Col. 1885. Heavy Artillery Service, 1880.

Tiddledy Winks. Modern game in which small bone disks are made to spring into a basket or receptacle placed in the center of the board, by pressing them forcibly with a slip of bone upon their edge. An analogous game, of flipping small shells into a hole in the ground, is played by children in Siam and the Liu Kiu islands.

Tides. Periodic rise and fall of the waters of the ocean, twice every 24 h. 57 m. on the average; caused by the attraction of the moon, and to a smaller extent by that of the sun. When they act together, either in the same or opposite directions, as at new and full moon, the effect is greatest, and is known as Spring Tide. When they act at rigrht angles to one

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another, i.e., when the moon is in its 1st or 3d quarter, the effect is least; Neap Tide. The tidal wave is never under the moon, but, owing to friction and the resistance of land masses, lags behind. The height of the tide in the open sea is small, being in the Pacific but 2 ft.; in gradually narrowing bays it rises to a great height. See Fcndy, Bay Of.

Tide Wheel. Form of water motor to utilize the current inshore on the rise of tide, and outward upon the ebb. It hits two forms: (1) a simple current wheel, supported on an anchored float and turned by the alternating flow through a channel which connects an arm of the sea with an inner basin; (2) an intermittent type, involving reservoirs behind dykes which are filled with the rise of the tide. When the tide recedes, gates in the dvke are closed, and gates to the wheel allow the water to fall through the wheel and turn it on the way to the lower level. Current wheels of the first type utilize ab. 40 per cent of the theoretical efficiency, and of the latter type from 50 to 60 per cent.

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Tie-Beam. Wooden lower chord of a roof truss or bridge truss; any wooden beam under a tensile stress.

Tiebout, Cornelius, 1777-ab.l830. American engraver, especially of portraits of public men.

Tieek, Ludwiq, 1773-1853. German poet, critic, novelist, and translator, long popular in his renderings of fairy tales and old traditions; leading romanticist.

Tlele,CoRNELls Petrus. b.1830. Prof. Levden 1877. Egyptian Religion, 1869, tr. 1882; History of Religion, 1876, tr. 1878.

Tiemanntte. HgSe. Rare mineral compound of mercury and selenium, found in the Harz Mts. and a few other localities.

Tien-Shan, or Thian-shan. Mountain range of Turkestan, n. of Kashgar; partial s.e. boundary of Russian territory. Length ab. 1,000 m.; greatest ht. 24,000 ft., average ab. 11,000.

Tientsin. City and port of China, the junction of the Yunling and Peiho Rivers; open to foreigners since 1863. It has a large commerce. Pop. ab. 950,000.

Tiepolo, Giovanni Battista, 1696-1770. Venetian painter, who revived to some extent the color of his predecessors. He

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was chiefly known as a wall painter; his easel pictures have great merit.—His son, Domenico, ab.1726-1804, was also a painter.

Tiernan, Mrs. Frances C. (fisher), ("christian Reid"), tn.1887. American novelist. Valerie Ayhner, 1870; Hearts of Steel, 1882; Las Cruces, 1895.

Tierney, George, 1761-1830. M.P. 1789; Whig leader; Sec. for Ireland 1806. East India Co., 1787.

Tie-Rod. Used to counteract the thrust of a rafter; any rod subject to tension. Such rods are frequently furnished with sleeve nuts or turnbuckles, so that they may be screwed up to stiffen the structure.

Tierra del Fuego. Large barren island, with many smaller ones, at s. extremity of S. America; separated from the continent by the Straits of Magellan; held by Argentina and Chili. Area ab. 21,000 sq. m., pop. ab. 8,000, savages. See Fuegians.

Tierra Firme. See Terra Firma and Spanish Main.

Tiers Etat. In France, the nobility and clergy formed, before the Revolution, the two privileged classes. The Third Estate comprised the rest of the nation, or rather the burghers, who could send representatives to the States-general (q.v.).

Tie-Strut. Bar subject to both tension and compression under different positions of the applied forces. It must be larger in cross-section than a bar subject only to one kind of stress.

Tictjens. See Titiens.

Tiffany, Charles C, Ij.d., b.ab.1838. Archdeacon of NewYork. Hist. P. E. Ch., 1895.

Tiffany, Louis Comfort, b.1848, N.A. 1874. Americanpainter, decorator, and artist in stained glass and mosaic. He has made important discoveries and improvements in this art. —His father, Charles Louis, b.1812; founder and head of a famous firm of jewelers in New York.

Tiffin. Capital of Seneca co., Ohio; on the Sandusky; seat of Heidelberg Univ. Pop., 1890, 10,801.

Tiffin, Edward, M.D., 1766-1829. Gov. of Ohio 1803-7: U. S. Senator 1807-9.

Tiflis. City of the Caucasus, Asiatic Russia, on the Kur. in a picturesque depression surrounded on all sides, except the n., by high mts.; annexed to Russia 1802; celebrated for its hot

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springs and metal work. It was for many centuries the stronghold of Eastern Christianity, against the Persians first, and later against the Moslems. A bridge across the Kur is 1,350 ft. high. Pop., 1883, 104,024; 1892, 146,792.

Tiger-Beetle. See Cincindelid^.

Tiger Eye, or Tioer Stone. See Crocidolitb.

Tigers. Largest and fiercest of the cats. They differ from the lion in lacking a mane and a tail-tuft, but have side whiskers. The coat is marked with dark vertical stripes on a tawny ground. The pupils are round. In the Royal Indian Tiger a length of 11 ft. is attained. Tigers range from Siberia to Java, and from Burmah to w. Asia. In India they are most

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